Publications by authors named "Sarah M Anderson"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Scoping Review of the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment Literature.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 09 2;85(8):8505. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

To identify themes, gaps, and sources of evidence from the literature regarding the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) to inform practice and additional areas for research in pharmacy education. Nineteen articles describing the administration and use of PCOA were identified. Since PCOA was made a curricular requirement by the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education in 2016, the focus of literature related to the PCOA has shifted from administration practices (four articles published before 2016 vs two articles published since) to determining models that may predict student performance on the assessment (two vs five articles) or how the examination might be used to predict future performance (one vs seven articles), especially on the North American Pharmacist Licensing Examination. While there is a growing body of literature focused on the PCOA's utility for measuring performance, few variables have been consistently used. This review found no studies with objectives that aligned with the initial intended use of the PCOA as defined by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, which included tracking individual student performance throughout the curriculum, benchmarking programs against other programs, and evaluating whether a program was meeting their desired outcomes. Additionally, no consensus across the Academy was found as to the proper use of the PCOA, and a paucity of literature exists regarding how the PCOA informs schools and colleges about the effectiveness of their curriculum. There is a need for the Academy to establish a uniform application for the PCOA in pharmacy schools, assess the resources that programs need to administer this required assessment, and determine the utility of the PCOA to measure curricular effectiveness and/or student performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500293PMC
September 2021

Failure of the "Gold Standard": The Role of a Mixed Methods Research Toolkit and Human-Centered Design in Transformative WASH.

Environ Health Insights 2021 24;15:11786302211018391. Epub 2021 May 24.

Wish for WASH Thinks Inc, Atlanta, GA, USA.

From preventing cholera and diarrhea by reducing exposure to human waste, to reducing transmission of COVID-19 through handwashing, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) can save lives. Numerous global health initiatives have been created to combat the spread of infectious diseases. However, according to the Sanitation and Hygiene Fund, "decades of under investment in sanitation and hygiene have made this sector the weakest link in our efforts to achieve the [Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)]." There appear to be various reasons for the lag in global attention to, funding toward, and innovation around WASH-related diseases. Firstly, WASH is comprised of three interrelated components, water, sanitation, and hygiene, each of which has its own subset of indicators, priorities, and infrastructure, thus making streamlined communications and impact measurement within the sector incredibly complex. Secondly, WASH is a field that bridges many sectors, and there has historically been a lack of understanding of where responsibility lies to consistently fund and execute WASH interventions, programming, and policymaking. Additionally, public health research and funding tend to favor evaluations using randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are often referred to as the "gold standard." RCTs, like all single evaluative methods, have limitations which may not effectively capture the complexity of WASH interventions and their subsequent multi-sectoral outcomes. In some cases "it may be infeasible (or unethical) to randomize communities to a [WASH] intervention" which would prohibit the research from reaching the current "gold standard" threshold for academic rigor and subsequent funding. A new concept called "Transformative WASH" has recently emerged in the WASH sector as a result of three RCTs and calls for a "comprehensive package of WASH interventions" to effectively improve health and social outcomes. We believe that the current definition of the "gold standard" in academic research is failing the WASH sector and does not align with "Transformative WASH." Rather, the "gold standard" should instead be a mixed methods research toolkit that utilizes Human-Centered Design (HCD) practices, and proxy methods such as "participatory design" or "Behavior Centered Design theory" to better design and evaluate WASH interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11786302211018391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150637PMC
May 2021

Immunometabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

PLoS Pathog 2020 10 8;16(10):e1008897. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Program in Innate Immunity, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544110PMC
October 2020

Smart Sanitation-Biosensors as a Public Health Tool in Sanitation Infrastructure.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 16;17(14). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Wish for WASH Thinks, Inc, Atlanta, GA 30338, USA.

The health of individuals and communities is more interconnected than ever, and emergent technologies have the potential to improve public health monitoring at both the community and individual level. A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and gray literature from 2000-present was conducted on the use of biosensors in sanitation infrastructure (such as toilets, sewage pipes and septic tanks) to assess individual and population health. 21 relevant papers were identified using PubMed, Embase, Global Health, CDC Stacks and NexisUni databases and a reflexive thematic analysis was conducted. Biosensors are being developed for a range of uses including monitoring illicit drug usage in communities, screening for viruses and diagnosing conditions such as diabetes. Most studies were nonrandomized, small-scale pilot or lab studies. Of the sanitation-related biosensors found in the literature, 11 gathered population-level data, seven provided real-time continuous data and 14 were noted to be more cost-effective than traditional surveillance methods. The most commonly discussed strength of these technologies was their ability to conduct rapid, on-site analysis. The findings demonstrate the potential of this emerging technology and the concept of Smart Sanitation to enhance health monitoring at the individual level (for diagnostics) as well as at the community level (for disease surveillance).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400144PMC
July 2020

Regulation and dynamics of force transmission at individual cell-matrix adhesion bonds.

Sci Adv 2020 05 15;6(20):eaax0317. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Integrin-based adhesion complexes link the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are central to the construction of multicellular animal tissues. How biological function emerges from the tens to thousands of proteins present within a single adhesion complex remains unclear. We used fluorescent molecular tension sensors to visualize force transmission by individual integrins in living cells. These measurements revealed an underlying functional modularity in which integrin class controlled adhesion size and ECM ligand specificity, while the number and type of connections between integrins and F-actin determined the force per individual integrin. In addition, we found that most integrins existed in a state of near-mechanical equilibrium, a result not predicted by existing models of cytoskeletal force transduction. A revised model that includes reversible cross-links within the F-actin network can account for this result and suggests one means by which cellular mechanical homeostasis can arise at the molecular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228748PMC
May 2020

Innate Immunity in the C. elegans Intestine Is Programmed by a Neuronal Regulator of AWC Olfactory Neuron Development.

Cell Rep 2020 04;31(1):107478

Program in Innate Immunity, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA; Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. Electronic address:

Olfactory neurons allow animals to discriminate nutritious food sources from potential pathogens. From a forward genetic screen, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. During nematode development, olrn-1 is required to program the expression of odorant receptors in the AWC olfactory neuron pair. Here, we show that olrn-1 also functions in AWC neurons in the cell non-autonomous suppression of the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway in the intestine. Low activity of OLRN-1, which activates the p38 MAPK signaling cassette in AWC neurons during larval development, also de-represses the p38 MAPK PMK-1 pathway in the intestine to promote immune effector transcription, increased clearance of an intestinal pathogen, and resistance to bacterial infection. These data reveal an unexpected connection between olfactory receptor development and innate immunity and show that anti-pathogen defenses in the intestine are developmentally programmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.03.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215899PMC
April 2020

Redirection of SKN-1 abates the negative metabolic outcomes of a perceived pathogen infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 14;116(44):22322-22330. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089;

Early host responses toward pathogens are essential for defense against infection. In , the transcription factor, SKN-1, regulates cellular defenses during xenobiotic intoxication and bacterial infection. However, constitutive activation of SKN-1 results in pleiotropic outcomes, including a redistribution of somatic lipids to the germline, which impairs health and shortens lifespan. Here, we show that exposing to similarly drives the rapid depletion of somatic, but not germline, lipid stores. Modulating the epigenetic landscape refines SKN-1 activity away from innate immunity targets, which alleviates negative metabolic outcomes. Similarly, exposure to oxidative stress redirects SKN-1 activity away from pathogen response genes while restoring somatic lipid distribution. In addition, activating p38/MAPK signaling in the absence of pathogens, is sufficient to drive SKN-1-dependent loss of somatic fat. These data define a SKN-1- and p38-dependent axis for coordinating pathogen responses, lipid homeostasis, and survival and identify transcriptional redirection, rather than inactivation, as a mechanism for counteracting the pleiotropic consequences of aberrant transcriptional activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909666116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825279PMC
October 2019

Raman Spectroscopy for Rapid Evaluation of Surgical Margins during Breast Cancer Lumpectomy.

Sci Rep 2019 10 10;9(1):14639. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Harvey Mudd College, Department of Physics, 301 Platt Blvd., Claremont, CA, 91711, USA.

Failure to precisely distinguish malignant from healthy tissue has severe implications for breast cancer surgical outcomes. Clinical prognoses depend on precisely distinguishing healthy from malignant tissue during surgery. Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) has been previously shown to differentiate benign from malignant tissue in real time. However, the cost, assembly effort, and technical expertise needed for construction and implementation of the technique have prohibited widespread adoption. Recently, Raman spectrometers have been developed for non-medical uses and have become commercially available and affordable. Here we demonstrate that this current generation of Raman spectrometers can readily identify cancer in breast surgical specimens. We evaluated two commercially available, portable, near-infrared Raman systems operating at excitation wavelengths of either 785 nm or 1064 nm, collecting a total of 164 Raman spectra from cancerous, benign, and transitional regions of resected breast tissue from six patients undergoing mastectomy. The spectra were classified using standard multivariate statistical techniques. We identified a minimal set of spectral bands sufficient to reliably distinguish between healthy and malignant tissue using either the 1064 nm or 785 nm system. Our results indicate that current generation Raman spectrometers can be used as a rapid diagnostic technique distinguishing benign from malignant tissue during surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51112-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787043PMC
October 2019

Modeling distributed forces within cell adhesions of varying size on continuous substrates.

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 2019 11 6;76(11-12):571-585. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Cell migration and traction are essential to many biological phenomena, and one of their key features is sensitivity to substrate stiffness, which biophysical models, such as the motor-clutch model and the cell migration simulator can predict and explain. However, these models have not accounted for the finite size of adhesions, the spatial distribution of forces within adhesions. Here, we derive an expression that relates varying adhesion radius ( R) and spatial distribution of force within an adhesion (described by s) to the effective substrate stiffness ( κ ), as a function of the Young's modulus of the substrate ( E ), which yields the relation, , for two-dimensional cell cultures. Experimentally, we found that a cone-shaped force distribution ( s = 1.05) can describe the observed displacements of hydrogels deformed by adherent U251 glioma cells. Also, we found that the experimentally observed adhesion radius increases linearly with the cell protrusion force, consistent with the predictions of the motor-clutch model with spatially distributed clutches. We also found that, theoretically, the influence of one protrusion on another through a continuous elastic environment is negligible. Overall, we conclude cells can potentially control their own interpretation of the mechanics of the environment by controlling adhesion size and spatial distribution of forces within an adhesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cm.21561DOI Listing
November 2019

The fatty acid oleate is required for innate immune activation and pathogen defense in Caenorhabditis elegans.

PLoS Pathog 2019 06 17;15(6):e1007893. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Program in Innate Immunity, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States of America.

Fatty acids affect a number of physiological processes, in addition to forming the building blocks of membranes and body fat stores. In this study, we uncover a role for the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate in the innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From an RNAi screen for regulators of innate immune defense genes, we identified the two stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturases that synthesize oleate in C. elegans. We show that the synthesis of oleate is necessary for the pathogen-mediated induction of immune defense genes. Accordingly, C. elegans deficient in oleate production are hypersusceptible to infection with diverse human pathogens, which can be rescued by the addition of exogenous oleate. However, oleate is not sufficient to drive protective immune activation. Together, these data add to the known health-promoting effects of monounsaturated fatty acids, and suggest an ancient link between nutrient stores, metabolism, and host susceptibility to bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597122PMC
June 2019

The nuclear hormone receptor NHR-86 controls anti-pathogen responses in C. elegans.

PLoS Genet 2019 01 22;15(1):e1007935. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Program in Innate Immunity, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States of America.

Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are ligand-gated transcription factors that control adaptive host responses following recognition of specific endogenous or exogenous ligands. Although NHRs have expanded dramatically in C. elegans compared to other metazoans, the biological function of only a few of these genes has been characterized in detail. Here, we demonstrate that an NHR can activate an anti-pathogen transcriptional program. Using genetic epistasis experiments, transcriptome profiling analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing, we show that, in the presence of an immunostimulatory small molecule, NHR-86 binds to the promoters of immune effectors to activate their transcription. NHR-86 is not required for resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa at baseline, but activation of NHR-86 by this compound drives a transcriptional program that provides protection against this pathogen. Interestingly, NHR-86 targets immune effectors whose basal regulation requires the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway. However, NHR-86 functions independently of PMK-1 and modulates the transcription of these infection response genes directly. These findings characterize a new transcriptional regulator in C. elegans that can induce a protective host response towards a bacterial pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358101PMC
January 2019

Impact of a team-based learning drug misuse education training program on student pharmacists' confidence.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2019 01 3;11(1):58-65. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Cedarville University, School of Pharmacy, 251 N. Main St., Cedarville, OH 45314, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: With increasing deaths related to prescription medications, it is important to educate adolescents on the dangers of drug misuse. Pharmacists possess the knowledge and are accessible to provide education to patients on this topic; therefore, the objectives were to improve student pharmacist confidence in prescription drug misuse knowledge and engaging patients.

Educational Activity And Setting: As part of a co-curricular activity, pharmacy, and pre-pharmacy students participated in an informational session to establish a common foundation of drug misuse concepts using a team-based learning pedagogy. Students developed a curriculum and taught middle school children about drug and alcohol misuse. Participants' motivations for participation and confidence in drug misuse education were assessed through a 19 item pre-post survey.

Findings: Out of the 19 confidence items, seven had significant improvement. Students were more confident after the intervention that they could share their knowledge on drug misuse with colleagues (p = 0.012) and implement prevention strategies in their area (p = 0.020). They were also more confident in their ability to explain the definition (p = 0.001) and consequences (p = 0.003) of drug misuse.

Summary: A training session combined with the opportunity to apply learned concepts may be an effective way to improve the confidence of future pharmacists in educating their communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2018.09.016DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluating the use of appropriate anticoagulation with lenalidomide and pomalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2019 Jun 28;25(4):806-812. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, South Dakota State University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Brookings, USA.

Background: Lenalidomide and pomalidomide are two immunomodulatory medications with the potential to improve outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma; however, a black box warning for venous thromboembolism exists.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess overall adherence to guideline recommendations for anticoagulation therapy with lenalidomide and pomalidomide in multiple myeloma patients.

Methods: This retrospective study at an ambulatory oncology clinic utilized chart reviews from the calendar years 2013-2016. The primary endpoint was prescription of appropriate anticoagulation upon initiation of therapy based on a list of predetermined risk factors. Secondary endpoints included incidence of deep venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleed; initial anticoagulant prescribed; and whether or not anticoagulation was prescribed for another disease state.

Results: A total of 130 patients met inclusion criteria: 70.8% (n = 92) and 29.2% (n = 38) were prescribed lenalidomide and pomalidomide, respectively. A total risk score of two was most common (n = 54, 41.5%). Aspirin 81 mg oral tablet was prescribed most often (n = 53, 40.8%), followed by no anticoagulation (n = 30, 23.1%). Overall, 27 patients (20.8%) were prescribed anticoagulation in accordance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Incidence of deep venous thromboembolism was the most common adverse event (n = 4, 3.1%), followed by major bleed (n = 1, 0.8%). No reports of pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, or stroke were documented.

Conclusions: Overall, a disparity exists between appropriate prescribing of prophylactic anticoagulation and current practice guidelines. However, documentation of thromboembolic events was lower than recorded in previously published literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155218758500DOI Listing
June 2019

Divergent lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme profile in cellular compartments of primate forebrain structures.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2017 07 29;82:137-142. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Department of Anthropology and Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Electronic address:

The compartmentalization and association of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with specific cellular structures (e.g., synaptosomal, sarcoplasmic or mitochondrial) may play an important role in brain energy metabolism. Our previous research revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction shifts toward the aerobic isoforms (LDH-B) among the large-brained haplorhine primates compared to strepsirrhines. Here, we further analyzed the subcellular localization of LDH in primate forebrain structures using quantitative Western blotting and ELISA. We show that, in cytosolic and mitochondrial subfractions, LDH-B expression level was relatively elevated and LDH-A declined in haplorhines compared to strepsirrhines. LDH-B expression in mitochondrial fractions of the neocortex was preferentially increased, showing a particularly significant rise in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in chimpanzees and humans. We also found a significant correlation between the protein levels of LDH-B in mitochondrial fractions from haplorhine neocortex and the synaptosomal LDH-B that suggests LDH isoforms shift from a predominance of A-subunits toward B-subunits as part of a system that spatially buffers dynamic energy requirements of brain cells. Our results indicate that there is differential subcellular compartmentalization of LDH isoenzymes that evolved among different primate lineages to meet the energy requirements in neocortical and striatal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2017.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5531073PMC
July 2017

Vorapaxar: The Current Role and Future Directions of a Novel Protease-Activated Receptor Antagonist for Risk Reduction in Atherosclerotic Disease.

Drugs R D 2017 Mar;17(1):65-72

Center for Pharmacy Care, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: Despite the current standard of care, patients with cardiovascular disease remain at a high risk for recurrent events. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated platelet activation through protease-activated receptor-1 antagonism may provide reductions in atherosclerotic disease beyond those achievable with the current standard of care.

Objective: Our primary objective is to evaluate the clinical literature regarding the role of vorapaxar (Zontivity™) in the reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. In particular, we focus on the potential future directions for protease-activating receptor antagonists in the treatment of a broad range of atherosclerotic diseases.

Data Sources: A literature search of PubMed and EBSCO was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials from August 2005 to June 2016 using the search terms: 'vorapaxar', 'SCH 530348', 'protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist', and 'Zontivity™'. Bibliographies were searched and additional resources were obtained.

Results: Vorapaxar is a first-in-class, protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction (TRACER) trial did not demonstrate a significant reduction in a broad primary composite endpoint. However, the Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) trial examined a more traditional composite endpoint and found a significant benefit with vorapaxar. Vorapaxar significantly increased bleeding compared with standard care. Ongoing trials will help define the role of vorapaxar in patients with peripheral arterial disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, and other important subgroups. The use of multivariate modeling may enable the identification of subgroups with maximal benefit and minimal harm from vorapaxar.

Conclusion: Vorapaxar provides clinicians with a novel mechanism of action to further reduce the burden of ischemic heart disease. Identification of patients with a high ischemic risk and low bleeding risk would enable clinicians to maximize the utility of this unique agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40268-016-0158-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5318326PMC
March 2017

Synaptosomal lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme composition is shifted toward aerobic forms in primate brain evolution.

Brain Behav Evol 2014 28;83(3):216-30. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., USA.

With the evolution of a relatively large brain size in haplorhine primates (i.e. tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), there have been associated changes in the molecular machinery that delivers energy to the neocortex. Here we investigated variation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression and isoenzyme composition of the neocortex and striatum in primates using quantitative Western blotting and isoenzyme analysis of total homogenates and synaptosomal fractions. Analysis of isoform expression revealed that LDH in synaptosomal fractions from both forebrain regions shifted towards a predominance of the heart-type, aerobic isoform LDH-B among haplorhines as compared to strepsirrhines (i.e. lorises and lemurs), while in the total homogenate of the neocortex and striatum there was no significant difference in LDH isoenzyme composition between the primate suborders. The largest increase occurred in synapse-associated LDH-B expression in the neocortex, with an especially remarkable elevation in the ratio of LDH-B/LDH-A in humans. The phylogenetic variation in the ratio of LDH-B/LDH-A was correlated with species-typical brain mass but not the encephalization quotient. A significant LDH-B increase in the subneuronal fraction from haplorhine neocortex and striatum suggests a relatively higher rate of aerobic glycolysis that is linked to synaptosomal mitochondrial metabolism. Our results indicate that there is a differential composition of LDH isoenzymes and metabolism in synaptic terminals that evolved in primates to meet increased energy requirements in association with brain enlargement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000358581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096905PMC
January 2015

Relational trauma: using play therapy to treat a disrupted attachment.

Bull Menninger Clin 2013 ;77(3):250-68

Caregiver-child attachment results in a cognitive-emotional schema of self, other, and self-other relationships. Significantly disrupted attachments may lead to pathogenic internal working models, which may have deleterious consequences; this indicates the need for early attachment intervention. The authors consider the therapy of a 3-year-old boy with aggressive behaviors who had lacked consistent caregiving. Attachment theory can account for the child's psychotherapeutic gains, despite his insecure attachment style. The authors discuss discrepancies between treatment and current research trends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/bumc.2013.77.3.250DOI Listing
March 2014

Neuropil distribution in the cerebral cortex differs between humans and chimpanzees.

J Comp Neurol 2012 Sep;520(13):2917-29

Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.

Increased connectivity of high-order association regions in the neocortex has been proposed as a defining feature of human brain evolution. At present, however, there are limited comparative data to examine this claim fully. We tested the hypothesis that the distribution of neuropil across areas of the neocortex of humans differs from that of one of our closest living relatives, the common chimpanzee. The neuropil provides a proxy measure of total connectivity within a local region because it is composed mostly of dendrites, axons, and synapses. Using image analysis techniques, we quantified the neuropil fraction from both hemispheres in six cytoarchitectonically defined regions including frontopolar cortex (area 10), Broca's area (area 45), frontoinsular cortex (area FI), primary motor cortex (area 4), primary auditory cortex (area 41/42), and the planum temporale (area 22). Our results demonstrate that humans exhibit a unique distribution of neuropil in the neocortex compared to chimpanzees. In particular, the human frontopolar cortex and the frontoinsular cortex had a significantly higher neuropil fraction than the other areas. In chimpanzees these prefrontal regions did not display significantly more neuropil, but the primary auditory cortex had a lower neuropil fraction than other areas. Our results support the conclusion that enhanced connectivity in the prefrontal cortex accompanied the evolution of the human brain. These species differences in neuropil distribution may offer insight into the neural basis of human cognition, reflecting enhancement of the integrative capacity of the prefrontal cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.23074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3556724PMC
September 2012

The effect of dietary calcium on 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis and sparing of serum 25(OH)D3 levels.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010 Jul 15;121(1-2):288-92. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Chemical Pathology, SA Pathology, Frome Rd, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

Vitamin D depletion in rats causes osteopenia in at least three skeletal sites. However it is unclear whether modulation of dietary calcium intake impacts on the relationship between the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and bone loss. Nine-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing either 0 or 20 IU vitamin D3/day with either low (0.1%) or high (1%) dietary Ca for 6 months. At 15 months of age, fasting bloods were collected for biochemical analyses. Serum 25D levels were lowest in the animals fed 0 IU vitamin D and 0.1% Ca. The animals fed 1% Ca had significantly higher serum 25D levels when compared to animals fed 0.1% Ca (P<0.05). The major determinants of serum 25D were dietary vitamin D and dietary calcium (Multiple R=0.75, P<0.05). Animals fed 0.1% Ca had higher renal CYP27B1 mRNA expression and 12-18-fold increased levels of serum 1,25D. Hence, the reported effects of low calcium diets on bone loss may be, in part, due to the subsequent effects of 25D metabolism leading to reduction in vitamin D status. Such an interaction has significant implications, given the recent evidence for local synthesis of active vitamin D in bone tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.022DOI Listing
July 2010
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