Publications by authors named "Sara Jam"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction delivered to human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Iran: effects on CD4⁺ T lymphocyte count and medical and psychological symptoms.

Psychosom Med 2012 Jul-Aug;74(6):620-7. Epub 2012 Jun 28.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on biological and symptomatological markers of health among human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) patients in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Using a randomized controlled trial design, data from 173 HIV+ patients (CD4 count > 250) not yet receiving antiretroviral therapy, who participated in either an 8-week MBSR (n = 87) or a brief education and support condition (n = 86) at the Imam Khomeini Hospital, were analyzed. Assessments included CD4 count, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R), and Medical Symptom Checklist (MSCL) at baseline, immediate post-treatment, and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up periods.

Results: The treatment-adherent sample had a mean (standard deviation) age of 35.1 (6.5) years and 69% were male. Linear mixed-model estimates indicated that, in the MBSR condition, the mean CD4 count increased from baseline up to 9 months after treatment and then returned to baseline level at 12 months. Improvements in mean SCL-90R (up to 6 months) and MSCL (up to 12 months) scores were observed for the MBSR condition, whereas education and support condition scores remained the same over time; however, only MSCL improvements significantly differed between groups and these changes lasted up to the final assessment.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that among treatment-adherent Iranian HIV+ patients not yet receiving antiretroviral drug treatment, MBSR seems to have the strongest potential to improve self-reported medical symptoms.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials: IRCT201106084076N2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31825abfaaDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392542PMC
November 2012

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in Iranian patients.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(9):612-8

Department of Medicine, Eye Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

We determined the frequency of clinical thyroid ophthalmopathy in Iranian patients. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Endocrinology Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All patients with documented thyroid disorders from September 2003 to July 2005 were recruited. Eye examinations included evaluation of soft tissue changes, measurement of proptosis, lid width, lagophthalmos, evaluation of eye muscle function, and determination of visual acuity. The activity of ophthalmopathy was scored according to the NOSPECS scale. Among 851 visited patients, 303 cases had thyroid eye disease (TED). The nature of the ophthalmopathy breaks down as follows: 53.4% were hypothyroid (9.3% Hashimoto disease), 5.5% euthyroid and 41.1% had Graves' disease. The prevalence of TED in males was 60% which was nearly 2 times the prevalence of TED in females. There was a significant relationship between presentation of TED and active smoking of the patients (P<0.0001) while no significant relationship with passive smoking was obtained (P=0.181). The most common clinical sign of TED in descending order respectively were proptosis with 63.4%, soft tissue involvement (40.9%), extraocular muscle involvement (22.1%), corneal involvement (12.9%) and optic nerve dysfunction (6.3%). Myasthenia gravis occurred in only 2 patients. In the logistic regression, occurrence of TED was influenced by cardiovascular disease (OR=5.346), Graves' disease (OR=47.507), radioiodine therapy (OR=2.590), and anti-thyroid medications (OR=0.650). Thyroid ophtalmopathy (orbitopathy) is a matter of important health concern among patients with thyroid disorder. Since TED occurred with a high prevalence in all thyroid states, a close collaboration between endocrinologists and ophthalmologists along with timely referrals of patients with any eye complaint is deemed necessary. Also smoking was the most important risk factor for developing TED. Therefore, it is advisable to raise awareness and to strongly encourage smokers with thyroid disorders to quit smoking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2012

Cytomegalovirus co-infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(8):551-5

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Serum samples from 201 HIV positive patients were collected to determine the seroprevalence of CMV infection in Iranian HIV infected patients during March 2004 until March 2005 using conventional ELISA kits. An antibody level of >1.1 Iu/ml was considered positive. The seroprevalence of CMV infection was 94%.The maximum prevalence of CMV antibody was seen in patients with unsafe sex and IDUs. Prevalence of CMV was much higher in patients with low socioeconomic status and low level of education. 83% of patients with CD4<100 were CMV seropositive. Our study showed that a significantly high prevalence of CMV in HIV positive patients in Iran. By increasing the level of education and socioeconomic status the prevalence of CMV infection decreased.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2012

Bilateral versus unilateral thyroid eye disease.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2011 Sep-Oct;59(5):363-6

Eye Research Center, Rassoul Akram Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare demographics, clinical manifestations, associated systemic and ocular factors, severity and activity of patients with unilateral thyroid eye disease (U-TED) versus bilateral thyroid eye disease (B-TED).

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and primary hypothyroidism seen in an endocrinology clinic were included from September 2003 to July 2006. Demographics, complete eye examination, severity score (NOSPECS, total eye score), and clinical activity score were recorded and compared in the B-TED and U-TED groups of patients.

Results: From 851 patients with thyroid disorders, 303 (35.6%) had TED. Thirty-two patients (32/ 303, 10.56%) were found to have U-TED. Patients with U-TED (mean age 31.6 ± 11.6 years) were significantly younger than patients with B-TED (mean age 37.7 ± 14.7 years). Monovariate analysis (Chi-square and independent sample t-test) showed a significantly higher severity score in B-TED (U-TED 4.09±4.05, B-TED: 6.7±6.3; P= 0.002) and more activity score in B-TED (U-TED= 1.03±0.96, B-TED: 1.74±1.6, P= 0.001). However, multivariate analysis did not show any significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, type of thyroid disease, duration of thyroid disease and TED, severity and activity of TED, smoking habit, and presentation of TED before or after the presentation of thyroid disease (0.1
Conclusion: This study did not find any significant difference between U-TED and B-TED in relation to the demographics, type of thyroid disease, associated findings, and severity and activity of TED.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0301-4738.83612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3159317PMC
January 2012

Hepatitis-C and hepatitis-B co-infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Tehran, Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(4):252-7

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We carried out a study to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections in HIV positive patients at a main referral center for HIV/AIDS in Iran. Serum samples from 201 HIV positive patients referring to a referral center for HIV/AIDS were analyzed for the presence of some hepatitis B (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs) and Hepatitis C (anti-HCV) markers, during 2004- 2005. HBsAg was positive in 27 patients (13.4%), anti-HBc was positive in 60 patients (29.8%) and anti-HBs in 23 patients (11.4%). Anti-HCV Ab was positive in 135 of 201 (67.2%). HBV and HCV coinfection was observed in 73 of 201 (36.3%). The maximum prevalence of HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV coinfections were seen in intravenous drug users; 61.2% and 85.1%, respectively (P<0.0001). The minimum prevalence of HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV were seen in HIV patients' wife (HIV(+) patients who were infected by monogamous sexual contact with their HIV positive husband) both of them were 8% (P<0.0001). This study showed that HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV coinfections are significant in patients with HIV/AIDS in Iran. A greater relevance was observed in the association between HCV and HIV. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate risk factors and risk groups for these infections in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2011

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV(+)/AIDS patients in Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(4):213-8

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii has arisen as an important opportunistic agent especially in the central nervous system and in advanced HIV disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients in Iran. Blood samples were collected from 201 HIV-positive patients and anti-toxoplasma antibodies were detected by using conventional ELISA. An antibody titer of >3 IU/ml was considered positive. The majority of studied patients were male (male to female ratio: 5 to 1) with the mean age of 36 ± 1 yrs. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients was 49.75%. The mean CD4 count in HIV patients with positive toxoplasma serology was 332.5 ± 22.4 cells/µl. Only 1% of the patients had IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies and 10% of the patients had clinical toxoplasma encephalitis. The mean CD4 count in this group was 66.4 ± 15.5 cells/µl and there was a significant association between CD4 count and rate of toxoplasma encephalitis (P<0.001). Previous reports suggested that toxoplasma encephalitis could be prevented by appropriate chemoprophylaxis. In view of the relatively high prevalence of toxoplasma infection found among the HIV-infected patients in our study, we suggest that routine screening for toxoplasma should be undertaken for all HIV-infected patients in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2011

Change in quality of life after medical and surgical treatment of graves' ophthalmopathy.

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2011 Jan;18(1):42-7

Department of Eye, Eye Research Center, Rassoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To assess the changes in quality of life (QOL) of patients after treatment of their Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

Materials And Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, the GO-QOL questionnaire was completed by 67 subjects before and at least 6 months after steroid treatment (61 subjects, group 1) or optic neuropathy orbital decompression (6 subjects, group 2). Visual, psychosocial, education and counseling scores (higher score = better health), GO severity and clinical activity scores and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were recorded and analyzed for correlation and statistical significance. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of patient enrolled in the study was 38.3 years, with 43 females (64.2%). The mean duration of thyroid dysfunction and GO were 40.1 and 26.5 months, respectively. Two treatment groups were similar for all the variables (0.06 < P < 0.9), except for higher mean age in the orbital decompression group (45.2 versus 37.7 years) (P = 0.03). Mean severity, activity, visual function and psychosocial function scores significantly improved in group 1 (steroid group) (P < 0.05, all cases). A significant improvement in clinical activity score and psychosocial scores occurred in group 2 (decompression group) (P < 0.05). MCID was achieved in two-thirds of the patients, with no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant effect of duration of thyroid disease and GO and severity and activity of GO on QOL scores either before or after treatment (P > 0.05, all cases).

Conclusion: Steroid treatment and orbital decompression significantly improve the QOL in GO. Duration, severity and activity of GO did not have a significant impact on the QOL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-9233.75884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085151PMC
January 2011

Respiratory Complications in Iranian Hospitalized Patients with HIV/AIDS.

Tanaffos 2011 ;10(3):49-54

CAPS and the Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background: The respiratory tract has been the most commonly affected site of illness in HIV-infected patients. The current study was done to identify the frequency of respiratory complications in a consecutive case series of HIV-positive patients in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis at the national academic reference medical center of Imam-Khomeini Hospital, in Tehran, Iran. The study included 199 new admissions for 177 HIV-infected patients between 2000 and 2005. Demographic characteristics, risk factors for HIV infection, respiratory complications, and CD4+ lymphocyte counts were evaluated in these patients.

Results: All patients were males. The mean age was 35 years (age range: 15 to 63 years). Among 34 cases with available CD4+ lymphocyte count results, 70.6% had results <200 cells/mm(3). Nearly half the patients (47.7%) had respiratory symptoms. The most common pulmonary complications were cough (86.3%), sputum (71.6%), dyspnea (54.7%), and hemoptysis (10.5%). The most common diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis (27.1%), followed by other bacterial pneumonias (16.6%) and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (4.5%). Intravenous drug users who had history of incarceration had the highest risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (59%), and other bacterial pneumonias (52%).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that respiratory complications are highly frequent in HIV patients in Iran and that pulmonary tuberculosis is still a common complication in HIV infected patients, despite the availability of effective treatment. Results suggest the need for more effective preventive and prophylactic measures, wider use of antiretroviral treatment and effective chemotherapy for Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153161PMC
September 2014

Frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS by PPD test.

Acta Med Iran 2010 Jan-Feb;48(1):67-71

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Persons infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly susceptible to tuberculosis, either by latent infection reactivation or by a primary infection with rapid progression to active disease. This study was done to determine the frequency of tuberculosis infection among Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS. A total of 262 HIV/AIDS patients attending all three HIV/AIDS health care centers of Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. A detailed history and physical examination were obtained from all HIV patients suspected of having pulmonary M. tuberculosis. A positive PPD skin test was used as a diagnostic parameter for probability of TB infection. Out of 262 HIV/AIDS patients, a total of 63 (24%) were shown to have the tuberculosis infection based on a positive PPD skin test. Of the patients with positive PPD skin test, 22 (35%) had pulmonary Tuberculosis, 2 (3.2%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and 39 (53%) had no evidence of M. tuberculosis infection (latent infection). Also 8 (12.7%) had history of long term residence in a foreign country, 32 (50.8%) were exposed to an index case, and 9 (14.3%) had past history of pulmonary tuberculosis, while only 33.3% had clinical manifestations of TB (active disease). There was no resistant case of tuberculosis. Our study showed that near 24% of Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS were infected with M. tuberculosis. This finding denotes the need to improve the diagnostic and preventive measures, and also prompt treatment of this type of infection in the HIV infected individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2011

Evaluation of serological tests using A60 antigen for diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Acta Med Iran 2010 Jan-Feb;48(1):21-6

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Identification of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum or tissue samples is among definite diagnostic methods of tuberculosis. However, this method of diagnosis is restricted by certain limitations. Serologic diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) has been used for a long time. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and, specificity of Antigen 60 (A60) IgG, IgA, IgM test results in TB diagnosis. Mycobacterial A60-based ELISA was used to measure specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies in the sera of 127 adult TB patients (consisted of 74 pulmonary and 53 extra-pulmonary cases), and 95 controls (46 healthy volunteers and 49 patients with various acute or chronic diseases other than tuberculosis). Data from A60 IgG-based ELISA, chest radiography, AFB culture and pathologic evaluation for AFB were obtained .The cutoff value of A60 IgG, IgA and IgM were chosen according to a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio were determined. The mean levels of IgG, IgA and IgM were significantly higher in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis when compared with control groups. Sensitivity of IgG test was 54.3 %, while the specificity was 84.2%. The IgA test showed a sensitivity of 70.1% with a specificity of 80 %. Combination of the IgG and IgA tests showed a total sensitivity of 45.7 % and a specificity of 94.7% and the positive likelihood ratio of 8.62. Chosen cutoff values of IgG, IgA, and IgM sets were 285,265 and 0.9 ELISA units respectively. Our study results showed a good specificity (94.7%) and a reasonable positive likelihood ratio (8.62) of the test when combined IgA and IgG with new cutoff points were considered on diagnosis of tuberculosis in adult patients. Combined use of both IgG and IgA tests results allows an increased accuracy in diagnostic of tuberculosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2011

The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program in Iranian HIV/AIDS patients: a pilot study.

Acta Med Iran 2010 Mar-Apr;48(2):101-6

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Psychological or behavioral interventions that attenuate the effects of stress may be useful in promoting immunocompetence and delaying HIV disease progression and CD4 count level. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a behavioral intervention that has as its foundation the practice of insight-oriented (or mindfulness) meditation. In this study, we examined the effects of MBSR upon psychological, physical status and CD4 count of HIV/AIDS infected patients registered at the Positive Club of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2007. Using a pilot study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a psychological intervention (8-week) that was based on training in mindfulness at the Positive Club of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2007. Eight 2-hour sessions weekly and a day-long retreat were planned for a group of 10 participants with HIV. We investigated the long-term effects of this approach on psychological and physical status of patients by SCL-90-R and MSCL questionnaires and CD4 count after MBSR and in 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-ups. We studied six HIV positive patients. The mean age was 35 +/- 7.7 yrs. There was no significant difference in MSCL scores after MBSR and in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months compared to those before MBSR (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in SCL-90-R score after MBSR compared with before (P=0.05). Nevertheless, in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months no significant differences were seen in SCL-90-R scores relative to those before MBSR (P>0.05). The means of CD4 count, before and after MBSR, and in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were 549 +/- 173.6, 640.2 +/- 189.4, 655.3 +/- 183.4, 638 +/- 167.4, 619.3 +/- 163.2, and 595.2 +/- 165.6, respectively. There was a significant difference in CD4 counts in comparison with those before MBSR (P<0.05). In our study, MBSR had positive effects on psychological status and CD4 count. However, more studies with large sample size are necessary.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2011

Adverse reactions of trivalent influenza vaccine in HIV-infected individuals.

Acta Med Iran 2010 Mar-Apr;48(2):95-100

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In this study, we assessed the adverse reactions to influenza vaccination in HIV-infected individuals. From November 2006 to January 2007, a total of 203 HIV-infected persons were recruited. Demographic data were collected. Subjects were evaluated 48 h and 15 days after vaccination for symptoms and significant health events as possible side effects. Participants were instructed to measure their temperature in the morning and evening for 2 days post-immunization and to assess injection site and systemic adverse reactions. 80.3% of the subjects were male. The mean age of the subjects was 36.9 +/- 7.9 years. Local and systemic reactions were reported by 61 (30%) and 62 (30.5%) persons, respectively. The most common adverse reactions to the influenza vaccine included skin redness (37 cases), induration (32 cases), and pain (55 cases) as local reactions, and fever (22 cases), myalgia (46 cases), headache (12 cases) and weakness (35 cases) as general reactions. 1.4 % of the subjects had fever over 38.5 degrees C. There were significant associations between myalgia and flushing with CD4 counts (P<0.05). We found no relationship between adverse reactions and sex, history of smoking, allergy, alcohol, and drug usage, stage of HIV infection, anti-retroviral therapies, anti-TB medication and previous vaccination. We concluded that inactivated influenza vaccine administered in HIV-infected adults did not result in potential adverse events in this study population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2011

Monitoring of serum vancomycin concentrations in pediatric patients with normal renal function.

Acta Med Iran 2010 Mar-Apr;48(2):91-4

Department of Infectious Disease, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Vancomycin is a a glycopeptide antibiotic with bacetiocidal effects on gram positive bacteria by interfering with cell wall synthesis. The necessity for monitoring of serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) has been recently noticed at many institutions because of concerns for its nephrotoxicity. We aimed to describe the SVCs monitoring in pediatric patients, in an effort to determine subtherapeutic or toxic levels. The medical records were reviewed for all patients older than 60 days of age admitted to the general or subspecialty services who received intravenous vancomycin at Children's Medical Hospital in Tehran, Iran between July 2003 and December 2005. Because pharmacokinetic parameters for children with cancer may be different, this group was evaluated separately. During the study, 167 infants and children without cancer and 42 patients with cancer; aged between 3 months to 17.5 years were treated with vancomycin for various infections. In children without cancer, peak SVCs were in an adequate therapeutic range for 93% of patients (8-55 microg/ml). For children with cancer, peak SVCs was lower than 10 microg/ml (10%), and trough values were lower than 5 microg/ml (21%). In conclusion, according to the results of this research, due to different pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in cancerous patients, the monitoring of vancomycin plasma concentrations is necessary for the best therapeutic antibacterial activities with a fewer occurrence of serious adverse effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2011

The role of human papillomavirus infection in prostate carcinoma.

Scand J Infect Dis 2011 Jan 22;43(1):64-9. Epub 2010 Jul 22.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with benign and malignant lesions of the female and male anogenital tract. Currently the possible role of HPV infections in prostate carcinogenesis is a subject of great controversy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of HPV infection in prostate carcinoma (PCa). The study included formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 104 primary prostate adenocarcinoma cases and 104 control tissues of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). HPV-DNA was purified and amplified through MY09/MY11 and GP5(+)/GP6(+) primers and subsequently subjected to sequencing. HPV-DNA was found in 13 of 104 (12.5%) PCa and 8 of 104 (7.7%) BPH samples. High-risk HPVs were detected in 10 of 13 (76.9%) PCa and 5 of 8 (62.5%) BPH samples with positive HPV-DNA. Low-risk HPVs were detected in 3 of 13 (23.1%) PCa and 3 of 8 (37.5%) BPH specimens with positive HPV-DNA. There was no significant difference between PCa and BPH specimens regarding HPV-DNA presence or the detection of high-risk and low-risk types of HPV. Our data do not support the role of HPV infection in prostate carcinoma. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of HPV infection in human prostate carcinogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2010.502904DOI Listing
January 2011

Quality of life in patients with thyroid eye disease.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2009 Jul;4(3):164-8

Rassoul Akram Hospital, Iran Medical University, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To evaluate quality of life (QOL) before and after corticosteroid therapy for thyroid eye disease (TED) and to determine the impact of the disease on QOL.

Methods: A modified TED-QOL questionnaire was completed by consecutive patients before and at least 6 months after steroid therapy. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid during the course of the study. QOL was assessed in subscales of visual function, psychosocial, and educational/counseling; TED was classified by severity score (NOSPECS) and Mourits' clinical activity score.

Results: Overall, 61 patients including 18 (29.5%) male and 43 (70.5%) female subjects with mean age of 37.3±13.7 (range, 18-33) years were enrolled. Mean duration of thyroid dysfunction and TED were 40.1±44.8 and 26.5±38.2 months, respectively. Mean disease severity and activity significantly decreased, and visual and psychosocial function scores significantly improved following corticosteroid therapy for TED. Psychosocial score was significantly worse than visual function score before but not after steroid treatment. Linear regression analysis and Spearman correlation test showed no significant correlation between duration of thyroid dysfunction, duration of TED, disease severity and activity on one hand, and QOL scores on the other hand, before or after treatment.

Conclusion: TED seems to adversely affect psychosocial activity more than visual function. Corticosteroid therapy significantly improves QOL. No significant correlation seems to exist between QOL scores and the severity or activity of TED.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3498563PMC
July 2009

A cross-sectional study of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in iran.

Arch Iran Med 2009 Mar;12(2):145-50

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Anemia is a frequent complication of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The causes of HIV-related anemia are multifactorial. This study was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with anemia in HIV-infected patients.

Methods: A total of 642 patients with HIV/AIDS attending the HIV Clinic at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran enrolled in this study. A detailed history and physical examination was done for all the patients. Investigations included CD4+ count, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cells morphology.

Results: Among HIV-infected patients, 87% were males. The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 17.9+/-9.2 months. The mean (+/-SD) hemoglobin level was 12.9+/-2.31 mg/dL. Evaluation of red blood cell morphology showed macrocytosis in 11%, normocytosis plus normochromia in 41.1%, and microcytosis plus hypochromia in 47.9% of the patients. The prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin<10 mg/dL) was 10.3%. Anemia was positively associated with female sex (OR=3.01), CD4 level (CD4 count of <200) (OR=3.49), and antituberculous drug administration (OR=4.57).

Conclusion: Female sex, stage of HIV infection, and antituberculous drug use were the most important factors associated with anemia in HIV-infected patients in our study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2009

Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients with isolated hepatitis B core antibody.

Intervirology 2008 7;51(4):270-4. Epub 2008 Oct 7.

Virology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA without detectable hepatitis B surfaceantigen (HBsAg) is defined as occult HBV infection. In patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV, HIV interferes with the natural history of HBV infection by enhancing HBV replication, leading to more severe liver disease. The aim of this study was to assess occult HBV infection in Iranian HIV-positive patients with isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc).

Methods: The presence of HBV-DNA was determined quantitatively in plasma samples of HIV-infected patients with isolated anti-HBc by real-time PCR using the artus HBV RG PCR kit on the Rotor-Gene 3000 real-time thermal cycler. Hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), HIV viral load and CD4+ count were also tested in all subjects.

Results: Of 106 patients enrolled in this study, 22 subjects (20.75%, 95% CI 13-28) had isolated anti-HBc. HBV-DNA was detectable in 3 of the 22 patients (13.6%, 95% CI 0.0-28) who had isolated anti-HBc.

Conclusion: A serological profile of isolated anti-HBc could be associated with occult HBV infection in Iranian HIV-infected patients. Therefore the risk of transmission of HBV is probable in these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000160217DOI Listing
December 2008

Frequency of hepatitis G virus infection among HIV positive subjects with parenteral and sexual exposure.

J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2008 Sep;17(3):269-72

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Epidemiological data indicate that Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is transmitted predominantly through parenteral routes, with a high seroprevalence among injection drug users (IDUs), although sexual transmission has also been reported. In this study our objective was to compare the frequency of HGV infection in two groups of HIV-positive patients including IDUs and those with sexual risk of exposure.

Methods: Presence of HGV-RNA was analyzed in serum samples from 82 HIV-infected patients including 52 IDUs and 30 cases with sexual (heterosexuals) risk of exposure by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), Hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, HIV viral load and CD4 cells count were also tested in all subjects.

Results: The overall prevalence of HGV infection was 10.97% in HIV infected patients, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (13.5% among IDUs vs. 6.7% among the sexual cases). We found a higher frequency of HGV co-infection with HCV in IDUs than in the sexual group (11.5% vs. 3.3%). There was no statistically significant difference between IDUs and the sexual group regarding age, viral load, CD4 cells count, ALT levels and the prevalence of HBV infection.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of HGV infection was relatively high in HIV infected patients. HGV-RNA was found more frequently in patients with injection drug use than in those with sexual risk of exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2008

Frequency and genotype of GB virus C among Iranian patients infected with HIV.

J Med Virol 2008 Nov;80(11):1941-6

Hepatitis and AIDS Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to similar transmission routes of these viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection and genotypic characteristics of GBV-C in this population. The presence of GBV-C RNA was determined in serum samples of 106 patients infected with HIV by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction. GBV-C genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, HIV viral load and CD4(+) count were also tested in all patients. The overall prevalence of GBV-C infection was 11.3% in HIV patients. There was no significant difference between patients with and without GBV-C infection regarding age, sex, route of transmission, viral load, ALT levels, HBV and HCV co-infection and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. 66.7% of patients with GBV-C had a CD4(+) count > or = 200 and 33.3% had a CD4(+) count < 200 cells/mm(3). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all GBV-C isolates were genotype 2, and classified as subtype 2a. GBV-C infection is relatively common in patients infected with HIV. The prevailing GBV-C genotype 2a in this study group concurred with reports from other parts of the Middle East.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.21314DOI Listing
November 2008

Frequency and associated factors of proteinuria in Iranian HIV-positive patients.

Int J Infect Dis 2008 Sep 3;12(5):490-4. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, No. 69, Pasteur Ave., Tehran, Iran.

Background: Screening HIV-positive patients for proteinuria would result in early recognition of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). This would allow diagnosis and treatment of HIVAN at an early stage and hence prevent further disease progression. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of proteinuria and its associated factors in Iranian HIV-positive patients.

Methods: In this study, 171 HIV-positive patients were screened for proteinuria. Proteinuria was defined as > or =1+ protein on the urine dipstick. A questionnaire was used to collect patient sociodemographic and clinical data. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), serum albumin, and creatinine were tested in all patients. CD4 counts were obtained by flow cytometry.

Results: Out of 171 HIV-positive patients, 21 (12.3%) had proteinuria. There were no significant differences between patients with and without proteinuria with regard to age, sex, risk behaviors for HIV acquisition, stage of infection, concurrent antiretroviral therapy, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum albumin and creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and presence of anti-HCV or HBsAg. Patients with proteinuria had a lower CD4 count and creatinine clearance than those without proteinuria.

Conclusion: Proteinuria was relatively high in Iranian HIV-positive patients. The group at higher risk was that of patients with lower CD4 counts and creatinine clearance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2008.01.009DOI Listing
September 2008