Publications by authors named "Sara Alsubait"

10 Publications

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Efficacy of Different Endodontic Irrigant Activation Techniques on Debris Removal from the Mesial Root Canal System of Mandibular Molars.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Mar 1;22(3):231-236. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Restorative Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aim And Objective: This study was conducted to compare debris removal from the mesial canal system with four different irrigation techniques: sonic activation with EDDY, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), mechanical activation with the XP-endo Finisher (XPF), and manual dynamic irrigation (MDI) with gutta-percha.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-six extracted mandibular molars with isthmus in the apical 5 mm in mesial roots were sectioned horizontally at 3 mm and 5 mm from the apex. The sections were reassembled, and the mesial canals were prepared chemomecahanically. Specimens were allocated randomly into four groups according to the final irrigation technique. Standardized images of the coronal aspect of cross sections were obtained using a digital stereomicroscope before and after final irrigation protocols to calculate the percentage of debris elimination from the canal system after final irrigation.

Results: The use of EDDY, PUI, and XPF exhibited significant reductions in debris compared with MDI at 5 mm ( <0.00) and at 3 mm ( <0.00). Furthermore, no significant difference was noted among EDDY, PUI, and XPF. For intragroup analysis, no statistically significant difference in the percentage of debris elimination was noted between 3 mm and 5 mm in all four groups.

Conclusion: All groups showed a reduction in debris after the final irrigation protocol. However, the use of EDDY, PUI, and XPF after cleaning and shaping yielded a significant reduction in debris compared with MDI.

Clinical Significance: The use of PUI, XPF, and EDDY as an adjunctive irrigation step presented similar results in improving canal cleanliness, which is hypothesized to affect the treatment outcome.
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March 2021

A micro-computed tomographic evaluation of retreatability of BioRoot RCS in comparison with AH Plus.

Aust Endod J 2021 Aug 29;47(2):222-227. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This study compared the retreatability of filling material from canals filled with BioRoot RCS (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France) and AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) combined with gutta-percha using micro-computed tomography for evaluation. Thirty-four mandibular premolars were divided into two groups according to the sealer used. Thirty days after obturation, canals were retreated with a ProTaper Universal retreatment system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) followed by passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). The time taken for retreatment was recorded. The roots were scanned after obturation, after retreatment and after PUI. Data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Canals filled with BioRoot RCS exhibited significantly less remaining filling material than canals filled with AH Plus (P < 0.05). The addition of PUI resulted in a significant decrease in the residual material in both groups (P < 0.05). A significantly shorter retreatment time was reported for the AH Plus group than the BioRoot RCS group (P < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12456DOI Listing
August 2021

The effect of intracanal medicaments used in Endodontics on the dislocation resistance of two calcium silicate-based filling materials.

BMC Oral Health 2020 02 18;20(1):57. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Division of Endodontics, Department of Restorative Dental Science, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Intracanal medicaments can be used in various endodontic conditions including multiple visit endodontics after trauma or in regenerative endodontics. These medicaments should be removed from the root canal before the placement of the filling or repair material. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)) and modified triple antibiotic paste (mTAP) placement on the push-out bond strength of TotalFill BC fast set putty (BC fast set putty) to root dentin when compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).

Methods: The root canals of 45 extracted mandibular premolars were prepared to a standardized internal diameter (1.5 mm). The specimens were randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the intracanal medicament used: mTAP (a mixture of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and cefaclor), Ca(OH), and no intracanal medicament. After 1 week, the medicaments were removed, and the middle third of the roots were cut into two transverse sections (2.0 ± 0.05) (n = 90 slices). Thereafter, the specimens were divided into two subgroups (n = 45 each): MTA or BC putty. After 1 week, the push-out test was performed and failure mode was evaluated. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc.

Results: The application of the intracanal medicament did not significantly affect the bond strength of BC putty (p > .05). For MTA, the prior application of Ca(OH) or mTAP significantly decreased the dislocation resistance (p < .05). Specimens in the MTA subgroups showed an almost equal number of cohesive and mixed types of failure while the majority of the specimens in the BC putty subgroups revealed the cohesive type.

Conclusions: Ca(OH) and mTAP promoted lower bond strength of MTA to root dentin compared to the control group. However, the BC fast set putty bond strength to dentin was not affected by prior medication with Ca(OH) or mTAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-1044-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029461PMC
February 2020

Comparison of the antibacterial activity of calcium silicate- and epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: a confocal laser-scanning microscopy analysis.

Odontology 2019 Oct 29;107(4):513-520. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This study assessed the antibacterial activity of BioRoot RCS in comparison with that of the Totalfill BC and AH Plus sealers against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in dentinal tubules using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Sixty-six root dentin halves were prepared and sterilized. Three sections were used to ensure sterilization. The remaining were inoculated with E. faecalis. Three specimens were examined to verify the viability of biofilms. The sixty specimens were randomly divided into four groups: AH Plus, BioRoot RCS, Totalfill BC sealer, and no sealer. The specimens were incubated for 1, 7, and 30 days. The specimens were stained and four corners of each disc were scanned. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Almost half of the bacteria were dead in BioRoot RCS group on day 1 and in Totalfill BC group on day 7. All sealers killed significantly more bacteria than the control after 30 days (P < .05). On day 7, Totalfill BC showed a significantly higher percentage of dead bacteria than BioRoot RCS (P < .05). On day 30, the BioRoot RCS group registered the highest percentage of dead cells (61.75%), which was significantly higher than the percentages of the AH Plus and Totalfill BC groups (P < .05). Calcium silicate-based root canal sealers exerted antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis biofilms. The antibacterial activity of BioRoot RCS was significantly higher than that of the Totalfill BC and AH Plus sealers after 30 days of exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10266-019-00425-7DOI Listing
October 2019

Evaluation of root canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a Saudi population using cone beam computed tomography: A retrospective study.

Saudi Dent J 2019 Jan 3;31(1):137-142. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Endodontic Division, Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To investigate the root canal morphology of mandibular first and second premolars using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in a Saudi population.

Methods: CBCT images of 707 patients, number of roots and canal configuration were identified and categorized according to Vertucci classification. Bilateral symmetry and association between gender and number of roots, as well as gender and root canal configuration were investigated.

Results: Majority of the patients had one root and type I root canal configuration in mandibular first (96.4%) and second premolar (95.6%). All types of canal configurations were observed except Type VII for the mandibular first premolar, and Types VI and VII for the mandibular second premolar. High degree of bilateral symmetry was seen in both mandibular first and second premolars in terms of the number of roots and canal configuration; 93.8% and 97.8%, respectively. There was an association between gender and number of roots (P = 0.04) and gender and root canal configuration in mandibular first premolar (P = 0.030).

Conclusions: Single-root with type I canal configuration was the most prevalent of mandibular premolars in the Saudi population. However, incidence of more than one root with different canal configurations was detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349998PMC
January 2019

Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary Premolars in a Saudi Population.

Biomed Res Int 2018 15;2018:8170620. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Division of Endodontics, Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the root canal morphology of maxillary first and second premolars in a Saudi population using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study assessed CBCT images of 707 Saudi patients. The number of roots and canal configuration were identified based on Vertucci's classification. Fisher's exact Chi-square tests were performed to analyze the association between sex and number of roots and sex and root canal configuration.

Results: Most teeth had two roots in maxillary first premolars (75.1%) and one root in maxillary second premolars (85.2%). Type IV was the most prevalent canal configuration in maxillary first premolars (69.1%), while Type I was the most in maxillary second premolars (49.4%). All types of canal configurations were observed in maxillary premolars except Type VII for the maxillary second premolar. Chi-square tests showed no significant association between gender and number of roots and sex and root canal configuration in both maxillary first and second premolars although higher number of roots was seen in men (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Most maxillary first premolars had two roots with Type IV being the most predominant canal configuration, while a single root with Type I canal configuration was the most frequently observed morphology in maxillary second premolars. In maxillary first premolars, 21.3% had one canal apically, 75.4% had two canals apically, and 3.3% had three canals apically. In maxillary second premolars, 80.2% had one canal apically, 18.9% had two canals apically, and 0.9% had three canals apically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8170620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114071PMC
December 2018

Cytotoxicity of Different Concentrations of Three Root Canal Sealers on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Biomolecules 2018 08 1;8(3). Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai 600077, India.

This study assessed the dose-dependent effect on the cytotoxicity of BioRoot RCS (BR) and Endosequence BC (BC) sealers in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) compared to those of the AH Plus sealer. Cells were exposed to different dilutions of extracts from freshly prepared sealers (1:2, 1:8, 1:32). Unexposed cells acted as the negative control. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by an alamar blue assay. Cell morphology was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy after exposure to the different sealers' extracts. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test ( < 0.05). The cytotoxicities of BC and BR were less than that of AH Plus. In the presence of 1:2 BR, the cell proliferation was significantly lower than the control. At 1:8 and 1:32 concentrations, both the tricalcium silicate sealers led to similar cellular proliferation. Cells in BC and BR sealers' extracts spread better than those in AH Plus extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom8030068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165276PMC
August 2018

Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on Push-out Bond Strength of Four Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Materials when used for repairing Perforations on Human Dentin: An in vitro Evaluation.

Authors:
Sara A Alsubait

J Contemp Dent Pract 2017 Apr 1;18(4):289-294. Epub 2017 Apr 1.

Department of Restorative Dental Science, College of Dentistry King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, e-mail:

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the push-out bond strength of NeoMTA Plus (NMTA), EndoSequence root repair material fast set putty (ERRMF), biodentine (BD), and ProRoot white mineral trioxide aggregate (PMTA) when used as perforation repair materials after exposure to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during the early setting phase.

Materials And Methods: Horizontal midroot sections were prepared from single-rooted human teeth. Sections (n = 144) were randomly divided into four groups: PMTA, BD, NMTA, and ERRMF. Materials were condensed and allowed to set for 10 minutes. The groups were further divided into two subgroups. The NaOCl group included specimens that were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl for 30 minutes, and the control group included specimens on which a wet cotton pellet was placed over the test material. After 48 hours, the highest force applied to the materials at the time of dislodgement was recorded. Slices were then examined under a digital microscope to evaluate the nature of the bond failure. The surfaces of two specimens from each subgroup were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Data were statistically analyzed with two-way and one-way analysis of variances, independent t-tests, and chi-square tests. The statistical significance was set at 0.05.

Results: In NaOCl-treated groups, PMTA showed a significantly higher push-out bond strength than the other three materials (p = 0.00). In the control groups, the bond strength of BD was significantly higher than that of PMTA, ERRMF, and NMTA (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, NaOCl treatment significantly increased the push-out bond strength of PMTA (p = 0.00) and ERRMF (p = 0.00) and significantly reduced the bond strength of BD (p = 0.00) and NMTA (p = 0.03). None of the specimens showed an adhesive type of failure. The majority of the samples exhibited a cohesive failure type. Morphological observations revealed that the surfaces exhibited cubic crystals. In ERRMF, the crystals were few in number. Sodium hypochlorite enhanced the crystallization of NMTA.

Conclusion: The push-out bond strengths of PMTA and ERRMF were significantly increased after exposure to 2.5% NaOCl in the early setting phase, and those of BD and NMTA were significantly decreased.

Clinical Significance: The results of the present study suggest that early exposure of NaOCl increase the push-out bond strength of PMTA and ERRMF. PMTA had the highest push-out values. Therefore, it would be a potentially useful perforation repair material for single visit endodontic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2033DOI Listing
April 2017

Pull-out retentive strength of fiber posts cemented at different times in canals obturated with a eugenol-based sealer.

J Prosthet Dent 2016 Jul 26;116(1):85-90. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Professor, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark, NJ.

Statement Of Problem: Currently, no standard luting protocol exists for fiber posts. In addition, no agreement has been reached on the time interval between canal obturation and post space preparation and cementation.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the retention of fiber posts cemented with 3 different types of cement: Paracore, Variolink II, and RelyX Unicem cement after 24 hours or 2 weeks in root canals obturated with gutta percha and a eugenol-based sealer.

Material And Methods: Seventy-two caries-free, freshly extracted, single-rooted human mandibular first premolar teeth with straight root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta percha and Endofil sealer. Specimens were divided into 2 groups (n=36): post spaces prepared 24 hours after obturation and post spaces prepared 2 weeks after obturation. Posts in both groups were luted with 1 of 3 different luting agents (n=12), ParaCore, Variolink II, or RelyX Unicem cement. Each tooth specimen was vertically secured in a universal testing machine, and a constant pull-out loading rate of 0.5 mm/min was applied until cement failure occurred. Data were statistically analyzed with 2-way and 1-way ANOVAs and t tests.

Results: Two-way ANOVA indicated statistically significant differences in mean post retention among the 3 cement types (P<.001) and among the means of the different time intervals investigated (P<.001). Significant differences were noted among all cement types tested between the 24-hour and 2-week time intervals (P<.05).

Conclusions: Time elapsed between canal obturation and post cementation significantly influenced fiber post retention, regardless of the type of resin cement. Fiber posts showed significantly higher retention if cemented after 24 hours of obturation than if cementation occurred after 2 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.12.010DOI Listing
July 2016

Comparative evaluation of push-out bond strength of ProRoot MTA, bioaggregate and biodentine.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2014 May 1;15(3):336-40. Epub 2014 May 1.

Associate Professor, Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of Biodentine (BD) in comparison with two available calcium silicate based materials, bioaggregate (BA) and ProRoot MTA (WMTA).

Materials And Methods: One hundred and twenty-three Root dentin slices of freshly extracted single Rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 41) according to the used test material: WMTA, BA, BD. After canal space preparation, the filling materials were placed inside the lumen of the slices. After 72 hours, the maximum force applied to materials at the time of dislodgement was recorded and slices were then examined under a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification to determine the nature of bond failure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare means of push-out bond strength. Post-hoc test was then accomplished for multiple comparisons. Chi-square test was used to determine if there is significant association between the type of material and type of failure.

Results: The mean push-out bond strength ± standard deviation in MPa values of WMTA, BA and BD were 23.26 ± 5.49, 9.57 ± 3.45, 21.86 ± 6.9, respectively. There was no significant difference between the means of WMTA and BD (p = 0.566), but the mean of BA was significantly lower than those of WMTA and BD (p = 0.000). Under stereomicroscope, WMTA and BA showed a majority of mixed type of failure than cohesive failure, while BD showed the opposite. No adhesive failure was observed in any specimen.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study imply that the force needed for BD displacement is similar to WMTA and significantly higher than the force required to displace BA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1539DOI Listing
May 2014
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