Publications by authors named "Sara Ahsani Nasab"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HIV in Iran: onset, responses, and future directions.

AIDS 2021 03;35(4):529-542

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Global Health Sciences, University of California San Francisco, USA.

Iran, a country in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, has been actively involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS over the past three decades. The unique features of the HIV epidemic in Iran are reflected by the modes of transmission and its recent changes to improve management and prevention programs. In this review, we recount the initial onset and subsequent spread of HIV infection in Iran, beginning with the first case diagnosed to the ongoing responses and most recent achievements in controlling this epidemic. Although in the MENA region, Iran is one of the pioneers in implementing pertinent policies including harm reduction services to decrease HIV incidence, drug injection still continues to be the major risk of infection. In line with other nations, the programs in Iran aim at the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets (UNAIDS 90-90-90 global targets to end the AIDS epidemic by 2020: by 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status; 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy; and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression) and to eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission. In this article, we discuss the strengths and shortcomings of the current HIV programs and offer suggestions to provide a better perspective to track and respond to the HIV epidemic. More generally, our account of the national religious and cultural circumstances as well as obstacles to the approaches chosen can provide insights for decision-makers in other countries and institutions with comparable settings and infrastructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924262PMC
March 2021

Woman's Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs Assessment in Behavioral Clinics and Shelters in Tehran.

J Family Reprod Health 2019 Mar;13(1):26-34

Iranian Research Center of HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to assess the sexual health knowledge among females seeking consultation in behavioral clinics or shelters with emphasis on sexual routs of HIV transmission. In this study 250 women who have attended behavioral clinics or shelters in Tehran were recruited and a standardized questionnaire which asked about demographics, sexual partner and knowledge about HIV/STDs was used. The median age of our cases was 40.82% and among them 16% were married but lived alone. Among the total 250 cases, 56% (140) were sexually active in the last 30 days, 19.2% (48) had a history of a one-night stand and 2.4% had more than 1 sexual partner. 212 cases answered questions about condom use, 60% (127) of them did not use condoms at all. For knowledge about signs and symptoms related to STDs, 63% believed that abdominal pain has no relation to STDs. Also 44%, 43%, 37%,and 40% believed that dyspareunia, dysuria, malodorous vaginal discharge and change in color of vaginal discharge, respectively had no relation to STDs and 13% of whom presented with these symptoms in the past 30 days had not seek medical evaluation. It is a necessity to emphasize the use of condoms among the male population however in this study it was a challenge to do so because it goes against the government's campaign of pro-natalism. Improving the knowledge of protected sex should start from the teenage years and at school to have maximum STD prevention planning. Most women in our study did not know about healthy sexual lifestyle and this shows the need of sexual health education before marriage or even at school.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911147PMC
March 2019

Correlation between plasma concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites and the incidence of seizure in tramadol-intoxicated patients.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2018 06;33(2):75-83

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1416753955, Tehran, Iran, Tel/Fax: +9821-6640-2569,

Background: Seizure is one of the important symptoms of tramadol poisoning, but its causes are still unknown. The aim of this study is to find a relationship between tramadol and the concentrations of its metabolites versus the incidence of seizures following the consumption of high doses of tramadol.

Methods: For this purpose, the blood samples of 120 tramadol-intoxicated patients were collected. The patients were divided in two groups (seizure and non-seizure). The concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M5) were measured by using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The relationship between tramadol and the levels of its metabolites and seizure incidences was also investigated.

Results: In 72% of the patients, seizures occurred in the first 3 h after the ingestion of tramadol. The seizure incidences were significantly correlated with the patients' gender, concentrations of tramadol, M1 and M2 and the history of previous seizures (p<0.001). The average concentration of M2 was significantly higher in males (p=0.003). A previous history of the use of sedative-hypnotics and the co-ingestion of benzodiazepines and other opioids were shown to significantly decrease the rate of seizure. The rate of seizure was directly related to the concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites. Higher M2 concentration in males can be considered a reason for increased incidences of seizures in males. The plasma concentration of M1 affected the onset of seizure.

Conclusions: Therefore, it can be concluded that differences in the levels of the metabolites can affect the threshold of seizure in tramadol-intoxicated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2017-0040DOI Listing
June 2018

Different Degrees of Immune Recovery Using Antiretroviral Regimens with Vonavir or Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz in HIVPositive Patients Receiving First Line Treatment in Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 ;18(3):207-213

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens recommended by most national treatment guidelines in resource-limited settings consist of two Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) and one Non-Nucleoside Reverse- Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI). The NRTIs are Zidovudine (AZT) or Stavudine (d4T) with Lamivudine (3TC); the NNRTI components are either Nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV). Existing data regarding the effectiveness of Vonavir compared to other first-line ART regimens in increasing CD4+ T cell counts are unsatisfactory.

Methods: Immunological outcomes of 134 individuals who were on initial stage of antiretroviral therapy with Vonavir or a combination of Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz were analyzed. The immunological response was then assessed during 28 weeks.

Results: Both groups demonstrated a significant increase in their CD4+ T cell count which was greater in Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz treated group. We observed a noticeable increase in CD4+ T cells rates in the first three months of therapy; however, our results indicated a greater increase of cell counts in individuals with baseline CD4 lower than 100 cells/mm3 treated with Vonavir in first 12 weeks of treatment compared to those with higher baseline CD4.

Conclusion: A rapid CD4+ Tcell increase occurred shortly after beginning ART consisting either Vonavir or combination of Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz. Late increases in CD4+ T cell counts were more pronounced in therapy using Zidovudine/ Lamivudine and Efavirenz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526518666180108104031DOI Listing
January 2019

Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations among HIV Treatment Failure Patients in Tehran, Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Sep;46(9):1256-1264

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to determine drug resistance mutations in patients with virological failure and find correlation between HIV drug resistance test and viral load.

Methods: Blood sample was collected from 51 patients who suspicious treatment failure in the center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2015. Viral voluntary counseling and testing load test was done and the patients with viral load above 1000 copies choose for detection of drug resistance mutations by genotyping method (29 patients).

Results: The majority of patients (82.75) harbored the HIV subtype CRF 35 A-D. The 86.2% patients compromised at least one resistance mutation. The analysis of reverse transcriptase showed M184V (68.9%), T215YISF (44.8%), K103N (27.6%) and the analysis results of protease revealed G73SC (13.8%) and I47VA (6.9%). Eventually, the significant correlation between viral load and drug resistance was found.

Conclusion: The result of our research stress the significance of recognizing drug resistant on time that prohibits the accumulation of drug resistance mutation and circulates the resistance strain of HIV-1 virus and the importance of national study according to the reliable findings for treatment guidelines.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632328PMC
September 2017

Assessing the Efficacy of Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment for HIV Patients Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Iran: A Cohort Study.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Apr;55(4):233-240

Academic Member of Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran.

There are limited documents about HIV patients switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy of second-line ART for HIV patients following first-line ART failure. This was a cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ART treatment failure switched to second-line ART between January 2004 and March 2014, who followed for at least 12 months after switching. Fifty of studied patients (85%) were treated with regimens containing lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) and nine of them (15%) treated with other regimes. Seven patients were experienced opportunistic infections in accordance with stage III and IV WHO classification. In this way, 11.8% of patients had aclinicalfailure, and 37 of them (62%) had immunological responses. Weight gain was evident in these patients, and there was a significant correlation between theincrease in CD4 and weight gain (P=0.007). Only 13 patients achieved HIV viral load testing that 6 of them had avirological response after 12 months on second-line ART. No significant associations were found between virological or immunological response and gender, age, and lopinavir/ritonavir regimens (P>0.05).With counselling and supporting in those failing first-line ART, inessential switching to more costly second-line ART can be prevented in the majority of patients. However, patients' need to second-line ART drugs has increased, for which national ART programmes and regular follow-up should be organized. The high cost of these drugs and limited access to viral load testing are main barriers to proper management of patients switched to second-line ART regimens.
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April 2017

HIV Drug Resistance and Phylogeny Profile in Naïve and Antiretroviral-Experienced Patients in Tehran, Iran.

Intervirology 2016 15;59(3):131-136. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Increasing the accessibility of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has caused the emergence of drug resistance in patients receiving ART and in naïve patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate HIV subtype and drug resistance between naïve patients and ART-experienced patients.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 78 antiretroviral and naïve HIV-1 patients; antiretroviral-resistant mutations and subtyping were then determined by sequencing pol regions.

Results: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 96.1% of sequences belong to the CRF35-AD subtype. Transmitted drug resistance was determined in 14% of drug-naïve patients and 40% of ART-experienced patients.

Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated the importance of resistance testing before and during ART treatment. This study can be used to set up a best medicine strategy in Iranian guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000452712DOI Listing
March 2017

Demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Profiles of HIV Infected Patients Admitted into Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(2):113-20

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The aim of this study was to report the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profiles of HIV-infected patients who admitted to HIV/AIDS laboratory of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: HIV positive patients referred to the HIV/AIDS reference laboratory between December 2012 to March 2013 were included in the study. Their demographic characteristics, behavioral and personal history were assessed. Ninety nine patients' files from the medical records at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (VCT) were selected and evaluated. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 16. We used Pearson's chi-squared, one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests to examine differences in proportions.

Results: Of 99 participants in the present study, 68.7% were males, the mean age of the patients was 36±1.2 years and about 60% were married and almost half of them were self-employed. The most common transmission route was injection drug use. There was a statistically significant difference in CD4 count among different age groups (P = 0.028). Also, there was significant association between CD4 count and narcotic types (F=3.71, P = 0.012). Patients who used opium, had significantly higher CD4 than who used two or more narcotics (P = 0.005).

Conclusion: Our findings are helpful in understanding the demographic, clinical and laboratory profile of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consideration of useful interventions for high- risk groups and paying more attention to socio demographic background are needed for health care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526516666151230115809DOI Listing
March 2017