Publications by authors named "Sara Tremolada"

10 Publications

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The RESOLUTE consortium: unlocking SLC transporters for drug discovery.

Authors:
Giulio Superti-Furga Daniel Lackner Tabea Wiedmer Alvaro Ingles-Prieto Barbara Barbosa Enrico Girardi Ulrich Goldmann Bettina Gürtl Kristaps Klavins Christoph Klimek Sabrina Lindinger Eva Liñeiro-Retes André C Müller Svenja Onstein Gregor Redinger Daniela Reil Vitaly Sedlyarov Gernot Wolf Matthew Crawford Robert Everley David Hepworth Shenping Liu Stephen Noell Mary Piotrowski Robert Stanton Hui Zhang Salvatore Corallino Andrea Faedo Maria Insidioso Giovanna Maresca Loredana Redaelli Francesca Sassone Lia Scarabottolo Michela Stucchi Paola Tarroni Sara Tremolada Helena Batoulis Andreas Becker Eckhard Bender Yung-Ning Chang Alexander Ehrmann Anke Müller-Fahrnow Vera Pütter Diana Zindel Bradford Hamilton Martin Lenter Diana Santacruz Coralie Viollet Charles Whitehurst Kai Johnsson Philipp Leippe Birgit Baumgarten Lena Chang Yvonne Ibig Martin Pfeifer Jürgen Reinhardt Julian Schönbett Paul Selzer Klaus Seuwen Charles Bettembourg Bruno Biton Jörg Czech Hélène de Foucauld Michel Didier Thomas Licher Vincent Mikol Antje Pommereau Frédéric Puech Veeranagouda Yaligara Aled Edwards Brandon J Bongers Laura H Heitman Ad P IJzerman Huub J Sijben Gerard J P van Westen Justine Grixti Douglas B Kell Farah Mughal Neil Swainston Marina Wright-Muelas Tina Bohstedt Nicola Burgess-Brown Liz Carpenter Katharina Dürr Jesper Hansen Andreea Scacioc Giulia Banci Claire Colas Daniela Digles Gerhard Ecker Barbara Füzi Viktoria Gamsjäger Melanie Grandits Riccardo Martini Florentina Troger Patrick Altermatt Cédric Doucerain Franz Dürrenberger Vania Manolova Anna-Lena Steck Hanna Sundström Maria Wilhelm Claire M Steppan

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 07;19(7):429-430

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00056-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Rare subtypes of BK virus are viable and frequently detected in renal transplant recipients with BK virus-associated nephropathy.

Virology 2010 Sep 15;404(2):312-8. Epub 2010 Jun 15.

Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) occurs in up to 5% of kidney transplants and is a significant cause of graft loss. Four major subtypes of BKV have been described, with the vast majority of individuals persistently infected with BKV Type I (>80% of the population). Sequencing of BKV isolates subcloned from BKVN patients revealed a high percentage of variants in the urine (40%) in the VP1 subtyping region. In vitro analysis of several viral variants revealed that all variants recovered from the urine of BKVN patients produced infectious viral particles and were replication competent in cell culture while some of the variants induced cytopathic changes in infected cells when compared to the major BKV subtype, VP1 Type I. These results suggest that rare BKV VP1 variants are more frequently associated with disease and that some variants could be more cytopathic than others in renal transplant recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2010.05.012DOI Listing
September 2010

Polymorphisms of the BK virus subtypes and their influence on viral in vitro growth efficiency.

Virus Res 2010 May 4;149(2):190-6. Epub 2010 Feb 4.

Department of Public Health - Microbiology - Virology, University of Milan, Via Carlo Pascal 36, 20133 Milan, Italy.

The major capsid protein, VP1, of the human polyomavirus BK (BKV) is structurally divided into five outer loops, referred to as BC, DE, EF, GH, and HI. The BC loop includes a short region, named the BKV subtyping region, spanning nucleotides 1744-1812 and characterized by non-synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms that have been used to classify different strains of BKV into four subtypes. The aim of this study was to determine if the nucleotide changes clustered within the BKV subtyping region may influence the in vitro growth efficiency of the virus. We therefore infected the African Green Monkey kidney cell line Vero with four different viral strains (named BKV I, II, III, and IV) that contained the nucleotide sequences of the BKV subtypes within the same genomic background. Infected cells were followed for 59 days and viral replication was assessed at different time points by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). BKV I, II, and IV were successfully propagated over time in Vero cells, whereas BKV III viral loads progressively decreased during the infection course, demonstrating that the non-synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of subtype III confer a strong disadvantage for viral replication. Since subtype III differs from all the other subtypes at position 68 of the VP1, where Leu is replaced by Gln, we created viral strains bearing Gln at this position together with the polymorphisms of subtypes I, II, IV and tested their growth in Vero cells. Our results demonstrate that this amino acid substitution does not lower the replication efficiency of subtypes I, II, and IV. In conclusion, this study provides further insights to the importance of the BC loop of BKV in the virus life cycle. In addition, given the effect of the amino acid substitutions of the four BKV subtypes on infectious spread of the virus, our results suggest the need to investigate their potential association with BKV related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2010.01.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873212PMC
May 2010

Lymphotropic polyomavirus is detected in peripheral blood from immunocompromised and healthy subjects.

J Clin Virol 2010 Feb 29;47(2):156-60. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

Department of Public Health, Microbiology, Virology, University of Milan, Via Carlo Pascal 36, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Background: Lymphotropic Polyomavirus (LPV) was isolated from a B-lymphoblastoid cell line of an African green monkey. This virus shares some characteristics with human polyomaviruses, but it is antigenically distinct from BK Virus (BKV) and JC Virus (JCV). Seroepidemiological studies revealed that human sera react in the presence of LPV antigens, and, recently, the viral genome was amplified in the peripheral blood from patients affected with HIV-related leukoencephalopathies.

Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate and compare the presence of LPV DNA with that of JCV and BKV in different biological samples and patient groups.

Study Design: LPV, JCV and BKV DNA were searched and quantified in peripheral blood and CSF from HIV+ patients and in peripheral blood from healthy subjects.

Results: The LPV genome was detected in peripheral blood of both HIV+ patients and healthy subjects, with a prevalence of 7.2% and 4.7% respectively, but not in CSF. However, its presence was less frequent than that of JCV and BKV.

Conclusions: The amplification of LPV genome from human peripheral blood confirms the fact that LPV can infect the human population. LPV DNA was amplified from patients affected with HIV-related leukoencephalopathies but also from HIV patients without neurological disorders and from healthy subjects. Therefore, the results do not support the hypothesis of an association between LPV infection and any neurological disease. However, given their high similarity, it is possible that LPV, as well as BKV and JCV, could establish latency in humans and cause disease only in rare circumstances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2009.11.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818589PMC
February 2010

Mutations in the external loops of BK virus VP1 and urine viral load in renal transplant recipients.

J Cell Physiol 2010 Jan;222(1):195-9

Department of Public Health-Microbiology-Virology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) is a major complication that occurs after renal transplantation and is induced by reactivation of the human polyomavirus BK (BKV). The structure of the viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) is characterized by the presence of external loops, BC, DE, EF, GH, and HI, which are involved in receptor binding. The pathogenesis of PVAN is not well understood, but viral risk factors are thought to play a crucial role in the onset of this pathology. In an attempt to better understand PVAN pathogenesis, the BKV-VP1 coding region was amplified, cloned, and sequenced from the urine of kidney transplant recipients who did, and did not, develop the pathology. Urine viral loads were determined by using real time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). Amino acid substitutions were detected in 6/8 patients, and 6/7 controls. The BC and EF loop regions were most frequently affected by mutations, while no mutations were found within the GH and HI loops of both patients and controls. Some mutations, that were exclusively detected in the urine of PVAN patients, overlapped with previously reported mutations, although a correlation between changes in amino acids and the development of PVAN was not found. Urine viral loads were higher than that of the proposed cut-off loads for identification of patients that are at a high risk of developing PVAN (10(7) copies/ml), both in the PVAN and control groups, thus confirming that urine viral load is not a useful predictive marker for the development of PVAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.21937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2783606PMC
January 2010

JC virus VP1 loop-specific polymorphisms are associated with favorable prognosis for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

J Neurovirol 2009 Jan 27;15(1):51-6. Epub 2008 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease that mainly affects immunocompromised subjects. Since its discovery, PML has been considered a rapidly progressing fatal disease; however, amino acid substitutions in the capsid viral protein have recently been tentatively associated with changes in PML clinical course. In order to provide more insight to PML pathogenesis and identify potential prognostic markers, seven cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and four brain autopsy samples were collected from patients afflicted with PML with different clinical courses (fast- and slow-progressing), and the JCV VP1 coding region was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, urine samples were collected and analyzed from nine patients with PML or other neurological diseases (ONDs) as a control group. Sequencing analysis of the genomic region encoding the VP1 outer loops revealed polymorphic residues restricted to four positions (74, 75, 117, and 128) in patients with slow PML progression, whereas no significant mutation was found in JCV isolated from urine. Collectively, these data show that JCV VP1 loop mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis for PML. It is therefore possible that slower progression of PML may be related to the emergence of a less virulent JCV strain with a lower replication rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13550280802425467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2678919PMC
January 2009

Presence and expression of JCV early gene large T Antigen in the brains of immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

J Med Virol 2008 Dec;80(12):2147-52

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

JC virus (JCV) is a polyomavirus that asymptomatically infects up to 80% of the worldwide human population and establishes latency in the kidney. In the case of host immunodeficiency, it can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In an attempt to understand better PML pathogenesis and JCV infection, the presence of the JCV genome and expression of the early viral protein in the brain of deceased individuals, with and without HIV infection, was investigated. Sixty autopsy samples of brain tissues were collected from 15 HIV-positive PML patients, 15 HIV-positive patients with other neurological diseases, 15 HIV-positive patients without neurological disorders, and 15 HIV-negative individuals who died from diseases unrelated to the central nervous system. By means of specific Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, the JCV genome was detected in 14 of 15 PML brains, three of 15 HIV-positive brains (with and without neurological diseases), and 1 of 15 HIV-negative brains. JCV genotyping was also performed. Expression of the early JCV protein T Antigen was verified by a specific immunohistochemistry assay, and it was found in the brain tissues from 12 PML cases and one case with other neurological disease. The data obtained demonstrate that infection of the brain with JCV can also be observed in the brains of HIV-negative individuals, without neurological disorders. However, viral protein expression was limited to PML brains and to one brain from a patient with other neurological disease, suggesting that JCV can also be present in the brains of patients without PML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597165PMC
December 2008

Application of molecular tools for the diagnosis of central nervous system infections.

Neurol Sci 2008 Sep;29 Suppl 2:S283-5

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Many infectious agents can cause central nervous system (CNS) diseases in humans. Since microbial agents infecting CNS are numerous and have different features, conventional laboratory tests may not be sensitive enough to identify and characterise viruses and bacteria in human biological specimens. Thus, the need to define methods for the diagnosis of infectious neurological diseases, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is urgent, in order to improve the outcome of the diseases with rapid and accurate detection of the pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-008-0965-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562239PMC
September 2008

A family based linkage analysis of HLA and 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphisms in Sardinian children with autism spectrum disorder.

Hum Immunol 2006 Jan-Feb;67(1-2):108-17. Epub 2006 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotechnologies, Don C. Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS, S. Maria Nascente, Milan, Italy.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a broad range in clinical presentation. Although a definite genetic cause has not yet been fully demonstrated, family based studies suggest that a multigenic pattern may be responsible for susceptibility, but most results are conflicting and have yet to be replicated. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the linkage of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and the human serotonin transporter coding (5-HTTLPR) genes with ASD in a group of 37 families of Sardinian ethnicity in insular Italy. In 50% of these families, ASD is linked to HLA, and in the other 50% it is linked to 5-HTTLPR polymorphic genes; in other words, linkage to one or the other was evident in all cases. Despite a very homogenous genetic pattern being generally reported for Sardinians, the linkage observed with HLA and 5-HTTLPR genetic regions indicated a statistically defined heterogeneity (p=0.002). No allelic HLA or 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms were specifically associated with ASD, suggesting these loci as markers of other genes mapped in their close proximity that may be more directly involved and thus may merit further analytical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2006.02.033DOI Listing
August 2006