Publications by authors named "Sara A Kirolos"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Using to Develop Therapeutics for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:710005. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) involves damage to lungs causing an influx of neutrophils from the blood into the lung airspaces, and the neutrophils causing further damage, which attracts more neutrophils in a vicious cycle. There are ∼190,000 cases of ARDS per year in the US, and because of the lack of therapeutics, the mortality rate is ∼40%. Repelling neutrophils out of the lung airspaces, or simply preventing neutrophil entry, is a potential therapeutic. In this minireview, we discuss how our lab noticed that a protein called AprA secreted by growing cells functions as a repellent for cells, causing cells to move away from a source of AprA. We then found that AprA has structural similarity to a human secreted protein called dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), and that DPPIV is a repellent for human neutrophils. In animal models of ARDS, inhalation of DPPIV or DPPIV mimetics blocks neutrophil influx into the lungs. To move DPPIV or DPPIV mimetics into the clinic, we need to know how this repulsion works to understand possible drug interactions and side effects. Combining biochemistry and genetics in to elucidate the AprA signal transduction pathway, followed by drug studies in human neutrophils to determine similarities and differences between neutrophil and chemorepulsion, will hopefully lead to the safe use of DPPIV or DPPIV mimetics in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.710005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326840PMC
July 2021

Extracellular signaling in Dictyostelium.

Int J Dev Biol 2019 ;63(8-9-10):395-405

Department of Biology, Texas A∧M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

In the last few decades, we have learned a considerable amount about how eukaryotic cells communicate with each other, and what it is the cells are telling each other. The simplicity of Dictyostelium discoideum, and the wide variety of available tools to study this organism, makes it the equivalent of a hydrogen atom for cell and developmental biology. Studies using Dictyostelium have pioneered a good deal of our understanding of eukaryotic cell communication. In this review, we will present a brief overview of how Dictyostelium cells use extracellular signals to attract each other, repel each other, sense their local cell density, sense whether the nearby cells are starving or stressed, count themselves to organize the formation of structures containing a regulated number of cells, sense the volume they are in, and organize their multicellular development. Although we are probably just beginning to learn what the cells are telling each other, the elucidation of Dictyostelium extracellular signals has already led to the development of possible therapeutics for human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.190259rgDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986813PMC
July 2020

Reproductive Bet-Hedging and Existence in Vernal Pools as Components of Life History.

Biol Bull 2019 10 15;237(2):111-118. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Despite the fact that has been studied for more than 200 years, we know surprisingly little about its life history. We show that embryos hatch sporadically over a period ranging from a few days to nine months. We also report, for what seems to be the first time, the presence of in a vernal pool. Phylogenetic analysis and sexual crossing show that this is a member of the cosmopolitan Vulgaris clade and is not reproductively isolated from other members of the clade. Our findings lead us to hypothesize that evolved in an unstable freshwater habitat in which survival required that its life cycle include the use of a bet-hedging reproductive strategy and the formation of an embryo that is desiccation resistant and that can remain dormant for long periods of time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/705161DOI Listing
October 2019
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