Publications by authors named "Sarah E Hampson"

64 Publications

Child temperament predicts the adiposity rebound. A 9-year prospective sibling control study.

PLoS One 2018 9;13(11):e0207279. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Methods: We repeatedly examined 25889 siblings within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, following them from the mothers' pregnancy through child age 8 years. Information on the children's height and weight was collected by means of health registries and maternal reports. Information on the siblings' temperament was collected by questionnaires completed when they were 1.5, 3, and 5 years old. We examined the associations of temperament at different child ages with the timing of the adiposity rebound among siblings and controls by means of growth curve and multilevel analyses.

Results: Within siblings, high scores on the approach trait of sociability predicted an earlier adiposity rebound and high scores on the avoidance trait of shyness predicted a later adiposity rebound with timing differences ranging between 6 and 16 weeks. Surprisingly, negative emotionality did not predict the adiposity rebound. The associations between temperament and the adiposity rebound increased with increasing child age. The results within controls-comparing siblings with the population, broadly paralleled those within siblings.

Conclusions: The findings encourage the notion that child temperament functions as an early marker for the adiposity rebound. Future studies may advance our knowledge by including measures of child personality along the taxonomy of the adult Five Personality Factors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207279PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226180PMC
April 2019

No Evidence of "healthy neuroticism" in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort.

Ann Behav Med 2019 03;53(5):426-441

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

Background: Heterogeneity in the effects of trait neuroticism on mortality has inspired recent theories of "healthy neuroticism," or the possibility that neuroticism can lead people down either healthy or unhealthy behavioral pathways. The logical extension of this theory is that some construct-perhaps another trait, financial resource, or health-relevant situation-changes the relationship between neuroticism and health. The other possibility is that different components of neuroticism lead to different health behaviors and therefore different outcomes.

Purpose: The current study systematically examines the relationship between child and adult neuroticism and various health indicators including perceptions of health, behaviors, health outcomes, and biomarkers of health. Finally, we examine both potential moderators of the associations with neuroticism and examine its facet structure.

Methods: The current study utilizes data from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, which includes both adult (IPIP-NEO) and childhood (teacher-reported) measures of personality and socioeconomic status, as well as a variety of health outcomes, from self-reported health and health behavior to biological markers, such as cholesterol and blood glucose levels. Sample sizes range from 299 to 518.

Results: The relationship between neuroticism and health was not consistently moderated by any other variable, nor were facets of neuroticism differentially related to health.

Conclusions: Despite a systematic investigation of the potential "paths" which may differentiate the relationship of neuroticism to health, no evidence of healthy neuroticism was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kay055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330156PMC
March 2019

A purposeful lifestyle is a healthful lifestyle: Linking sense of purpose to self-rated health through multiple health behaviors.

J Health Psychol 2019 09 17;24(10):1392-1400. Epub 2017 May 17.

2 Oregon Research Institute, USA.

Having a purpose in life has been consistently linked to subjective and objective health markers. Using data from the Hawaii Study of Personality and Health ( = 749,  = 60.1 years), we tested multiple health behaviors as unique mediators of the correlation between sense of purpose and self-rated health ( = .29). Correlational analyses found that participants' sense of purpose was positively associated with their reports of vigorous and moderate activity, vegetable intake, flossing, and sleep quality. Combined in a multiple-mediator model, bootstrapping analyses suggested that sleep quality and vigorous activity proved significant unique mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105317708251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665713PMC
September 2019

The Health Behavior Checklist: Factor structure in community samples and validity of a revised good health practices scale.

J Health Psychol 2019 07 11;24(8):1103-1109. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Oregon Research Institute, USA.

This study examined the factor structure and predictive validity of the commonly used multidimensional Health Behavior Checklist. A three-factor structure was found in two community samples that included men and women. The new 16-item Good Health Practices scale and the original Wellness Maintenance scale were the only Health Behavior Checklist scales to be related to cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. While the other Health Behavior Checklist scales require further validation, the Good Health Practices scale could be used where more objective or longer measures are not feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105316687629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5561507PMC
July 2019

From Elementary School to Midlife: Childhood Personality Predicts Behavior During Cognitive Testing over Four Decades Later.

J Res Pers 2017 04 8;67:183-189. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

University of California, Riverside.

The current study uses a prospective, longitudinal design and lifespan perspective to understand how child personality relates to directly observed adult behavior during cognitive testing. Teacher assessments of child Big Five personality in elementary school were correlated with directly observed behaviors during a videotaped cognitive test four decades later. Past work suggested Openness and Conscientiousness may relate to task-relevant academic behaviors. Childhood Openness was associated with several behaviors, even after controlling for participant's cognitive performance. Childhood Conscientiousness was also related to behavior, but not as expected. Other Big Five ratings were not reliably related to behavior. The study examined personality stability in a unique way and suggests a further examination of how Openness in children manifests in later behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2016.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451157PMC
April 2017

A New Twist on Old Questions: A Life Span Approach to the Trait Concept.

J Pers 2018 02 29;86(1):97-108. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Oregon Research Institute.

Objective: We examine three cardinal concerns in personality psychology from a life span perspective: trait structure, trait stability, and trait mechanisms that account for the predictive utility of traits. We draw on previously published and new findings from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, as well as work by others.

Method: The Hawaii study provides a unique opportunity to relate a comprehensive assessment of participants' childhood personality traits (over 2,000 children, mean age 10 years) to their adult personality traits and other self-report outcomes in their 40s, 50s, and 60s, and their clinically assessed health at mean age 51.

Results: Our analyses have demonstrated that the Big Five can be used to describe childhood personality in this cohort. The stability of the Big Five from childhood teacher assessments to adult self- or observer reports is modest and varies from Big Five trait to trait. Personality mechanisms of life span health behavior and life span trauma experience explain some of the influence of childhood Conscientiousness on adult health outcomes.

Conclusions: A life span approach highlights the dynamic nature of traits and their long-term predictive utility, and it offers numerous directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5547020PMC
February 2018

Childhood Personality, Betrayal Trauma, and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adulthood: A Lifespan Perspective on Conscientiousness and Betrayal Traumas as Predictors of a Biomarker of Cellular Aging.

Eur J Pers 2016 Sep-Oct;30(5):426-437. Epub 2016 Oct 16.

University of Regina, Regina, Canada.

Conscientiousness is associated with longevity. As such, identifying the biological pathways linking personality to mortality is important. This study employs longitudinal data spanning >40 years to test prospective associations with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a potential marker of cellular aging. Because telomeres shorten over time, and are sensitive to oxidative stress, shorter LTL may reflect cumulative damage associated with negative health behaviors and past stressful events. We investigated childhood conscientiousness as a protective factor, expecting an association with longer LTL in adulthood, possibly reflecting slower LTL shortening. Potential lifespan pathways involving childhood trauma, smoking behaviors, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were explored. Childhood conscientiousness showed a small raw association with LTL ( = .08, = .04), although this effect did not persist when controlling for age and sex. Despite this lack of a direct effect on LTL, we detected an indirect effect operating jointly through BMI and smoking. Higher rates of childhood betrayal trauma were associated with shorter LTL. Contrary to our hypothesis that conscientiousness would buffer this effect, we found evidence for an interaction with childhood betrayal traumas where the association between childhood betrayal traumas and LTL was larger for those higher on conscientiousness in childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.2051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5172594PMC
October 2016

Constructing a short form of the hierarchical personality inventory for children (HiPIC): the HiPIC-30.

Personal Ment Health 2016 05;10(2):152-65

Psychological Institute, University of Oslo, Norway.

Children's personality traits are invaluable predictors of concurrent and later mental and physical health. Several validated longer inventories for assessing the widely recognized Five-Factor Model of personality in children are available, but short forms are scarce. This study aimed at constructing a 30-item form of the 144-item Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, ). Participants were 1543 children aged 6-12 years (sample 1) and 3895 children aged 8 years (sample 2). Sample 1 completed the full HiPIC, from which we constructed the HiPIC-30, and the Child Behaviour Checklist (Achenbach, ). Sample 2 completed the HiPIC-30. The HiPIC-30 personality domains correlated over r = .90 with the full HiPIC domains, had good Cronbach's alphas and correlated similarly with CBCL behaviour problems and gender as the full HiPIC. The factor structures of the HiPIC-30 were convergent across samples, but the imagination factor was not clear-cut. We conclude that the HiPIC-30 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Five-Factor personality traits in children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1334DOI Listing
May 2016

Lifetime trauma, personality traits, and health: A pathway to midlife health status.

Psychol Trauma 2016 07 21;8(4):447-54. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research.

Objective: This study investigated whether lifetime experience of trauma is related to personality through instrumental and reactive trait processes, and whether lifetime trauma is a mechanism underlying the association between childhood conscientiousness and objectively assessed adult physical health.

Method: Participants (N = 831) were 442 women and 389 men from the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of personality were obtained when the participants were in elementary school. Self-reported adult personality assessments, lifetime histories of trauma experience, and objectively assessed physiological dysregulation were obtained between ages 45-55.

Results: Women tended to report more high-betrayal trauma than men, whereas men reported more low-betrayal trauma than women. Women who were judged by their teachers to be less agreeable and less conscientious in childhood reported more lifetime trauma, suggesting instrumental trait processes. For both genders, neuroticism and openness/intellect/imagination in adulthood, but not in childhood, were associated with lifetime trauma, suggesting reactive trait processes. For both genders, trauma experience was correlated with dysregulation and with Body Mass Index (BMI). The indirect paths from childhood conscientiousness to adult dysregulation and BMI through total teen and adult trauma were significant for women, but not for men (indirect effect for women's dysregulation = -.025, p = .040, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -.048, -.001; indirect effect for women's BMI = -.037, p = .009, 95% CI = -.067, -.008).

Conclusion: Teen and adult trauma experience appears to be a hitherto unidentified mechanism in women underlying the association between conscientiousness and health. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4925290PMC
July 2016

Harsh Environments, Life History Strategies, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study of Oregon Youth.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Jan;88:120-124

University of Connecticut.

We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Five cohorts of children in Grades 1-5 at recruitment were assessed through one-year post high school. Greater environmental harshness (neighborhood quality and family poverty) in Grades 1-6 predicted less parental investment at Grade 8. This parenting style was related to the development of fast LHS (favorable beliefs about substance users and willingness to use substances at Grade 9, and engagement in substance use and risky sexual behavior assessed across Grades 10-12). The indirect path from harsh environment through parenting and LHS to (less) psychological adjustment (indicated by lower life satisfaction, self-rated health, trait sociability, and higher depression) was significant (indirect effect -.024, = .011, 95% CI = -.043, -.006.). This chain of development was comparable to that found by Gibbons et al. (2012) for an African-American sample that, unlike the present study, included perceived racial discrimination in the assessment of harsh environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593070PMC
January 2016

Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

PLoS One 2015 28;10(7):e0134077. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America.

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134077PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517862PMC
May 2016

Prospective Predictors of Novel Tobacco and Nicotine Product Use in Emerging Adulthood.

J Adolesc Health 2015 Aug;57(2):186-91

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether risk factors for cigarette smoking assessed in adolescence predict the use of novel tobacco and nicotine products (hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes) in early emerging adulthood.

Methods: In a longitudinal study (N = 862), risk factors were measured in middle and high school, and novel product use was measured in emerging adulthood (mean age 22.4 years). Structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting lifetime use of any of hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes in early emerging adulthood from distal predictors (gender, maternal smoking through Grade 8; already tried alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana by Grade 8; and sensation seeking at Grade 8) and potential mediators (intentions to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or smoke marijuana at Grade 9, and smoking trajectory across high school).

Results: The most prevalent novel tobacco product was hookah (21.7%), followed by little cigars (16.8%) and e-cigarettes (6.6%). Maternal smoking, having already tried substances, and sensation seeking each predicted the use of at least one of these products via an indirect path through intentions to use substances and membership in a high-school smoking trajectory.

Conclusions: Risk factors for cigarette smoking were found to predict novel tobacco use, suggesting that interventions to prevent cigarette smoking could be extended to include common novel tobacco products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514910PMC
August 2015

A Big Five approach to self-regulation: personality traits and health trajectories in the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health.

Psychol Health Med 2016 21;21(2):152-62. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

b Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research Hawaii , Honolulu , HI , USA.

Self-regulatory processes influencing health outcomes may have their origins in childhood personality traits. The Big Five approach to personality was used here to investigate the associations between childhood traits, trait-related regulatory processes and changes in health across middle age. Participants (N = 1176) were members of the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of the participants' traits when they were in elementary school were related to trajectories of self-rated health measured on 6 occasions over 14 years in middle age. Five trajectories of self-rated health were identified by latent class growth analysis: Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good, Good, Decreasing and Poor. Childhood Conscientiousness was the only childhood trait to predict membership in the Decreasing class vs. the combined healthy classes (Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good and Good), even after controlling for adult Conscientiousness and the other adult Big Five traits. The Decreasing class had poorer objectively assessed clinical health measured on one occasion in middle age, was less well-educated, and had a history of more lifespan health-damaging behaviors compared to the combined healthy classes. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood Conscientiousness (i.e. greater self-discipline and goal-directedness) may prevent subsequent health decline decades later through self-regulatory processes involving the acquisition of lifelong healthful behavior patterns and higher educational attainment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2015.1061676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4718866PMC
May 2017

A life-span behavioral mechanism relating childhood conscientiousness to adult clinical health.

Health Psychol 2015 Sep 26;34(9):887-95. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research Hawaii.

Objective: To investigate a life-span health-behavior mechanism relating childhood personality to adult clinical health.

Methods: Childhood Big Five personality traits at mean age 10, adult Big Five personality traits, adult clinically assessed dysregulation at mean age 51 (a summary of dysregulated blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids), and a retrospective, cumulative measure of life-span health-damaging behavior (lifetime smoking, physical inactivity, and body mass index from age 20) were assessed in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort (N = 759). Structural equation modeling was used to test the conceptual model with direct and indirect paths from a childhood Conscientiousness factor to an adult Conscientiousness factor, life-span health-damaging behaviors, educational attainment, adult cognitive ability, and adult clinical health.

Results: For both men and women, childhood Conscientiousness influenced health-damaging behaviors through educational attainment, and life-span health-damaging behaviors predicted dysregulation. Childhood Conscientiousness predicted adult Conscientiousness, which did not predict any other variables in the model. For men, childhood Conscientiousness predicted dysregulation through educational attainment and health-damaging behaviors. For women, childhood Conscientiousness predicted dysregulation through educational attainment and adult cognitive ability.

Conclusions: Assessing cumulative life-span health behaviors is a novel approach to the study of health-behavior mechanisms. Childhood Conscientiousness appears to influence health assessed more than 40 years later through complex processes involving educational attainment, cognitive ability, and the accumulated effects of health behaviors, but not adult Conscientiousness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515399PMC
September 2015

Personality Change at Mid-Life is Associated with Changes in Self-Rated Health: Evidence from the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort.

Pers Individ Dif 2014 Feb;58

Oregon Research Institute, 1776 Millrace Drive, Eugene, OR 97403-2536, USA.

Personality traits change across the lifespan, and trait change, in addition to trait level, may be related to health. Longitudinal data from the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort were used to investigate associations between changes in traits and self-rated health (SRH). Participants ( = 733, = 44.4) completed measures of the Big Five personality traits and SRH twice approximately 3 years apart. Personality trait changes were associated with SRH change. Additionally, increases on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, and decreases on Neuroticism, predicted increases in SRH, even when controlling for gender and education. Relating correlated trait change at mid-life, when traits reach peak stability, to a consequential health outcome such as SRH change, demonstrates the value of treating both traits and health indicators as dynamic variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864362PMC
February 2014

Personality Stability from Childhood to Midlife: Relating Teachers' Assessments in Elementary School to Observer- and Self-Ratings 40 Years Later.

J Res Pers 2013 Oct;47(5):505-513

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon.

We report on the longitudinal stability of personality traits across an average 40 years in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort relating childhood teacher assessments of personality to adult self- and observer- reports. Stabilities based on self-ratings in adulthood were compared to those measured by the Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997), and trait ratings completed by interviewers. Although convergence between self-reports and observer-ratings was modest, childhood traits demonstrated similar levels of stability across methods in adulthood. Extraversion and Conscientiousness generally showed higher stabilities, whereas Neuroticism showed none. For Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness, stability was highest when assessed with observer-ratings. These findings are discussed in terms of differences in trait evaluativeness and observability across measurement methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2013.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768160PMC
October 2013

Childhood conscientiousness relates to objectively measured adult physical health four decades later.

Health Psychol 2013 Aug 25;32(8):925-8. Epub 2013 Mar 25.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1983, USA.

Objective: Many life span personality-and-health models assume that childhood personality traits result in life-course pathways leading through morbidity to mortality. Although childhood conscientiousness in particular predicts mortality, there are few prospective studies that have investigated the associations between childhood personality and objective health status in adulthood. The present study tested this crucial assumption of life span models of personality and health using a comprehensive assessment of the Big Five traits in childhood (M age = 10 years) and biomarkers of health over 40 years later (M age = 51 years).

Methods: Members of the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort (N = 753; 368 men, 385 women) underwent a medical examination at mean age 51. Their global health status was evaluated by well-established clinical indicators that were objectively measured using standard protocols, including blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and body mass index. These indicators were combined to evaluate overall physiological dysregulation and grouped into five more homogeneous subcomponents (glucose intolerance, blood pressure, lipids, obesity, and medications).

Results: Lower levels of childhood conscientiousness predicted more physiological dysregulation (β = -.11, p < .05), greater obesity (β = -.10, p < .05), and worse lipid profiles (β = -.10, p < .05), after controlling for the other Big Five childhood personality traits, gender, ethnicity, parental home ownership, and adult conscientiousness.

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with a key assumption in life span models that childhood conscientiousness is associated with objective health status in older adults. They open the way for testing mechanisms by which childhood personality may influence mortality through morbidity; mechanisms that could then be targeted for intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3754851PMC
August 2013

Smoking trajectories across high school: sensation seeking and Hookah use.

Nicotine Tob Res 2013 Aug 15;15(8):1400-8. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403-2536, USA.

Introduction: This study investigated the associations of trajectories of cigarette smoking over the high school years with the prior development of childhood sensation seeking and the subsequent use of cigarettes and hookah at age 20/21.

Methods: Participants (N = 963) were members of a cohort-sequential longitudinal study, the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. Sensation seeking was assessed across 4th-8th grades and cigarette smoking was assessed across 9th-12th grades. Cigarette and hookah use was assessed at age 20/21 for 684 of the 963 participants.

Results: Four trajectory classes were identified: Stable High Smokers (6%), Rapid Escalators (8%), Experimenters (15%), and Stable Nonsmokers or very occasional smokers (71%). Membership in any smoker class versus nonsmokers was predicted by initial level and growth of sensation seeking. At age 20/21, there was a positive association between smoking and hookah use for Nonsmokers and Experimenters in high school, whereas this association was not significant for Stable High Smokers or Rapid Escalators.

Conclusions: Level and rate of growth of sensation seeking are risk factors for adolescent smoking during high school (Stable High Smokers, Rapid Escalators, and Experimenters), suggesting the need for interventions to reduce the rate of increase in childhood sensation seeking. For those who were not already established smokers by the end of high school, hookah use may have served as a gateway to smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3715388PMC
August 2013

Personality as a marker of health: a comment on Bogg and Roberts.

Authors:
Sarah E Hampson

Ann Behav Med 2013 Jun;45(3):269-70

Oregon Research Institute, 1776 Millrace Drive, Eugene, OR 97403 2536, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-012-9465-3DOI Listing
June 2013

Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

Dev Psychol 2014 May 10;50(5):1390-406. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, University of California.

The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3758911PMC
May 2014

Associations between temperament at age 1.5 years and obesogenic diet at ages 3 and 7 years.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2012 Nov-Dec;33(9):721-7

Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To investigate whether temperament in 1.5 year olds predicts their consumption of potentially obesogenic foods and drinks at 3 and 7 years of age.

Methods: Participants were 6997 mothers and infants from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Questionnaires were collected during pregnancy, at birth, and at 6 months and 1.5, 3, and 7 years of age. Predictor variables included children's temperament at 1.5 years of age (internalizing, externalizing, surgent) and mothers' negative affectivity. Outcome variables included children's consumption of sweet foods, sweet drinks, and fruits/vegetables at 3 and 7 years of age (dichotomized at the 85th percentile).

Results: Controlling for covariates, internalizing 1.5 year olds (anxious, dependent) were 77% and 63% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at 3 and 7 years of age, respectively; they were 55% and 43% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at 3 and 7 years, respectively. Externalizing 1.5 year olds (hyperactive, aggressive) were 34% more likely to consume sweet drinks daily at 7 years of age; they were 39% and 44% more likely to consume sweet foods daily at 3 and 7 years, respectively, and they were 47% and 33% less likely to consume fruits/vegetables daily at 3 and 7 years of age, respectively. Surgent 1.5 year olds (active, sociable) were 197% and 78% more likely to consume 2 portions of fruits/vegetables daily at 3 and 7 years, respectively. The association of maternal negative affectivity was limited to the child's consumption of sweet foods at 3 and 7 years.

Conclusion: Early child temperament is a risk factor for obesogenic diet in later childhood. Mechanisms explaining this association need to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e31826bac0dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492946PMC
May 2013

A new life-span approach to conscientiousness and health: combining the pieces of the causal puzzle.

Dev Psychol 2014 May 22;50(5):1377-89. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania.

Conscientiousness has been shown to predict healthy behaviors, healthy social relationships, and physical health and longevity. The causal links, however, are complex and not well elaborated. Many extant studies have used comparable measures for conscientiousness, and a systematic endeavor to build cross-study analyses for conscientiousness and health now seems feasible. Of particular interest are efforts to construct new, more comprehensive causal models by linking findings and combining data from existing studies of different cohorts. Although methodological perils can threaten such integration, such efforts offer an early opportunity to enliven a life course perspective on conscientiousness, to see whether component facets of conscientiousness remain related to each other and to relevant mediators across broad spans of time, and to bolster the findings of the few long-term longitudinal studies of the dynamics of personality and health. A promising approach to testing new models involves pooling data from extant studies as an efficient and heuristic prelude to large-scale testing of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651756PMC
May 2014

Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

J Res Pers 2012 Jun;46(3):295-305

Purdue University Department of Human Development & Family Studies, 1200 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN.

Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2012.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3388488PMC
June 2012

Trauma, socioeconomic resources, and self-rated health in an ethnically diverse adult cohort.

Ethn Health 2013 25;18(1):97-113. Epub 2012 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai'i.

Design: Across a 10-year period (1998-2008), participants (N=833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves.

Results: Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition, there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health.

Conclusion: These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2012.700916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495245PMC
September 2013

Children and eating. Personality and gender are associated with obesogenic food consumption and overweight in 6- to 12-year-olds.

Appetite 2012 Jun 15;58(3):1113-7. Epub 2012 Mar 15.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Division of Mental Health, P.O. Box 1094, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.

The role of children's personality traits in the consumption of potentially obesogenic foods was investigated in a sample of Norwegian children aged 6-12 years (N=327, 170 boys, 157 girls). Mothers rated their child's personality on the traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., extraversion, benevolence, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and imagination). Mothers also completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing their child's consumption of sweet drinks, sweet foods, and fruit and vegetables, and reported their child's height and weight. Controlling for age and mothers' education, boys and girls who were less benevolent consumed more sweet drinks, and girls who were less conscientious and more neurotic consumed more sweet drinks. Boys and girls who were more benevolent and imaginative consumed more fruits and vegetables, and boys who were more extraverted, more conscientious, and less neurotic consumed more fruits and vegetables. Controlling for maternal education, boys and girls who were less extraverted, and girls who were less benevolent, less conscientious, and more neurotic were more likely to be overweight or obese. These findings suggest that children's personality traits play an important yet understudied role in their diet. Further investigation of mechanisms that relate child traits to obesogenic eating and overweight would be valuable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.02.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3340452PMC
June 2012

Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

J Am Diet Assoc 2011 Oct;111(10):1578-83

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403-1983, USA.

Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3190578PMC
October 2011

Personality processes: mechanisms by which personality traits "get outside the skin".

Authors:
Sarah E Hampson

Annu Rev Psychol 2012 5;63:315-39. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, 97403, USA.

It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and temperament: negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint. Personality processes are studied over the short term, as in event-sampling studies, and over the long term, as in lifespan research. Implications of findings from the study of processes are considered for resolving issues in models of personality structure, improving and extending methods of personality assessment, and identifying targets for personality interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3193854PMC
April 2012

Using the Implicit Association Test to Assess Children's Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking.

J Appl Soc Psychol 2010 Sep;40(9):2387-2406

Oregon Research Institute.

The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with "sweets" as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with "healthy foods" as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable implicit attitude toward smoking. Further, implicit attitudes became less favorable after engaging in tobacco prevention activities targeting risk perceptions of addiction. Results support the reliability and validity of this version of the IAT and illustrate its usefulness in assessing young children's implicit attitude toward smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00663.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090631PMC
September 2010

Parenting and trajectories of children's maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2011 ;40(3):468-78

Department of Psychology, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.563470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3086657PMC
August 2011

Short-term efficacy of Click City®: Tobacco: changing etiological mechanisms related to the onset of tobacco use.

Prev Sci 2011 Mar;12(1):89-102

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Blvd., Eugene, OR 97403-1983, USA.

This paper described the short-term results from an ongoing randomized controlled efficacy study of Click City®: Tobacco, a tobacco prevention program designed for 5th graders, with a booster in sixth grade. Click City®: Tobacco is an innovative school-based prevention program delivered via an intranet, a series of linked computers with a single server. The components of the program target theoretically based and empirically supported etiological mechanisms predictive of future willingness and intentions to use tobacco and initiation of tobacco use. Each component was designed to change one or more etiological mechanisms and was empirically evaluated in the laboratory prior to inclusion in the program. Short-term results from 47 elementary schools (24 schools who used Click City®: Tobacco, and 23 who continued with their usual curriculum) showed change in intentions and willingness to use tobacco from baseline to 1-week following the completion of the 5th grade sessions. The results demonstrate the short-term efficacy of this program and suggest that experimentally evaluating components prior to including them in the program contributed to the efficacy of the program. The program was most efficacious for students who were most at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-010-0192-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042027PMC
March 2011