Publications by authors named "Sara Kazempour-Ardebili"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Chronic Kidney Disease in a Population-based Study: Tehran Thyroid Study.

Int J Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 17;19(2):e103750. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a rising public health concern that has detrimental effects on cardiovascular health and overall survival. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with poor outcomes in the general population. It is thought to be more prevalent in CKD subjects, and their coexistence may contribute to poor outcomes in these patients. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SCH in CKD.

Methods: Using data from the Tehran thyroid study, which is a prospective population-based cohort study, adult subjects with an estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m or less were selected for studying the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities, as well as other known cardiovascular risk factors.

Results: Of 5,626 subjects recruited, 823 (14.6%) individuals had CKD. Individuals with CKD were older, heavier, had a higher prevalence of diabetes, higher serum thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase anti-body levels, but lower free thyroxine levels. The prevalence of SCH was 7.3% and 5.2% (P < 0.001) in kidney disease and non-kidney disease subjects, respectively. However, there was no difference in the risk of SCH between CKD and non-CKD subjects after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and TPOAb (OR: 1.28; 95%CI, 0.89 - 1.83). None of the metabolic markers compared between the CKD subgroups of those with and without SCH remained statistically significantly different after adjusting for age and gender.

Conclusions: The prevalence of SCH was not higher in CKD after controlling for confounding factors. Besides, CKD subjects with and without SCH had no different metabolic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijem.103750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198616PMC
April 2021

COVID-19 battle during the toughest sanctions against Iran.

Lancet 2020 03 18;395(10229):1035-1036. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Consultant Endocrinologist, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30668-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138170PMC
March 2020

Factors associated with pre-diabetes in Tehranian men and women: A structural equations modeling.

PLoS One 2017 7;12(12):e0188898. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To examine associations of sex-specific related factors with pre-diabetes in Tehranian non-diabetic adults.

Methods: This study has been conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 2008-2010. A total of 5568 (55.4% female) non-diabetic adults, aged ≥20 years, selected from among participants of the TLGS, were recruited for the study. Data on socio-behavioral factors, family history of diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors were included in the hypothesized model to test their direct and indirect associations with pre-diabetes in men and women separately, using structural equation modeling.

Results: Pre-diabetes was diagnosed in 23.6% of participants, with significantly higher prevalence in men compared to women (27.4% and 20.5%, respectively; p<0.001). Body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides (TG) in both sexes and hypertension and high density lipoprotein only in women, were directly associated with pre-diabetes (p<0.05). Poor diet in women was the only behavioral factor directly associated with pre-diabetes (p<0.05). Age in both sexes and education, only in women, were directly associated with pre-diabetes. In both genders, age, marital status, education, employment, poor diet and leisure time physical activity were indirectly associated with pre-diabetes through cardio-metabolic risk factors.

Conclusions: The main modifiable factors directly associated with pre-diabetes were TG in women and BMI in men, which need to be prioritized in health policies for diabetes prevention programs in Tehranian adults. Future research should focus on the gender-specific determinants and underlying mechanisms for TG levels and BMI status among this population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188898PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5720750PMC
December 2017

The Association Between Normal Range TSH and Lipid Profile.

Horm Metab Res 2017 Jun 8;49(6):424-429. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Dyslipidemia in thyroid dysfunction is mostly attributed to thyrotropin (TSH) levels, especially in subclinical disorders, but the exact role of TSH in dyslipidemia has not been explained. A total of 3 020 subjects who remained euthyroid in 3 phases of the Tehran Thyroid study were enrolled and divided according to quartiles of TSH as: Q1 (0.32-1.02), Q2 (1.02-1.53), Q3 (1.53-2.27), and Q4 (2.27-5.06). General Linear model was used to determine whether there was a significant correlation between subjects' lipid profile and quartiles of TSH from 1st to 2nd and from 1st to 3rd phase. Mean TC, LDL-C level and median TG were significantly higher for Q1 in all study phases. All lipid parameters of participants after 6 years (3rd phase study) except LDL-C were significantly varied in different TSH groups. Highest levels of TC, TG and HDL-C were observed in Q4. Thus, irrespective of TC and LDL-C in Q1 and Q4 (participants with the lowest and highest limit of TSH within the normal range), the difference in lipid parameters in middle of normal TSH range was not significant. Normal range TSH levels have a statistically significant effect on lipid profile, but the effect size is not clinically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-110142DOI Listing
June 2017

Metabolic mediators of the impact of general and central adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease and mortality risks in older adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017 Nov 28;17(11):2017-2024. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: To investigate the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio, as well as the mediating factors through which they might exert their risk for cardiovascular disease/coronary heart disease and mortality events in the older Iranian population during a median follow up of 9.5 years.

Methods: The study population included participants, aged ≥65 years, free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio was calculated for a 1-SD change in each anthropometric measure with and without adjustment for hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and hypertension.

Results: During the study follow up, 193 participants developed their first cardiovascular disease event and 183 deaths occurred. No association was found between cardiovascular disease/coronary heart disease and body mass index, even in the confounder-adjusted models. Central adiposity measures showed a significant risk for cardiovascular disease events in the confounder-adjusted model ranging from hazard ratio 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.33) for waist-to-hip ratio to 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.42) for waist-to-height ratio. Adjustment for hypertension alone or in combination with other metabolic mediators attenuated the hazard ratio to null. Although hypercholesterolemia did not show any mediating effect of central adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease/coronary heart disease, hypertension was the most powerful mediator, accounting for 30-45% of the excess risk.

Conclusions: Central rather than general adiposity showed a significant role in determining cardiovascular disease/coronary heart disease risk. The harmful effect of central adiposity was completely attributable to mediators, especially hypertension. Clinical interventions for control of mediators focusing on hypertension should be emphasized. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2017-2024.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13015DOI Listing
November 2017

A Challenging Interaction of Chronic Kidney Disease With Other Metabolic Disorders: Paradoxes in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2016 Sep;10(5):274-281

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Controversial findings are reported on the risk of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are some interactions between CKD and other metabolic disorders including metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity regarding coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes.

Materials And Methods: A total of 2823 men and 3684 women aged 30 years and older, without cardiovascular disease, were followed for 10 years. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of CHD was estimated for those who developed CKD, MS or both by sex and body mass index levels below and above 27 kg/m2. The interaction term of CKD and MS and also CKD-MS components were assessed in the Cox proportional hazard models as well.

Results: Chronic kidney disease without MS, showed a significant effect on CHD only in participants with low body mass index (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 3.31 in the men and hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 6.31 in the women). The joint effect of CKD and MS decreased to one-third of their multiplicative effect in this subgroup, indicating a negative interaction between CKD, MS, and Obesity. The same interaction was observed between CKD and hypertension in both sexes and CKD and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the men.

Conclusions: Our results showed that CKD was an independent risk factor for CHD only in nonobese individuals; however, its risk was wiped out when joined to MS. Following the concept of "obesity paradox," the term of "risk factors paradox" also needs more attention.
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September 2016

Diabetes Dictating Policy: An Editorial Commemorating World Health Day 2016.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2016 10 1;5(10):571-573. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The 21st century is an era of great challenge for humankind; we are combating terrorism, climate change, poverty, human rights issues and last but not least non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The burden of the latter has become so large that it is being recognized by world leaders globally as an area that it is in need of much greater attention. In light of this concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) dedicated this year's World Health Day (held on April 7, 2016) to raising international awareness on diabetes, the fastest growing NCD in the world. This editorial is an account of the macro politics in place for fighting diabetes, both internationally and nationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2016.79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042585PMC
October 2016

Evaluating the effect of knowledge, attitude and practice on self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Acta Diabetol 2016 Dec 13;53(6):1015-1023. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-4763, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease imposing a great economic burden to health systems. As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iran has grown over the past decades, it has become necessary to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of type 2 diabetic patients in our country for policy planning to increase the patients' awareness of diabetes and its complications and, in the long run, decrease costs of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with diabetes and its relationship with self-managing of disease and quality of life.

Methods: This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the knowledge, attitude, self-reported practice, self-care and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients attending diabetes clinic of Torfeh academic hospital in Tehran, Iran, during April to June 2014. The study population comprised of 120 type 2 diabetic patients aged above 30 years receiving anti-diabetic medications visiting Torfeh's outpatient diabetes clinic for follow-up care. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to fill five questionnaires evaluating patients' knowledge, attitude, practice, self-care and HRQoL. Demographic characteristics were recorded at the beginning of the study. Laboratory data were extracted from patients' most recent medical documents. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.

Results: 120 type 2 diabetic patients (86 female and 34 male patients) with mean age of 55.98 ± 9.50 years were evaluated. The mean score of knowledge, attitude, practice, self-care and HRQoL was 67.99 ± 10.38, 73.43 ± 11.84, 64.69 ± 16.63, 58.22 ± 12.24 and -1.13 ± 0.6, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between HbA1c and patients' practice. We did not find any correlation between patients' knowledge, attitude or practice and their HRQoL. There was a significant direct relationship between patients' knowledge with their attitude and practice.

Conclusion: This study observed a good level of knowledge, attitude and practice but a low level of self-care and HRQoL among patients. As knowledge and attitude have a direct relationship with practice and the number of people with diabetes continues to rise, we can help patients improve practice and decrease the burden of diabetes complications and their related expenditures by increasing their knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-016-0905-6DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluating the Effect of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Self-Management in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Dialysis.

J Diabetes Res 2016 10;2016:3730875. Epub 2016 Jul 10.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background. Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common condition with several preventable microvascular complications such as kidney damage. Nephropathy is expensive to manage, especially as hospital dialysis treatment. Improving patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward their condition can achieve better control, delay complications, and improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the KAP and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients on dialysis and variables that affect it. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti academic hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Face-to-face interviews were held to fill five validated questionnaires: three evaluating KAP, one evaluating self-management, and one evaluating quality of life. Result. 117 diabetic patients on hemodialysis (42 females) with mean (SD) age of 68.70 ± 9.26 years were enrolled in the survey. The scores for patient's KAP, self-care, and quality of life were 59.90 ± 11.23, 44.27 ± 8.35, 45.06 ± 12.87, 46.21 ± 10.23, and 26.85 ± 13.23, respectively. There was significant negative correlation between patients' knowledge and attitude with their glycosylated hemoglobin level and their fasting blood sugar. There was significant correlation between patients' knowledge and practice with their self-care activities. Conclusion. The present study suggests that patients' KAP scores have a practical effect upon self-care behavior. This highlights the needs for effective diabetes education programs in developing countries like Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3730875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4958437PMC
June 2017

Change in fasting plasma glucose and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2016 May 23;6(5):e010889. Epub 2016 May 23.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences (RIES), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Objective: To investigate the association between changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a cohort of the Iranian population.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) to investigate the association between change in FPG between baseline examination (1999-2001) and the second visit (2002-2005) with incident T2D.

Participants: A total of 3981 non-diabetic participants aged ≥20 years.

Outcome Measure: T2D was defined if the participant was using antidiabetic drugs or if FPG was ≥7 mmol/L or if the 2 h post-challenge plasma glucose (2-hPCG) was ≥11.1 mmol/L.

Results: During a median follow-up of 6.17 years, after the second examination, 288 new cases of T2D were identified. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis using age as timescale, we presented a simple model including FPG change (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.33) and baseline waist circumference (WC) (HR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.008) with a discriminative power (C-index) of 72%. Furthermore, we showed that the highest quartile of FPG change enhanced the T2D risk to 1.65 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.27) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend=0.004).The independent risk of FPG change resisted further adjustment with 2-hPCG change. Adding the 2-hPCG change only slightly increased the discriminative power of the model including FPG change and baseline value of WC (0.73% vs 0.72%). After the study population had been limited to those with normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance, FPG change remained an independent predictor (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.88).

Conclusions: Two measurements of FPG obtained about 3 years apart can help to identify populations at risk of incident T2D independently of important traditional risk factors and their changes, including 2-hPCG change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885425PMC
May 2016

Incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic and diastolic hypertension: a 10 year follow-up of the Tehran Lipids and Glucose Study.

Blood Press 2016 Jun 8;25(3):177-83. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

a Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran ;

The objective of this study is to examine the incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in a Middle Eastern population, during a median follow-up of 9.6 years. In total, 8573 subjects without hypertension, cardiovascular disease and known diabetes were recruited into the study. To calculate the incidence of ISH, those with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg during follow-up, and for calculating IDH those with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg during follow-up, were excluded. During follow-up, 235 new cases of ISH were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 5.7/1000 person-years; the corresponding values for IDH were 470 and 10.9/1000 person-years. Using backward stepwise Cox regression analysis, older age, baseline SBP and body mass index were related to incident ISH. Regarding IDH, younger age, baseline DBP and waist circumference were associated with higher risk, whereas female gender and being married were associated with lower risk (all p < 0.05). The C-statistics for the prediction model were 0.91 for ISH and 0.76 for IDH. In conclusion, after a decade of follow-up of this Iranian population, we found an incidence of about 0.5% and 1% per year for ISH and IDH, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08037051.2015.1116221DOI Listing
June 2016

Diabetes knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study among Iranian in-patients with type-2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2016 Jan-Mar;10(1 Suppl 1):S114-9. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Students' Research Committee, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: Recent studies highlight barriers of diabetes educational programs in Iran and also present some successful experiences carried out for improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of type-2 diabetic patients. Hence, evaluation of patients' KAP seems to be needed. We designed a multicenter study evaluating level of KAP in type-2 diabetic patients in the capital city of Tehran and identifying variables that affect this KAP level.

Methods: This multicenter analytical cross-sectional study was approved by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee. Questionnaires were designed for evaluation of diabetes-related KAP in patients. After validating the questionnaires by endocrinologists, test-retest method was used for questionnaire reliability by checking in 15 diabetic patients. Two hundred type-2 diabetic patients admitted to 4 hospitals of Tehran filled out the questionnaires. Using SPSS software, the level of KAP and its confounders were evaluated in patients.

Results: Two hundred type-2 diabetic patients with the mean age of 60.17 years were evaluated (106 male and 94 female). The mean diabetes duration was 13.06 years. The levels of patients' good knowledge, attitude, and practice were 61.41%, 50.44% and 52.23%, respectively. Age, treatment methods, DM duration, and existence of diabetic retinopathy had significant correlations with KAP level.

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that recent educational programs in Iran improved KAP level. Patients' KAP increases as their condition worsens/progresses. Hence education should be considered as a priority for newly diagnosed patients and those with lower KAP levels before occurrence of diabetes complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2015.10.006DOI Listing
January 2017

Assessing glycemic control in maintenance hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2009 Jul 5;32(7):1137-42. Epub 2009 Feb 5.

Department of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK.

Objective: Optimizing glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis requires accurate assessment. We hypothesize that 1) 48-h continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides additional, clinically relevant, information to that provided by the A1C measurement and 2) glycemic profiles differ significantly between day on and day off dialysis.

Research Design And Methods: With the use of GlucoDay S, 48-h CGM was performed in 19 type 2 diabetic subjects undergoing hemodialysis to capture consecutive 24-h periods on and off dialysis. Energy intake was calculated using food diaries. A1C was assayed by a high-performance liquid chromatography method.

Results: CGM data were available for 17 subjects (13 male) with a mean (range) age of 61.5 years (42-79 years) and diabetes duration of 18.8 years (4-30 years). The 24-h CGM area under the glucose curve and 24-h mean glucose values were significantly higher during the day off dialysis than on dialysis (5,932.1 +/- 2,673.6 vs. 4,694 +/- 1,988.0 mmol x 3 min(-1) x l(-1), P = 0.022, and 12.6 +/- 5.6 vs. 9.8 +/- 3.8 mmol/l, P = 0.013, respectively), independent of energy intake. Asymptomatic hypoglycemia occurred in 4 subjects, 3 within 24 h of dialysis, and the glucose nadir in 14 subjects occurred within 24 h of dialysis.

Conclusions: Glucose values are significantly lower on dialysis days than on nondialysis days despite similar energy intake. The risk of asymptomatic hypoglycemia was highest within 24 h of dialysis. Physicians caring for patients undergoing hemodialysis need to be aware of this phenomenon and consider enhanced glycemic monitoring after a hemodialysis session. CGM provides glycemic information in addition to A1C, which is potentially relevant to clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc08-1688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699727PMC
July 2009