Publications by authors named "Sara B York"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Coordination of Zika Virus Infection and Viroplasm Organization by Microtubules and Microtubule-Organizing Centers.

Cells 2021 11 27;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) became a global health concern in 2016 due to its links to congenital microcephaly and other birth defects. Flaviviruses, including ZIKV, reorganize the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form a viroplasm, a compartment where virus particles are assembled. Microtubules (MTs) and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) coordinate structural and trafficking functions in the cell, and MTs also support replication of flaviviruses. Here we investigated the roles of MTs and the cell's MTOCs on ZIKV viroplasm organization and virus production. We show that a toroidal-shaped viroplasm forms upon ZIKV infection, and MTs are organized at the viroplasm core and surrounding the viroplasm. We show that MTs are necessary for viroplasm organization and impact infectious virus production. In addition, the centrosome and the Golgi MTOC are closely associated with the viroplasm, and the centrosome coordinates the organization of the ZIKV viroplasm toroidal structure. Surprisingly, viroplasm formation and virus production are not significantly impaired when infected cells have no centrosomes and impaired Golgi MTOC, and we show that MTs are anchored to the viroplasm surface in these cells. We propose that the viroplasm is a site of MT organization, and the MTs organized at the viroplasm are sufficient for efficient virus production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10123335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8699624PMC
November 2021

Cannabidiol loaded extracellular vesicles sensitize triple-negative breast cancer to doxorubicin in both in-vitro and in vivo models.

Int J Pharm 2021 Sep 27;607:120943. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) were isolated from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and were further encapsulated with cannabidiol (CBD) through sonication method (CBD EVs). CBD EVs displayed an average particle size of 114.1 ± 1.02 nm, zeta potential of -30.26 ± 0.12 mV, entrapment efficiency of 92.3 ± 2.21% and stability for several months at 4 °C. CBD release from the EVs was observed as 50.74 ± 2.44% and 53.99 ± 1.4% at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4, respectively after 48 h. Our in-vitro studies demonstrated that CBD either alone or in EVs form significantly sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to doxorubicin (DOX) (*P < 0.05). Flow cytometry and migration studies revealed that CBD EVs either alone or in combination with DOX induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. CBD EVs and DOX combination significantly reduced tumor burden (***P < 0.001) in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor model. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that CBD EVs and DOX combination decreased the expression of proteins involved in inflammation, metastasis and increased the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis. CBD EVs and DOX combination will have profound clinical significance in not only decreasing the side effects but also increasing the therapeutic efficacy of DOX in TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528640PMC
September 2021

Zika Virus Hijacks Extracellular Vesicle Tetraspanin Pathways for Cell-to-Cell Transmission.

mSphere 2021 Jun 30:e0019221. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Florida State Universitygrid.255986.5 College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated structures released by cells which carry signaling factors, proteins, and microRNAs that mediate intercellular communication. Accumulating evidence supports an important role of EVs in the progression of neurological conditions and both the spread and pathogenesis of infectious diseases. It has recently been demonstrated that EVs from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals and cells contained replicative-competent viral RNA that was capable of infecting hepatocytes. Being a member of the same viral family, it is likely the Zika virus also hijacks EV pathways to package viral components and secrete vesicles that are infectious and potentially less immunogenic. As EVs have been shown to cross blood-brain and placental barriers, it is possible that Zika virus could usurp normal EV biology to gain access to the brain or developing fetus. Here, we demonstrate that Zika virus-infected cells secrete distinct EV subpopulations with specific viral protein profiles and infectious genomes. Zika virus infection resulted in the enhanced production of EVs with various sizes and densities compared to those released from noninfected cells. We also show that the EV-enriched tetraspanin CD63 regulates the release of EVs and Zika viral genomes and capsids following infection. Overall, these findings provide evidence for an alternative means of Zika virus transmission and demonstrate the role of EV biogenesis and trafficking proteins in the modulation of Zika virus infection and virion morphogenesis. Zika virus is a reemerging infectious disease that spread rapidly across the Caribbean and South America. Infection of pregnant women during the first trimester has been linked to microcephaly, a neurological condition where babies are born with smaller heads due to abnormal brain development. Babies born with microcephaly can develop convulsions and suffer disabilities as they age. Despite the significance of Zika virus, little is known about how the virus infects the fetus or causes disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-encapsulated structures released by cells that are present in all biological fluids. EVs carry signaling factors, proteins, and microRNAs that mediate intercellular communication. EVs have been shown to be a means by which some viruses can alter cellular environments and cross previously unpassable cellular barriers. Thus, gaining a greater understanding of how Zika virus affects EV cargo may aid in the development of better diagnostics, targeted therapeutics, and/or prophylactic treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00192-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265634PMC
June 2021

Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 Modulates the CD63 Interactome.

Viruses 2021 04 15;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Tetraspanin CD63 is a cluster of cell surface proteins with four transmembrane domains; it is associated with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and typically localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes. CD63 plays an important role in the cellular trafficking of different proteins, EV cargo sorting, and vesicle formation. We have previously shown that CD63 is important in LMP1 trafficking to EVs, and this also affects LMP1-mediated intracellular signaling including MAPK/ERK, NF-κB, and mTOR activation. Using the BioID method combined with mass spectrometry, we sought to define the broad CD63 interactome and how LMP1 modulates this network of interacting proteins. We identified a total of 1600 total proteins as a network of proximal interacting proteins to CD63. Biological process enrichment analysis revealed significant involvement in signal transduction, cell communication, protein metabolism, and transportation. The CD63-only interactome was enriched in Rab GTPases, SNARE proteins, and sorting nexins, while adding LMP1 into the interactome increased the presence of signaling and ribosomal proteins. Our results showed that LMP1 alters the CD63 interactome, shifting the network of protein enrichment from protein localization and vesicle-mediated transportation to metabolic processes and translation. We also show that LMP1 interacts with mTOR, Nedd4 L, and PP2A, indicating the formation of a multiprotein complex with CD63, thereby potentially regulating LMP1-dependent mTOR signaling. Collectively, the comprehensive analysis of CD63 proximal interacting proteins provides insights into the network of partners required for endocytic trafficking and extracellular vesicle cargo sorting, formation, and secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13040675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071190PMC
April 2021

Extracellular Vesicles in Epstein-Barr Virus Pathogenesis.

Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 2019 Sep 3;6(3):121-131. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a known determinant for numerous malignancies and may contribute to autoimmune diseases. The underlining mechanisms behind EBV pathologies is not completely understood. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from infected cells have been found to produce profound effects on cellular microenvironments. Therefore, in this review we sought to critically evaluate the roles of EVs in EBV pathogenesis and assess their potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility.

Recent Findings: EBV-altered EVs are capable of activating signaling cascades and phenotypic changes in recipient cells through the transfer of viral proteins and RNAs. Moreover, several EV-associated microRNAs have encouraging prognostic or diagnostic potential in EBV-associated cancers.

Summary: Current evidence suggests that EBV-modified EVs affect viral pathogenesis and cancer progression. However, further research is needed to investigate the direct role of both viral and host products on recipient cells and the mechanisms driving viral protein and RNA EV packaging and content modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40588-019-00123-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015464PMC
September 2019

Differential Effects of Extracellular Vesicles of Lineage-Specific Human Pluripotent Stem Cells on the Cellular Behaviors of Isogenic Cortical Spheroids.

Cells 2019 08 28;8(9). Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to a variety of signaling processes and the overall physiological and pathological states of stem cells and tissues. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have unique characteristics that can mimic embryonic tissue development. There is growing interest in the use of EVs derived from hiPSCs as therapeutics, biomarkers, and drug delivery vehicles. However, little is known about the characteristics of EVs secreted by hiPSCs and paracrine signaling during tissue morphogenesis and lineage specification. Methods: In this study, the physical and biological properties of EVs isolated from hiPSC-derived neural progenitors (ectoderm), hiPSC-derived cardiac cells (mesoderm), and the undifferentiated hiPSCs (healthy iPSK3 and Alzheimer's-associated SY-UBH lines) were analyzed. Results: Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy results indicate that hiPSC-derived EVs have an average size of 100-250 nm. Immunoblot analyses confirmed the enrichment of exosomal markers Alix, CD63, TSG101, and Hsc70 in the purified EV preparations. MicroRNAs including miR-133, miR-155, miR-221, and miR-34a were differently expressed in the EVs isolated from distinct hiPSC lineages. Treatment of cortical spheroids with hiPSC-EVs in vitro resulted in enhanced cell proliferation (indicated by BrdU+ cells) and axonal growth (indicated by β-tubulin III staining). Furthermore, hiPSC-derived EVs exhibited neural protective abilities in Aβ42 oligomer-treated cultures, enhancing cell viability and reducing oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that the paracrine signaling provided by tissue context-dependent EVs derived from hiPSCs elicit distinct responses to impact the physiological state of cortical spheroids. Overall, this study advances our understanding of cell‒cell communication in the stem cell microenvironment and provides possible therapeutic options for treating neural degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8090993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770916PMC
August 2019

Tetraspanin CD63 Bridges Autophagic and Endosomal Processes To Regulate Exosomal Secretion and Intracellular Signaling of Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1

J Virol 2018 03 12;92(5). Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida, USA

The tetraspanin protein CD63 has been recently described as a key factor in extracellular vesicle (EV) production and endosomal cargo sorting. In the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, CD63 is required for the efficient packaging of the major viral oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) into exosomes and other EV populations and acts as a negative regulator of LMP1 intracellular signaling. Accumulating evidence has also pointed to intersections of the endosomal and autophagy pathways in maintaining cellular secretory processes and as sites for viral assembly and replication. Indeed, LMP1 can activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to suppress host cell autophagy and facilitate cell growth and proliferation. Despite the growing recognition of cross talk between endosomes and autophagosomes and its relevance to viral infection, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms governing endosomal and autophagy convergence. Here, we demonstrate that CD63-dependent vesicle protein secretion directly opposes intracellular signaling activation downstream of LMP1, including mTOR-associated proteins. Conversely, disruption of normal autolysosomal processes increases LMP1 secretion and dampens signal transduction by the viral protein. Increases in mTOR activation following CD63 knockout are coincident with the development of serum-dependent autophagic vacuoles that are acidified in the presence of high LMP1 levels. Altogether, these findings suggest a key role of CD63 in regulating the interactions between endosomal and autophagy processes and limiting cellular signaling activity in both noninfected and virally infected cells. The close connection between extracellular vesicles and viruses is becoming rapidly and more widely appreciated. EBV, a human gamma herpesvirus that contributes to the progression of a multitude of lymphomas and carcinomas in immunocompromised or genetically susceptible populations, packages its major oncoprotein, LMP1, into vesicles for secretion. We have recently described a role of the host cell protein CD63 in regulating intracellular signaling of the viral oncoprotein by shuttling LMP1 into exosomes. Here, we provide strong evidence of the utility of CD63-dependent EVs in regulating global intracellular signaling, including mTOR activation by LMP1. We also demonstrate a key role of CD63 in coordinating endosomal and autophagic processes to regulate LMP1 levels within the cell. Overall, this study offers new insights into the complex intersection of cellular secretory and degradative mechanisms and the implications of these processes in viral replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01969-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809724PMC
March 2018

CD63 Regulates Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 Exosomal Packaging, Enhancement of Vesicle Production, and Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling.

J Virol 2017 03 14;91(5). Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida, USA

Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded oncoprotein that is packaged into small extracellular vesicles (EVs) called exosomes. Trafficking of LMP1 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) alters the content and function of exosomes. LMP1-modified exosomes enhance the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant cells, demonstrating the capacity to manipulate the tumor microenvironment and enhance the progression of EBV-associated cancers. Despite the growing evidence surrounding the significance of LMP1-modified exosomes in cancer, very little is understood about the mechanisms that orchestrate LMP1 incorporation into these vesicles. Recently, LMP1 was shown to be copurified with CD63, a conserved tetraspanin protein enriched in late endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CD63 presence for exosomal packaging of LMP1. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and gradient purification revealed an increase in extracellular vesicle secretion and exosomal proteins following LMP1 expression. Immunoisolation of CD63-positive exosomes exhibited accumulation of LMP1 in this vesicle population. Functionally, CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of CD63 resulted in a reduction of LMP1-induced particle secretion. Furthermore, LMP1 packaging was severely impaired in CD63 knockout cells, concomitant with a disruption in the perinuclear localization of LMP1. Importantly, LMP1 trafficking to lipid rafts and activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways remained intact following CD63 knockout, while mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and noncanonical NF-κB activation were observed to be increased. These results suggest that CD63 is a critical player in LMP1 exosomal trafficking and LMP1-mediated enhancement of exosome production and may play further roles in limiting downstream LMP1 signaling. EBV is a ubiquitous gamma herpesvirus linked to malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. In the context of cancer, EBV hijacks the exosomal pathway to modulate cell-to-cell signaling by secreting viral components such as an oncoprotein, LMP1, into host cell membrane-bound EVs. Trafficking of LMP1 into exosomes is associated with increased oncogenicity of these secreted vesicles. However, we have only a limited understanding of the mechanisms surrounding exosomal cargo packaging, including viral proteins. Here, we describe a role of LMP1 in EV production that requires CD63 and provide an extensive demonstration of CD63-mediated exosomal LMP1 release that is distinct from lipid raft trafficking. Finally, we present further evidence of the role of CD63 in limiting LMP1-induced noncanonical NF-κB and ERK activation. Our findings have implications for future investigations of physiological and pathological mechanisms of exosome biogenesis, protein trafficking, and signal transduction, especially in viral-associated tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02251-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309960PMC
March 2017
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