Publications by authors named "Sara de Miguel"

7 Publications

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Global Landscape Review of Serotype-Specific Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Surveillance among Countries Using PCV10/13: The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Public Health Organisation, 15123 Athens, Greece.

Serotype-specific surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is essential for assessing the impact of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13). The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project aimed to evaluate the global evidence to estimate the impact of PCV10/13 by age, product, schedule, and syndrome. Here we systematically characterize and summarize the global landscape of routine serotype-specific IPD surveillance in PCV10/13-using countries and describe the subset that are included in PSERENADE. Of 138 countries using PCV10/13 as of 2018, we identified 109 with IPD surveillance systems, 76 of which met PSERENADE data collection eligibility criteria. PSERENADE received data from most (n = 63, 82.9%), yielding 240,639 post-PCV10/13 introduction IPD cases. Pediatric and adult surveillance was represented from all geographic regions but was limited from lower income and high-burden countries. In PSERENADE, 18 sites evaluated PCV10, 42 PCV13, and 17 both; 17 sites used a 3 + 0 schedule, 38 used 2 + 1, 13 used 3 + 1, and 9 used mixed schedules. With such a sizeable and generally representative dataset, PSERENADE will be able to conduct robust analyses to estimate PCV impact and inform policy at national and global levels regarding adult immunization, schedule, and product choice, including for higher valency PCVs on the horizon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066045PMC
April 2021

Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 03 27;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Children's Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all-site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04-0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04-0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06-0.09) for 5-17 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.08) for 18-49 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.07) for 50-64 years, and 0.05 (0.04-0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066231PMC
March 2021

Nationwide trends of invasive pneumococcal disease in Spain (2009-2019) in children and adults during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Spanish Pneumococcal Reference Laboratory, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has shown a marked reduction in the disease caused by vaccine serotypes in children providing herd protection to the elderly group. However, the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes is of great concern worldwide.

Methods: This study includes national laboratory data from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases affecting pediatric and adult population during 2009-2019. The impact of implementing different vaccine strategies for immunocompetent adults comparing Spanish regions using PCV13 vs regions using PPV23 vaccine was also analyzed for 2017-2019.

Results: The overall reductions of IPD cases by PCV13 serotypes in children and adults were 88% and 59% respectively during 2009-2019 with a constant increase of serotype 8 in adults since 2015. IPD cases by additional serotypes covered by PPV23 increased from 20% in 2009 to 52% in 2019. In children, serotype 24F was the most frequent in 2019 whereas in adults, serotypes 3 and 8 accounted for 36% of IPD cases. Introduction of PCV13 or PPV23 in the adult calendar of certain Spanish regions reduced up to 25% and 11% respectively the IPD cases by PCV13 serotypes, showing a decrease of serotype 3 when PCV13 was used.

Conclusions: Use of PCV13 in children has shown a clear impact in pneumococcal epidemiology reducing the burden of IPD in children but also in adults by herd protection although the increase of serotype 8 in adults is worrisome. Vaccination with PCV13 in immunocompetent adults seems to control IPD cases by PCV13 serotypes including serotype 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1483DOI Listing
September 2020

Evolution of the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated in pleural fluid in the Madrid Autonomous Community between the years 2007-2018.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) 2021 Jan 18;39(1):25-28. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Servicio de Epidemiología, Dirección General de Salud Pública, Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, España.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in isolates from pleural fluid in the Madrid Autonomous Community between the years 2007-2018.

Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease strains isolated during the period 2007-2018 were studied. The frequency of serotypes from pleural fluid was compared with that observed in other samples.

Results: A total of 6,115 pneumococcal invasive isolates were processed. Of them, 182 (3%) were isolated from pleural fluid. A total of 70.9% of isolates belonged to some of the following 6serotypes: 1, 3, 19A, 8, 7F and 5. The serotypes 3 and 8 increased significantly from 9.6% to 30.8%, and from 5.3% to 20.5%, respectively, over the periods 2007-2010 to 2015-2018.

Conclusions: Pneumococcal serotypes 3 and 8 are currently significant causes of infection of pleural fluid in our region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2020.02.021DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical Relevance and Molecular Pathogenesis of the Emerging Serotypes 22F and 33F of in Spain.

Front Microbiol 2020 27;11:309. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

is the main bacterial cause of respiratory infections in children and the elderly worldwide. Serotype replacement is a frequent phenomenon after the introduction of conjugated vaccines, with emerging serotypes 22F and 33F as frequent non-PCV13 serotypes in children and adults in North America and other countries. Characterization of mechanisms involved in evasion of the host immune response by these serotypes is of great importance in public health because they are included in the future conjugated vaccines PCV15 and PCV20. One of the main strategies of to persistently colonize and causes infection is biofilm formation. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of capsule polysaccharide in biofilm formation and immune evasion by using clinical isolates from different sources and isogenic strains with capsules from prevalent serotypes. Since the introduction of PCV13 in Spain in the year 2010, isolates of serotypes 22F and 33F are rising among risk populations. The predominant circulating genotypes are ST433 and ST717 , being CC433 in 22F and CC717 in 33F the main clonal complexes in Spain. The use of clinical isolates of different origin, demonstrated that pediatric isolates of serotypes 22F and 33F formed better biofilms than adult isolates and this was statistically significant. This phenotype was greater in clinical isolates from blood origin compared to those from cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid and otitis. Opsonophagocytosis assays showed that serotype 22F and 33F were recognized by the PSGL-1 receptor on leukocytes, although serotype 22F, was more resistant than serotype 33F to phagocytosis killing and more lethal in a mouse sepsis model. Overall, the emergence of additional PCV15 serotypes, especially 22F, could be associated to an enhanced ability to divert the host immune response that markedly increased in a biofilm state. Our findings demonstrate that pediatric isolates of 22F and 33F, that form better biofilm than isolates from adults, could have an advantage to colonize the nasopharynx of children and therefore, be important in carriage and subsequent dissemination to the elderly. The increased ability of serotype 22F to avoid the host immune response, might explain the emergence of this serotype in the last years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056674PMC
February 2020

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes with meningeal tropism in cases of invasive pneumococcal disease. Community of Madrid, 2007-2018.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) 2020 Oct 5;38(8):371-374. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Servicio de Epidemiología, Dirección General de Salud Pública, Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, España.

Introduction: To describe the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between 2007-2018 in the Community of Madrid (CM) and to identify those with higher meningeal tropism.

Methods: Strains isolated from invasive pneumococcal disease were sent to the Regional Laboratory of Public Health by Microbiology laboratories of public and private hospitals of the CM. The frequency of serotypes from CSF was compared with that observed in other samples.

Results: A total of 6,115 strains were processed and 5% (n=304) were isolated from CSF. Seven serotypes (11A, 19F, 23B, 10A, 24F, 23A and 35F) showed a frequency significantly higher in CSF than in other usually sterile samples. Serotypes 24F, 11A and 23B showed high penicillin-resistance.

Conclusion: The frequency and resistance of certain pneumococcal serotypes with high meningeal tropism could compromise the treatment of central nervous system infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2019.11.002DOI Listing
October 2020

Combination of Antibodies and Antibiotics as a Promising Strategy Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens of the Respiratory Tract.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2700. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

The emergence of clinical isolates associated to multidrug resistance is a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health since complicates the success of the antibiotic treatment and the resolution of the infectious process. This is of great concern in pathogens affecting the lower respiratory tract as these infections are one of the major causes of mortality in children and adults. In most cases where the respiratory pathogen is associated to multidrug-resistance, antimicrobial concentrations both in serum and at the site of infection may be insufficient and the resolution of the infection depends on the interaction of the invading pathogen with the host immune response. The outcome of these infections largely depends on the susceptibility of the pathogen to the antibiotic treatment, although the humoral and cellular immune responses also play an important role in this process. Hence, prophylactic measures or even immunotherapy are alternatives against these multi-resistant pathogens. In this sense, specific antibodies and antibiotics may act concomitantly against the respiratory pathogen. Alteration of cell surface structures by antimicrobial drugs even at sub-inhibitory concentrations might result in greater exposure of microbial ligands that are normally hidden or hardly exposed. This alteration of the bacterial envelope may stimulate opsonization by natural and/or specific antibodies or even by host defense components, increasing the recognition of the microbial pathogen by circulating phagocytes. In this review we will explain the most relevant studies, where vaccination or the use of monoclonal antibodies in combination with antimicrobial treatment has demonstrated to be an alternative strategy to overcome the impact of multidrug resistance in respiratory pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256034PMC
October 2019