Publications by authors named "Sara M Abdelhakam"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Real-world results of direct-acting antivirals use for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in old patients.

Eur Geriatr Med 2019 Apr 24;10(2):295-302. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Old people with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) were considered a difficult-to-treat category with more frequent adverse events until recently. Interferon-free direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) improved treatment adherence and quality of life of old patients. In this study, we aimed at reporting the real-world efficacy and safety of DAAs, in addition to predictors of sustained virological response (SVR) in old chronic HCV population.

Methods: This is a prospective observational intention-to-treat analysis that included old chronic hepatitis C genotype-4 patients (> 65 years) treated in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment center in Egypt. Treatment regimens were allocated according to national guidelines for treatment of hepatitis C. Primary outcome was undetectable HCV-RNA at 12-week post-treatment by PCR. Secondary outcomes were identification of predictors of SVR and assessment of safety related issues.

Results: Our study included 864 patients (64% females) with mean age of 67.7 ± 2.8 years. Overall SVR rate was 98.9% while SVR rates for sofosbuvir/daclatasvir/ribavirin, paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/ribavirin, sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir/ribavirin, sofosbuvir/simeprevir/daclatasvir/ribavirin, sofosbuvir/simeprevir, interferon/sofosbuvir/ribavirin and sofosbuvir/ribavirin were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 99.3%, 98% and 94.2%, respectively. DAAs were well tolerated. None of the patients discontinued the treatment due to adverse effects. Higher albumin, higher platelet count, lower bilirubin and lower stage of fibrosis were among predictors of favourable response.

Conclusion: Different DAAs regimens were safe and effective in old Egyptian patients with chronic HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41999-019-00167-3DOI Listing
April 2019

Pattern of Vascular Involvement in Egyptian Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Relation to Etiology and Impact on Clinical Presentation.

Ann Hepatol 2018 July - August ,;17(4):638-644

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Abbasia, Egypt.

Introduction And Aim: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This work aims to analyze the pattern of vascular involvement in Egyptian patients with BCS, demonstrates its relation to etiology and shows its impact on clinical presentation.

Material And Methods: The current retrospective study was conducted at The Tropical Medicine Department, Ain Shams University on one hundred Egyptian patients with confirmed diagnosis of primary BCS who were presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group (BCSG) from April 2014 to May 2016 by collecting clinical, laboratory and radiological data from their medical records.

Results: Isolated hepatic vein occlusion (HVO) was the most common pattern of vascular involvement (43%), followed by combined HVO and inferior vena cava (IVC) compression by enlarged caudate lobe (32%), then combined HVO and IVC stenosis/webs (21%), and lastly isolated IVC occlusion (4%). Ascites was more significantly encountered in BCS patients with HVO than in those with isolated inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion and patent HVs (P = 0.005). Abdominal pain was significantly encountered in patients with occluded three major HVs (P = 0.044). Behcet's disease was significantly detected in isolated IVC occlusion. Protein C deficiency was significantly detected in patients with combined HVO and IVC compression.

Conclusion: Isolated HVs occlusion was the most common pattern of vascular involvement in Egyptian patients with primary BCS. Vascular pattern of involvement affected the clinical presentation and was related to the underlying thrombophilia in those patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0012.0933DOI Listing
April 2019

Bacterial infections post-living-donor liver transplantation in Egyptian hepatitis C virus-cirrhotic patients: A single-center study.

World J Hepatol 2017 Jul;9(20):896-904

Mohamed F Montasser, Nadia A Abdelkader, Sara M Abdelhakam, Hany Dabbous, Iman F Montasser, Yasmine M Massoud, Waleed Abdelmoaty, Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To determine risk factors, causative organisms and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial infections following living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in cirrhotic patients.

Methods: This prospective study included 45 patients with hepatitis C virus-related end-stage liver disease who underwent LDLT at Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant, Cairo, Egypt from January 2014 to November 2015. Patients were followed-up for the first 3 mo after LDLT for detection of bacterial infections. All patients were examined for the possible risk factors suggestive of acquiring infection pre-, intra- and post-operatively. Positive cultures based on clinical suspicion and patterns of antimicrobial resistance were identified.

Results: Thirty-three patients (73.3%) suffered from bacterial infections; 21 of them had a single infection episode, and 12 had repeated infection episodes. Bile was the most common site for both single and repeated episodes of infection (28.6% and 27.8%, respectively). The most common isolated organisms were gram-negative bacteria. was the most common organism isolated from both single and repeated infection episodes (19% and 33.3%, respectively), followed by for repeated infections (11.1%), and for single infections (19%). Levofloxacin showed high sensitivity against repeated infection episodes ( = 0.03). , and were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Pre-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and duration of drain insertion (in days) were independent risk factors for the occurrence of repeated infection episodes ( = 0.024).

Conclusion: MDR gram-negative bacterial infections are common post-LDLT. Pre-transplant HCC and duration of drain insertion were independent risk factors for the occurrence of repeated infection episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v9.i20.896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5534364PMC
July 2017

Annexin A2 as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients.

World J Hepatol 2017 Mar;9(9):469-476

Mohamed K Shaker, Iman F Montasser, Sara M Abdelhakam, Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To investigate the clinical utility of serum annexin A2 (ANXA2) as a diagnostic marker for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: This study was performed in HCC Clinic of Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt and included: Group 1: Fifty patients with early stage HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A); Group 2: Twenty five patients with chronic liver disease; and Control Group: Fifteen healthy, age- and sex-matched subjects who were seronegative for viral hepatitis markers. The following laboratory investigations were done: Viral hepatitis markers [hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies], HCV RNA in HCV antibody-positive patients, serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and serum ANXA2 levels.

Results: In this study, 88% of HCC patients ( = 44) were HCV-positive, while HBV infection represented only 8% of all HCC patients ( = 4); and two patients were negative for both viral markers. A highly significant difference was found between patients with HCC and chronic liver disease as well as controls with regard to serum ANXA2 levels (130, IQR 15-240; 15, IQR 15-17; and 17, IQR 15-30 ng/mL, respectively). The area under the curve of ANXA2 was 0.865; the cut-off value was established to be 18 ng/mL with a diagnostic sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 88%, while the sensitivity and specificity of AFP at the cut-off value of 200 ng/dL were 20% and 100%, respectively.

Conclusion: Serum ANXA2 may serve as a biomarker for the early detection of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v9.i9.469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368624PMC
March 2017

Validation of prognostic indices in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients: A single-center study.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 Jan;23(4):629-637

Mohammad Sakr, Sara M Abdelhakam, Soheir A Elsayed, Enas H Allam, Amir M Farid, Waleed Abdelmoaty, Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To compare predictive ability of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) prognostic indices (PIs) for one-year survival and Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 194 Egyptian patients with primary BCS who presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group of Ain Shams University Hospital. Calculation of the available PIs was performed using Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores, BCS-specific PIs (Clichy, New Clichy and Rotterdam) for all patients, and BCS-TIPS PI only for patients who underwent TIPS. The overall one-year survival rate and the one-year shunt patency rate for TIPS were reported.

Results: The overall one-year survival rate was 69.6%, and the New Clichy PI revealed the best validity for its prediction at a cut-off value of 3.75, with sensitivity and specificity of 78% and 73.3%, respectively [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.806]. The one-year survival rate post-TIPS was 89.7%, and the BCS-TIPS score demonstrated validity for its prediction at a cut-off value of 3.92 (sensitivity and specificity were 71.4% and 64.5%, respectively) (AUC = 0.715). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the New Clichy PI ( = 0.030), high serum total bilirubin ( = 0.047) and low albumin ( < 0.001) were independent factors for predicting mortality within one year. The one-year shunt patency rate in TIPS was 80.2%, and none of the PIs exhibited significant validity for its prediction.

Conclusion: The New Clichy score could independently predict the one-year survival in Egyptian BCS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i4.629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5292336PMC
January 2017

Reversibility of minimal hepatic encephalopathy following liver transplantation in Egyptian cirrhotic patients.

World J Hepatol 2016 Oct;8(30):1279-1286

Mahmoud A Osman, Moataz M Sayed, Khaled A Mansour, Shereen A Saleh, Wesam A Ibrahim, Wael A Yousry, Hosam S Elbaz, Reginia N Mikhail, Department of Internal Medicine, Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To evaluate the reversibility of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) following liver transplantation (LT) in Egyptian cirrhotic patients.

Methods: This prospective study included twenty patients with biopsy-proven liver cirrhosis listed for LT and twenty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. All underwent neuro-psychiatric examination, laboratory investigations, radiological studies and psychometric tests including trail making test A (TMT A), TMT B, digit symbol test and serial dotting test. The psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) was calculated for patients to diagnose MHE. Psychometric tests were repeated six months following LT in the cirrhotic patient group.

Results: Before LT, psychometric tests showed highly significant deficits in cirrhotic patients in comparison to controls ( < 0.001). There was a statistically significant improvement in test values in the patient group after LT; however, their values were still significantly worse than those of the controls ( < 0.001). The PHES detected MHE in 16 patients (80%) before LT with a median value of -7 ± 3.5. The median PHES value was significantly improved following LT, reaching -4.5 ± 5 ( < 0.001), and the number of patients with MHE decreased to 11 (55%). The pre-transplant model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥ 15 was significantly related to the presence of post-transplant MHE ( = 0.005). More patients in whom reversal of MHE was observed had a pre-transplant MELD score < 15.

Conclusion: Reversal of MHE in cirrhotic patients could be achieved by LT, especially in those with a MELD score < 15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v8.i30.1279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084057PMC
October 2016

Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients with primary Budd-Chiari syndrome.

Liver Int 2017 03 13;37(3):415-422. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background & Aim: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This work aimed at analyzing characteristics and factors associated with development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with primary BCS.

Methods: A total of 348 Egyptian BCS patients were included. They were presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group of Ain Shams University Hospital. BCS was confirmed using abdominal Doppler US. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR venography and/or multislice computed tomography (CT) were performed to confirm all diagnoses and to assess vascular anatomy. Hepatic focal lesions detected during the study period (2005-2011) were evaluated using serum alpha foetoprotein (AFP) level, imaging features and histopathological examination.

Results: Diagnosis of HCC was confirmed in 15/348 patients (4.3%). Imaging studies showed that 60% had multiple hepatic focal lesions ranging from 2 to 6.3 cm in size. The median level of serum AFP in BCS with HCC was 300 ng/mL vs 11 ng/mL in those without HCC (P<.001). A cut-off level >24.5 ng/mL for serum AFP showed sensitivity 80%, specificity 97.9%, positive predictive value 93.18% and negative predictive value 99.1% for detection of HCC in BCS patients. Male gender, older age, cigarette smoking, serum AFP (>24.5 ng/mL) and shrunken liver by ultrasonography were independent factors associated with HCC development.

Conclusion: Male gender, older age and cigarette smoking are independent risk factors for development of HCC in BCS. Serum AFP is a good screening test in BCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13219DOI Listing
March 2017

The prevalence of coeliac disease in patients fulfilling Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2016 Jun 24;17(2):73-7. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Study Aim: The clinical presentation of coeliac disease can vary from a classical malabsorption syndrome to more subtle atypical gastrointestinal manifestations similar to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease in Egyptian patients with clinically diagnosed diarrhoea-predominant IBS (according to Rome III criteria).

Patients And Methods: This study was conducted on 100 patients with clinically diagnosed diarrhoea-predominant IBS (fulfilling Rome III criteria). They were subjected to complete clinical evaluation, routine laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasonography and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG) test as a predictor marker for coeliac disease. All patients who tested positive for serum anti-tTG underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with four to eight biopsy samples collected from the second part of the duodenum.

Results: All of the studied 100 patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort, flatulence and diarrhoea. Eight patients (8%) exhibited high levels of serum anti-tTG, and their duodenal biopsy samples satisfied the histopathological criteria of coeliac disease. The studied patients were divided into two groups: Group I comprising 92 patients with IBS and negative anti-tTG results and Group II comprising eight patients with IBS and positive anti-tTG results. A non-significant difference was noted between the two groups in age, gender and duration of abdominal pain (p>0.05). The haemoglobin level was found to be significantly reduced in anti-tTG-positive patients (p<0.01), as was the Na level in anti-tTG-negative patients (p<0.05). A highly statistically significant inverse correlation was noted between anti-tTG and both serum total protein and serum albumin.

Conclusion: Some symptoms overlap between coeliac disease and IBS. A lack of awareness may lead to a diagnostic delay in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2016.05.003DOI Listing
June 2016

N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate and hypertonic glucose with 72% chromated glycerin in gastric varices.

World J Gastrointest Endosc 2015 Apr;7(4):411-6

Reda Elwakil, Mohamed Fawzy Montasser, Sara M Abdelhakam, Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11341, Egypt.

Aim: To compare n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate and a mixture of 72% chromated glycerin with hypertonic glucose solution in management of gastric varices.

Methods: Ninety patients with gastric varices presented to Endoscopy Unit of Ain Shams University Hospital were included. They were randomly allocated into three groups; each group included 30 patients treated with intravariceal sclerosant injections in biweekly sessions till complete obturation of gastric varices; Group I (n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Histoacryl(®)), Group II (iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Amcrylate(®)) and Group III (mixture of 72% chromated glycerin; Scleremo(®) with glucose solution 25%). All the procedures were performed electively without active bleeding. Recruited patients were followed up for 3 mo.

Results: 26% of Scleremo group had bleeding during puncture vs 3.3% in each of the other two groups with significant difference, (P < 0.05). None of Scleremo group had needle obstruction vs 13.3% in each of the other two groups with no significant difference, (P > 0.05). Rebleeding occurred in 13.3% of Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups vs 0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. The in hospital mortality was 6.6% in both Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups, while it was 0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. In the first and second sessions, the amount of Scleremo needed for obturation was significantly high, while the amount of Histoacryl was significantly low. Scleremo was the less costly of the two treatments.

Conclusion: All used sclerosant substances showed efficacy and success in management of gastric varices with no significant differences except in total amount, cost and bleeding during puncture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v7.i4.411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4400631PMC
April 2015

Factor V G1691A (Leiden) is a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.

Turk J Haematol 2011 Dec;28(4):299-305

Medical Genetics Center, 27A Baghdad Street, Korba, 11341 Cairo, Egypt, Phone: +202 241 51 999 E-mail:

Objective: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a multifactorial disease in which several prothrombotic disorders may predispose patients to the development of thrombosis at this uncommon location (hepatic veins). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inherited thrombophilia in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.

Methods: The study included 47 Budd-Chiari syndrome patients (20 children and 27 adults). Genotyping of Factor V G1691A (Leiden), prothrombin G20210A (PT), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were performed using real-time PCR and fluorescence melting curve detection analysis.

Results: Factor V Leiden was observed in 29 patients (61.7%). It is the only factor that caused Budd-Chiari syndrome in 18 of the patients and in 5 of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement. Myeloproliferative disease was noted in 12 (25.5%) patients, antiphospholipid syndrome in 5 (10.6%), and Behcet's disease in 3 (6.4%). Interestingly, 3 of the children with Budd-Chiari syndrome had lipid storage disease.

Conclusion: Factor V Leiden was a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients, which may have been related to the high frequency of this mutation in the study region. Factor V Leiden was also a strong thrombophilic factor and the leading cause of inferior vena cava thrombosis in these patients. Lipid storage disease should be included as a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tjh.2011.84DOI Listing
December 2011

Causes and outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Emergency Endoscopy Unit of Ain Shams University Hospital.

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2011 Aug;41(2):455-67

Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt.

This prospective follow-up study was designed to analyze the causes and outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients presenting by hematemesis and/or melena to Emergency Endoscopy Unit, Ain Shams University Hospitals. One thousand patients presented by upper GIT bleeding were subjected to complete clinical evaluation, emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and therapeutic interventions as indicated. Follow up was done for occurrence of re-bleeding or mortality. Variceal causes of bleeding were the most common, representing 70.1% followed by non-variceal causes (26.1%) and obscure causes (3.8%). Esophageal varices (EV) alone represented 17.8% of causes of variceal bleeding, while combined esophageal and gastric varices represented 39.5% and isolated gastric varices 12.8%. Gastric lesions were the most common causes of non variceal bleeding. Recurrence of bleeding occurred in 19.4% of variceal group in comparison to 6.1% of non variceal group, while mortality was found in 4.3% of variceal group in comparison to 1.5% of non variceal group with very highly significant difference (P <0.001). Hypertension, ascites, EV columns, EV grade IV, presence of gastric varices and associated respiratory disorder were independent factors associated with recurrence of bleeding in variceal group. In non variceal group, recurrence of bleeding was significantly related only to the presence of gastric ulcers (P=0.035). Independent factors associated with mortality in studied patients were age, associated diabetes, presence of esophageal varices and associated duodenal ulcer.
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August 2011

Clinical spectrum of fever of unknown origin among adult Egyptian patients admitted to Ain Shams University Hospitals: a hospital based study.

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2011 Aug;41(2):379-86

Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt.

This prospective study was designed to analyze the clinical spectrum of fever of unknown origin (FUO) among adult Egyptian patients admitted to Ain Shams University Hospitals during the period from May 2009 till the end of December 2010. All Egyptian patients fulfilling the criteria of FUO admitted during this period were followed up till reaching the diagnosis. 93 patients were included in the study. They were 48 (51.6%) females and 45 (48.4%) males, their ages ranged from 15 to 65 years (34.39 +/- 13.6). Infections were the commonest cause of FUO (41.94%) followed by malignancies (30.11%). While autoimmune diseases represented 15.05% and in 12.9% of patients the diagnosis was not established. Brucellosis and infective endocarditis were the commonest infections, while hematological malignancies were the commonest oncological diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was the commonest auto-immune disease. Brucellosis, infective endocarditis, hematological malignancies and SLE must be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult FUO in Egypt.
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August 2011

Antimicrobial resistant bacteria among health care workers in intensive care units at Ain Shams University Hospitals.

J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2010 Apr;40(1):71-83

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566.

Fifty HCWs in ICUs of Internal medicine, Chest, Neonatology and Burn were included in prospective cohort study. Collection of nasal, hand and rectal swabs, proper biochemical identification, culture media and antibiotic sensitivity tests were used to detect Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) & extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram -ve bacilli (ESBLs). S. aureus was isolated from 34% of HCWs; 28% were nasal carriers, 4% were hand carriers and 2% had S. aureus at both sites. Nasal and hand carriage rates of MRSA were 20% & 4% respectively, with an overall rate of 22%. Gram -ve bacilli were isolated from 8% of HCWs hand swabs & showed Citrobacter koseri, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hand carriage rate of ESBLs was 2%. Hand contamination with gram -ve bacilli and S. aureus was in 14% of HCWs. VRE carriage rate was 9.5%. ESBLs carriage rate in rectal swabs was 21.43%. K. pneumoniae was the most common ESBLs producing isolate (33.3%), followed by E. coli (18.75%). In combined disc method, aztreonam was the most sensitive (90%) in detecting ESBLs. Burn ICU had highest % of MRSA & ESBLs carriage. Neonatal ICU showed highest % of VRE carriage. An insignificant association was between infection control training or antimicrobial intake and carriage of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.
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April 2010
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