Publications by authors named "Sarah C Gaffey"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 immunotherapy promotes a survival benefit with intratumoral and systemic immune responses in recurrent glioblastoma.

Nat Med 2019 03 11;25(3):477-486. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medical and Molecular Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival. The Ivy Foundation Early Phase Clinical Trials Consortium conducted a randomized, multi-institution clinical trial to evaluate immune responses and survival following neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy with pembrolizumab in 35 patients with recurrent, surgically resectable glioblastoma. Patients who were randomized to receive neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, with continued adjuvant therapy following surgery, had significantly extended overall survival compared to patients that were randomized to receive adjuvant, post-surgical programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade alone. Neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade was associated with upregulation of T cell- and interferon-γ-related gene expression, but downregulation of cell-cycle-related gene expression within the tumor, which was not seen in patients that received adjuvant therapy alone. Focal induction of programmed death-ligand 1 in the tumor microenvironment, enhanced clonal expansion of T cells, decreased PD-1 expression on peripheral blood T cells and a decreasing monocytic population was observed more frequently in the neoadjuvant group than in patients treated only in the adjuvant setting. These findings suggest that the neoadjuvant administration of PD-1 blockade enhances both the local and systemic antitumor immune response and may represent a more efficacious approach to the treatment of this uniformly lethal brain tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0337-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408961PMC
March 2019

Buparlisib in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma Harboring Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway Activation: An Open-Label, Multicenter, Multi-Arm, Phase II Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2019 03 4;37(9):741-750. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

1 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is highly active in glioblastomas. We assessed pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of the pan-PI3K inhibitor buparlisib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma with PI3K pathway activation.

Methods: This study was a multicenter, open-label, multi-arm, phase II trial in patients with PI3K pathway-activated glioblastoma at first or second recurrence. In cohort 1, patients scheduled for re-operation after progression received buparlisib for 7 to 13 days before surgery to evaluate brain penetration and modulation of the PI3K pathway in resected tumor tissue. In cohort 2, patients not eligible for re-operation received buparlisib until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Once daily oral buparlisib 100 mg was administered on a continuous 28-day schedule. Primary end points were PI3K pathway inhibition in tumor tissue and buparlisib pharmacokinetics in cohort 1 and 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) in cohort 2.

Results: Sixty-five patients were treated (cohort 1, n = 15; cohort 2, n = 50). In cohort 1, reduction of phosphorylated AKT immunohistochemistry score was achieved in six (42.8%) of 14 patients, but effects on phosphoribosomal protein S6 and proliferation were not significant. Tumor-to-plasma drug level was 1.0. In cohort 2, four (8%) of 50 patients reached 6-month PFS6, and the median PFS was 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.4 to 1.8 months). The most common grade 3 or greater adverse events related to treatment were lipase elevation (n = 7 [10.8%]), fatigue (n = 4 [6.2%]), hyperglycemia (n = 3 [4.6%]), and elevated ALT (n = 3 [4.6%]).

Conclusion: Buparlisib had minimal single-agent efficacy in patients with PI3K-activated recurrent glioblastoma. Although buparlisib achieved significant brain penetration, the lack of clinical efficacy was explained by incomplete blockade of the PI3K pathway in tumor tissue. Integrative results suggest that additional study of PI3K inhibitors that achieve more-complete pathway inhibition may still be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6553812PMC
March 2019

Phase 2 and biomarker study of trebananib, an angiopoietin-blocking peptibody, with and without bevacizumab for patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

Cancer 2018 04 19;124(7):1438-1448. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Angiopoietins contribute to tumor angiogenesis and may be upregulated as a compensatory factor after vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade. The authors performed a phase 2 and biomarker study to evaluate trebananib, an angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2 blocking peptibody, with and without bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

Methods: Forty-eight patients who had bevacizumab-naive, recurrent glioblastoma were treated with trebananib (30 mg/kg weekly) as single agent (n = 11) or combined with bevacizumab (n = 37). The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival rate as determined by investigator review. Circulating biomarker levels were assessed before and after study therapy.

Results: Trebananib was well tolerated as monotherapy and did not enhance bevacizumab-associated toxicity. Trebananib had no single-agent activity, and all treated patients exhibited progressive disease within 2 months. The 6-month progression-free survival rate for trebananib plus bevacizumab was 24.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.1%-38.8%); whereas the median overall survival was 9.5 months (95% CI, 7.5-4.7 months), and the 12-month overall survival rate was 37.8% (95% CI, 22.6%-53.0%). Baseline and post-treatment changes in circulating vascular VEGF and interleukin-8 levels were correlated with survival among patients who received trebananib plus bevacizumab.

Conclusions: Angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2 inhibition with trebananib was ineffective as monotherapy and did not enhance the ability of VEGF blockade with bevacizumab to improve the outcomes of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Cancer 2018;124:1438-48. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31172DOI Listing
April 2018

A randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of armodafinil for fatigue in patients with gliomas undergoing radiotherapy.

Neuro Oncol 2016 06 21;18(6):849-54. Epub 2016 Feb 21.

Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (E.Q.L., D.A.R., A.D.N., L.N., M.L.R., B.M.A., N.D.A., L.D., J.S., D.L., S.F.R., J.P., K.H.S., S.C.G., S.H., P.Y.W.); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (E.Q.L., E.T.W., D.A.R., A.D.N., L.N., M.L.R., B.M.A., N.D.A., P.Y.W.); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (A.M.); University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (J.D.); University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (S.K.); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (E.T.W.); Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (C.E.F.); Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire (C.E.F.).

Background: Fatigue is common among glioma patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) and impacts quality of life (QOL). We evaluated whether armodafinil, a wakefulness-promoting medication, improves fatigue in glioma patients undergoing RT.

Methods: Eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, Karnofsky performance status ≥60, and grade 2-4 glioma undergoing RT to a total dose of 50-60 Gy. Patients were randomized 1:1 to armodafinil or placebo for 8 weeks beginning within 10 days of starting RT. Fatigue and QOL were assessed at baseline, day 22, day 43, and day 56 with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue (FACIT-F), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - General (FACT-G), the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS). The primary aim was to detect a difference in the 42-day change in FACIT-F fatigue subscale between the 2 groups using a 2-sample Wilcoxon statistic.

Results: We enrolled 81 patients total (42 armodafinil and 39 placebo). Armodafinil did not significantly improve fatigue or QOL based on the 42-day change in FACIT-F fatigue subscale, FACT-G, CFS, or BFI. Further analysis suggests no difference between the arms even after accounting for the potential bias of missing data. Treatment was well tolerated with few grade 3 or 4 toxicities.

Conclusions: While treatment was well-tolerated, an 8-week course of armodafinil did not improve fatigue or QOL in glioma patients undergoing RT in this pilot study. Further studies are needed to determine whether pharmacologic treatment improves fatigue in glioma patients undergoing RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/now007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864265PMC
June 2016

Phase II study of panobinostat in combination with bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma.

Neuro Oncol 2015 Jun 7;17(6):862-7. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (E.Q.L., D.A.R., A.D.N., L.N., R.B., M.L.R., K.H., C.M., K.H.S., S.C.G., B.W., K.L.L., P.Y.W.); University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (D.S.); University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (J.D.); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (A.S.C., T,T.B., A.M.); Central DuPage Hospital, Warrenville, Illinois (S.A.G.); Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (J.J.R.).

Background: Panobinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with antineoplastic and antiangiogenic effects in glioma that may work synergistically with bevacizumab. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial of panobinostat combined with bevacizumab in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG).

Methods: Patients with recurrent HGG were treated with oral panobinostat 30 mg 3 times per week, every other week, in combination with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every other week. The primary endpoint was a 6-month progression-fee survival (PFS6) rate for participants with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG) were evaluated as an exploratory arm of the study.

Results: At interim analysis, the GBM arm did not meet criteria for continued accrual, and the GBM arm was closed. A total of 24 patients with GBM were accrued prior to closure. The PFS6 rate was 30.4% (95%, CI 12.4%-50.7%), median PFS was 5 months (range, 3-9 months), and median overall survival (OS) was 9 months (range, 6-19 months). Accrual in the AG arm continued to completion, and a total of 15 patients were enrolled. The PFS6 rate was 46.7% (range, 21%-73%), median PFS was 7 months (range, 2-10 months), and median OS was 17 months (range, 5 months-27 months).

Conclusions: This phase II study of panobinostat and bevacizumab in participants with recurrent GBM did not meet criteria for continued accrual, and the GBM cohort of the study was closed. Although it was reasonably well tolerated, the addition of panobinostat to bevacizumab did not significantly improve PFS6 compared with historical controls of bevacizumab monotherapy in either cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4483124PMC
June 2015

Phase II study of monthly pasireotide LAR (SOM230C) for recurrent or progressive meningioma.

Neurology 2015 Jan 19;84(3):280-6. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

From the Division of Cancer Neurology, Department of Neurology (A.D.N., E.Q.L., P.Y.W.), and Departments of Pathology (K.L.L.) and Medicine (R.B.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Center for Neuro-Oncology (A.D.N., S.N.H., D.A.R., R.B., E.Q.L., L.D., D.L., M.G., K.H.S., C.M., P.Y.W.), Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center; Department of Medicine (R.B.), Harvard Medical School (A.D.N., K.L.L., D.A.R., T.T.B., S.R.P., E.T.W., R.B., E.Q.L., P.Y.W.), Boston; Department of Medical Oncology, Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology (K.L.L., S.H.), and Departments of Medical Oncology and Cancer Biology (R.B.), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston; Massachusetts General Hospital Biostatistics Center (A.M.); Brain Tumor Center (T.J.K.), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Pappas Center for Neuro-Oncology (T.T.B., S.R.P.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology (J.J.R.), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; Brain Tumor Center (E.T.W.), Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston; Adult Neuro-Oncology Program (J.D.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; Comprehensive Cancer Center (G.J.L.), Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC; and Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology (S.P.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Objective: A subset of meningiomas recur after surgery and radiation therapy, but no medical therapy for recurrent meningioma has proven effective.

Methods: Pasireotide LAR is a long-acting somatostatin analog that may inhibit meningioma growth. This was a phase II trial in patients with histologically confirmed recurrent or progressive meningioma designed to evaluate whether pasireotide LAR prolongs progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS6). Patients were stratified by histology (atypical [World Health Organization grade 2] and malignant [grade 3] meningiomas in cohort A and benign [grade 3] in cohort B).

Results: Eighteen patients were accrued in cohort A and 16 in cohort B. Cohort A had median age 59 years, median Karnofsky performance status 80, 17 (94%) had previous radiation therapy, and 11 (61%) showed high octreotide uptake. Cohort B had median age 52 years, median Karnofsky performance status 90, 11 (69%) had previous radiation therapy, and 12 (75%) showed high octreotide uptake. There were no radiographic responses to pasireotide LAR therapy in either cohort. Twelve patients (67%) in cohort A and 13 (81%) in cohort B achieved stable disease. In cohort A, PFS6 was 17% and median PFS 15 weeks (95% confidence interval: 8-20). In cohort B, PFS6 was 50% and median PFS 26 weeks (12-43). Treatment was well tolerated. Octreotide uptake and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels did not predict outcome. Expression of somatostatin receptor 3 predicted favorable PFS and overall survival.

Conclusions: Pasireotide LAR has limited activity in recurrent meningiomas. The finding that somatostatin receptor 3 is associated with favorable outcomes warrants further investigation.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with recurrent or progressive meningioma, pasireotide LAR does not significantly increase the proportion of patients with PFS at 6 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000001153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335993PMC
January 2015

Phase II trial of triple tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor nintedanib in recurrent high-grade gliomas.

J Neurooncol 2015 Jan 22;121(2):297-302. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Division of Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA, 02115, USA,

Bevacizumab is FDA-approved for patients with recurrent GBM. However, the median duration of response is only 4 months. Potential mechanisms of resistance include upregulated FGF signaling and increased PDGF-mediated pericyte coverage. Nintedanib is an oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of PDGFR α/β, FGFR 1-3, and VEGFR 1-3 that may overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. This was a two-stage phase II trial in adults with first or second recurrence of GBM, stratified by prior bevacizumab therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01380782; 1199.94). The primary endpoint was PFS6 in the bevacizumab-naive arm (Arm A) and PFS3 in the post-bevacizumab arm (Arm B). Up to 10 anaplastic glioma (AG) patients were accrued to each arm in exploratory cohorts. Twenty-two patients enrolled in Arm A and 14 in Arm B. Arm A included 12 GBMs (55 %), 13 patients with one prior regimen (59 %), and median age 54 years (range 28-75). Arm B included 10 GBMs (71 %), one patient with one prior regimen (7 %), and median age 52 years (range 32-70). Median KPS overall was 90 (range 60-100). There were no responses. In Arm A (GBM only), PFS6 was 0 %, median PFS 28 days (95 % CI 27-83), and median OS 6.9 months (3.7-8.1). In Arm B (GBM only), PFS3 was 0 %, median PFS 28 days (22-28), and median OS 2.6 months (1.0-6.9). Among AG patients in each arm, PFS6 was 0 %. Treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, nintedanib is not active against recurrent high-grade glioma, regardless of prior bevacizumab therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-014-1631-yDOI Listing
January 2015