Publications by authors named "Sarah E Watamura"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Timing, duration, and differential susceptibility to early life adversities and cardiovascular disease risk across the lifespan: Implications for future research.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 19;153:106736. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, United States of America.

Early life adversities (ELA), include experiences such as child maltreatment, household dysfunction, bullying, exposure to crime, discrimination, bias, and victimization, and are recognized as social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Strong evidence shows exposure to ELA directly impacts cardiometabolic risk in adulthood and emerging evidence suggests there may be continuity in ELA's prediction of cardiometabolic risk over the life course. Extant research has primarily relied on a cumulative risk framework to evaluate the relationship between ELA and CVD. In this framework, risk is considered a function of the number of risk factors or adversities that an individual was exposed to across developmental periods. The cumulative risk exposure approach treats developmental periods and types of risk as equivalent and interchangeable. Moreover, cumulative risk models do not lend themselves to investigating the chronicity of adverse exposures or consider individual variation in susceptibility, differential contexts, or adaptive resilience processes, which may modify the impact of ELA on CVD risk. To date, however, alternative models have received comparatively little consideration. Overall, this paper will highlight existing gaps and offer recommendations to address these gaps that would extend our knowledge of the relationship between ELA and CVD development. We focus specifically on the roles of: 1) susceptibility and resilience, 2) timing and developmental context; and 3) variation in risk exposure. We propose to expand current conceptual models to incorporate these factors to better guide research that examines ELA and CVD risk across the life course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106736DOI Listing
July 2021

Family processes among Latino Early Head Start families: Understanding the role of caregiver acculturation.

J Community Psychol 2019 07 8;47(6):1433-1448. Epub 2019 May 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.

The Family Stress Model (FSM) provides a framework for how economic pressure can impact family processes and outcomes, including parent's mental health, parenting, and child problem behaviors. Although the FSM has been widely replicated, samples disproportionately impacted by poverty, including early childhood samples and in particular Latino families with young children, have been largely excluded from FSM research. Therefore, among a sample of Latino Early Head Start children (N = 127), the current study evaluated a modified FSM to understand the direct and indirect pathways among economic pressure, parental depression, parenting self-efficacy, the parent-child relationship, child problem behaviors, and parental acculturation. Results showed that the majority of the direct FSM pathways were well-replicated among Latino caregivers of young children. Further analyses illuminated how some pathways were replicated among more but not among less-acculturated Latino parents. Implications for future FSM research with Latino families as well as for parent-focused interventions are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22198DOI Listing
July 2019

The co-occurrence of adverse childhood experiences among children investigated for child maltreatment: A latent class analysis.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 01 22;87:18-27. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, 2155 S. Race St., Denver, CO 80208, USA. Electronic address:

Children investigated for maltreatment are particularly vulnerable to experiencing multiple adversities. Few studies have examined the extent to which experiences of adversity and different types of maltreatment co-occur in this most vulnerable population of children. Understanding the complex nature of childhood adversity may inform the enhanced tailoring of practices to better meet the needs of maltreated children. Using cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (N=5870), this study employed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of children who had experienced multiple forms of maltreatment and associated adversities among four developmental stages: birth to 23 months (infants), 2-5 (preschool age), 6-10 (school age), and 11-18 years-old (adolescents). Three latent classes were identified for infants, preschool-aged children, and adolescents, and four latent classes were identified for school-aged children. Among infants, the groups were characterized by experiences of (1) physical neglect/emotional abuse/caregiver treated violently, (2) physical neglect/household dysfunction, and (3) caregiver divorce. For preschool-aged children, the groups included (1) physical neglect/emotional abuse/caregiver treated violently, (2) physical neglect/household dysfunction, and (3) emotional abuse. Children in the school-age group clustered based on experiencing (1) physical neglect/emotional neglect and abuse/caregiver treated violently, (2) physical neglect/household dysfunction, (3) emotional abuse, and (4) emotional abuse/caregiver divorce. Finally, adolescents were grouped based on (1) physical neglect/emotional abuse/household dysfunction, (2) physical abuse/emotional abuse/household dysfunction, and (3) emotional abuse/caregiver divorce. The results indicate distinct classes of adversity experienced among children investigated for child maltreatment, with both stability across developmental periods and unique age-related vulnerabilities. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780306PMC
January 2019

Sleep Moderates the Association Between Response Inhibition and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2017 Mar-Apr;46(2):222-235. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

a Department of Integrative Physiology , University of Colorado Boulder.

Early childhood is a time of rapid developmental changes in sleep, cognitive control processes, and the regulation of emotion and behavior. This experimental study examined sleep-dependent effects on response inhibition and self-regulation, as well as whether acute sleep restriction moderated the association between these processes. Preschool children (N = 19; 45.6 ± 2.2 months; 11 female) followed a strict sleep schedule for at least 3 days before each of 2 morning behavior assessments: baseline (habitual nap/night sleep) and sleep restriction (missed nap/delayed bedtime). Response inhibition was evaluated via a go/no-go task. Twelve self-regulation strategies were coded from videotapes of children while attempting an unsolvable puzzle. We then created composite variables representing adaptive and maladaptive self-regulation strategies. Although we found no sleep-dependent effects on response inhibition or self-regulation measures, linear mixed-effects regression showed that acute sleep restriction moderated the relationship between these processes. At baseline, children with better response inhibition were more likely to use adaptive self-regulation strategies (e.g., self-talk, alternate strategies), and those with poorer response inhibition showed increased use of maladaptive self-regulation strategies (e.g., perseveration, fidgeting); however, response inhibition was not related to self-regulation strategies following sleep restriction. Our results showing a sleep-dependent effect on the associations between response inhibition and self-regulation strategies indicate that adequate sleep facilitates synergy between processes supporting optimal social-emotional functioning in early childhood. Although replication studies are needed, findings suggest that sleep may alter connections between maturing emotional and cognitive systems, which have important implications for understanding risk for or resilience to developmental psychopathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1204921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5336399PMC
July 2017

The CIRCORT database: Reference ranges and seasonal changes in diurnal salivary cortisol derived from a meta-dataset comprised of 15 field studies.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2016 11 14;73:16-23. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Institute of General Psychology, Biopsychology and Psychological Methods, Technische Universität Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, D-01069 Dresden, Germany.

Diurnal salivary cortisol profiles are valuable indicators of adrenocortical functioning in epidemiological research and clinical practice. However, normative reference values derived from a large number of participants and across a wide age range are still missing. To fill this gap, data were compiled from 15 independently conducted field studies with a total of 104,623 salivary cortisol samples obtained from 18,698 unselected individuals (mean age: 48.3 years, age range: 0.5-98.5 years, 39% females). Besides providing a descriptive analysis of the complete dataset, we also performed mixed-effects growth curve modeling of diurnal salivary cortisol (i.e., 1-16h after awakening). Cortisol decreased significantly across the day and was influenced by both, age and sex. Intriguingly, we also found a pronounced impact of sampling season with elevated diurnal cortisol in spring and decreased levels in autumn. However, the majority of variance was accounted for by between-participant and between-study variance components. Based on these analyses, reference ranges (LC/MS-MS calibrated) for cortisol concentrations in saliva were derived for different times across the day, with more specific reference ranges generated for males and females in different age categories. This integrative summary provides important reference values on salivary cortisol to aid basic scientists and clinicians in interpreting deviations from the normal diurnal cycle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.07.201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5108362PMC
November 2016

The cortisol awakening response (CAR) in toddlers: Nap-dependent effects on the diurnal secretory pattern.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2015 Oct 4;60:46-56. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Sleep and Development Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, 354 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cortisol levels in adults show a sharp decrease from mid-morning to mid-afternoon. Most toddlers take afternoon naps, which is associated with a less mature diurnal pattern characterized by a midday plateau in cortisol secretion. Napping in preschoolers produces a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), which may account for such maturational differences. This experimental study extends prior work by examining whether the presence and timing of the nap-dependent CAR influences the diurnal cortisol pattern in toddlers.

Methods: Toddlers (n = 28; 13 females; 30-36 months) followed a strict biphasic sleep schedule (≥ 12.5h time in bed; ≥ 90 min nap) for ≥ 3 days before each of four randomly ordered, in-home cortisol assessments. For each assessment, saliva samples were obtained at morning awakening, ∼ 09:30, pre-nap, 0, 15, 30, 45, 90, and 135 min post-nap awakening (verified with actigraphy), and ∼ 19:30. On one day, children napped at their scheduled time, and parents collected saliva samples. On another day, children missed their nap, and parents collected saliva samples at matched times. On two other days, children napped 4h (morning) and 7h (afternoon) after awakening in the morning, during which time researchers collected pre- and post-nap saliva samples. Saliva was assayed for cortisol (μg/dl).

Results: Three-level multilevel models were used to estimate the CAR and diurnal cortisol patterns in all four conditions. Compared to the no-nap condition (no observed CAR; b = -0.78, p = 0.65), we found a pronounced cortisol rise following the morning nap (b = 11.00, p < 0.001) and both afternoon naps whether samples were collected by parents (b = 5.19, p < 0.01) or experimenters (b = 4.97, p < 0.01). Napping in the morning resulted in the most robust post-nap cortisol rise (b = 10.21, p < 0.001). Diurnal patterns were analyzed using piecewise growth modeling that estimated linear coefficients for five separate periods throughout the day (corresponding to morning decline, noon decline, post-nap rise, post-nap decline, and evening decline). We observed a significant post-nap rise in cortisol values on the parent-collected afternoon nap (b = 3.41, p < 0.01) and the experimenter-collected morning nap (b = 7.50, p < 0.01) days as compared to the no-nap day (b = -0.17, p = 0.82). No other differences in diurnal profiles were observed between the parent-collected nap and no-nap conditions; however, toddlers had a steeper evening decline on the day of the morning nap compared to the parent-collected afternoon nap (b = 0.30, p < 0.05) and no-nap conditions (b = 0.27, p < 0.05).

Discussion: These well-controlled findings suggest that the presence and timing of daytime naps influence the pattern of diurnal cortisol secretion in toddlers. They also provide support for the hypothesis that napping is the primary state driving the immature midday plateau in cortisol secretion, which becomes more adult-like across childhood. Prior studies of the diurnal cortisol pattern have employed a cubic model, and therefore, have not detected all possible variations due to napping. Our experimental data have important methodological implications for researchers examining associations between the slope of the diurnal cortisol pattern and developmental outcomes, as well as those utilizing afternoon cortisol reactivity protocols in napping children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4526341PMC
October 2015

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in dysphoric children and adolescents: cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress from preschool through middle adolescence.

Biol Psychiatry 2010 Sep 23;68(5):484-90. Epub 2010 May 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208, USA.

Background: Most depressed adults exhibit dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including cortisol hyperreactivity to psychosocial challenge. In contrast, remarkably little is known about hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in response to psychosocial challenge among at-risk children and adolescents. This study examined cortisol response to psychosocial challenge in nondepressed, at-risk, dysphoric and nondysphoric control youth across different developmentally salient age groups (preschool, third-, sixth-, and ninth-graders).

Methods: Two samples of youth (Study 1-preschoolers; Study 2-third-, sixth-, and ninth-graders) without a history of clinical depression were administered developmentally appropriate psychosocial challenges. Of these nondepressed children, we examined youth at high-risk (n = 60) and low-risk (n = 223) status, as defined by elevated but subthreshold dysphoric symptoms according to multiple informants. Cortisol levels were assessed before and after a psychosocial stressor.

Results: Nondysphoric control youth at all ages displayed the expected cortisol rise to challenge followed by return to baseline. However, prepubertal, at-risk, dysphoric children--specifically preschoolers and third-graders--exhibited cortisol hyporeactivity to challenge, whereas postpubertal dysphoric adolescents (ninth-graders) displayed hyperreactivity to the stressor. Additional analyses revealed that this switch from cortisol hyporeactivity to hyperreactivity among at-risk, dysphoric youth occurred as a function of pubertal development.

Conclusions: Findings suggest a developmental switch in cortisol response for at-risk, dysphoric youth from preschool through adolescence and have implications for a developmental pathophysiological understanding of how at-risk youth across the lifespan might develop depressive disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921478PMC
September 2010

Movement-attention coupling in infancy and attention problems in childhood.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2005 Oct;47(10):660-5

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Adaptive behavior requires the integration of body movement and attention. Therefore, individual differences in integration of movement and attention during infancy may have significance for development. We contacted families whose 8-year-old children (n=26; 16 females, 10 males; mean age 8 y 2 mo, SD 8 mo) participated in a previous study of movement-attention coupling at 1 or 3 months of age, to assess parent-reported attention or hyperactivity problems using the Child Behavior Checklist and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) criteria. Parent-reported attention problems at 8 years of age were associated with less suppression of body movement at onset of looking, and greater rebound of body movement following its initial suppression at 3 months, but not at 1 month. Parent-reported hyperactivity was not related to any of the infant movement-attention measures. Results suggests that the dynamic integration of movement and attention early in life may have functional significance for the development of attention problems in childhood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0012162205001350DOI Listing
October 2005

Developmental changes in baseline cortisol activity in early childhood: relations with napping and effortful control.

Dev Psychobiol 2004 Nov;45(3):125-33

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis was examined using salivary cortisol levels assessed at wake-up, midmorning, midafternoon, and bedtime in 77 children aged 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months, in a cross-sectional design. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were used to characterize cortisol production across the day and to examine age-related differences. Using area(s) under the curve (AUC), cortisol levels were higher among the 12-, 18-, and 24-month children than among the 30- and 36-month children. For all five age groups, cortisol levels were highest at wake-up and lowest at bedtime. Significant decreases were noted between wake-up and midmorning, and between midafternoon and bedtime. Unlike adults, midafternoon cortisol levels were not significantly lower than midmorning levels. Over this age period, children napped less and scored increasingly higher on parent reports of effortful control. Among the 30- and 36-month children, shorter naps were associated with more adultlike decreases in cortisol levels from midmorning to midafternoon. Considering all of the age groups together, effortful control correlated negatively with cortisol levels after controlling for age. These results suggest that circadian regulation of the HPA axis continues to mature into the third year in humans, and that its maturation corresponds to aspects of behavioral development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.20026DOI Listing
November 2004

Morning-to-afternoon increases in cortisol concentrations for infants and toddlers at child care: age differences and behavioral correlates.

Child Dev 2003 Jul-Aug;74(4):1006-20

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 55455, USA.

This study examined salivary cortisol, a stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hormone in 20 infants (12 females; M age = 10.8 months) and 35 toddlers (20 females; M age = 29.7 months) in full-day, center-based child care. Samples were taken at approximately 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. at child care and at home. At child care, 35% of infants and 71% of toddlers showed a rise in cortisol across the day; at home, 71% of infants and 64% of toddlers showed decreases. Toddlers who played more with peers exhibited lower cortisol. Controlling age, teacher-reported social fearfulness predicted higher afternoon cortisol and larger cortisol increases across the day at child care. This phenomenon may indicate context-specific activation of the HPA axis early in life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00583DOI Listing
January 2004

Rising cortisol at childcare: relations with nap, rest, and temperament.

Dev Psychobiol 2002 Jan;40(1):33-42

Department in Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

An unexpected rise in cortisol across the day in full-day, center-based childcare has been recently observed. Most of the children in these studies exhibited the rise across the day at childcare, but the expected drop at home. Possible explanations include more or less napping at childcare than at home. This study measured cortisol during childcare at 10:30 a.m., pre-rest, post-rest, and 3:30 p.m. for 35 children, and at 10:30 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. at home for 8 children. Duration and quality of rest were coded during nap periods. For 91% of children, cortisol rose at childcare and for 75% dropped at home. None of the napping variables were related to the rise at childcare nor were differences found between home and childcare rest. Factors other than daytime rest periods seem likely to account for the rise in cortisol across the childcare day, possibly factors involving the interactional demands of group settings during this developmental period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.10011DOI Listing
January 2002
-->