Publications by authors named "Sara A Hurvitz"

90 Publications

Clinical evaluation of BCL-2/XL levels pre- and post- HER2-targeted therapy.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251163. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cell Biology and Ludwig Center at Harvard, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Our previous pre-clinical work defined BCL-2 induction as a critical component of the adaptive response to lapatinib-mediated inhibition of HER2. To determine whether a similar BCL-2 upregulation occurs in lapatinib-treated patients, we evaluated gene expression within tumor biopsies, collected before and after lapatinib or trastuzumab treatment, from the TRIO-B-07 clinical trial (NCT#00769470). We detected BCL2 mRNA upregulation in both HER2+/ER- as well as HER2+/ER+ patient tumors treated with lapatinib or trastuzumab. To address whether mRNA expression correlated with protein expression, we evaluated pre- and post-treatment tumors for BCL-2 via immunohistochemistry. Despite BCL2 mRNA upregulation within HER2+/ER- tumors, BCL-2 protein levels were undetectable in most of the lapatinib- or trastuzumab-treated HER2+/ER- tumors. BCL-2 upregulation was evident within the majority of lapatinib-treated HER2+/ER+ tumors and was often coupled with increased ER expression and decreased proliferation. Comparable BCL-2 upregulation was not observed within the trastuzumab-treated HER2+/ER+ tumors. Together, these results provide clinical validation of the BCL-2 induction associated with the adaptive response to lapatinib and support evaluation of BCL-2 inhibitors within the context of lapatinib and other HER2-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251163PLOS
May 2021

Neratinib + capecitabine sustains health-related quality of life in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and ≥ 2 prior HER2-directed regimens.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Purpose: To characterize health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) from the NALA phase 3 study.

Methods: In NALA (NCT01808573), patients were randomized 1:1 to neratinib + capecitabine (N + C) or lapatinib + capecitabine (L + C). HRQoL was assessed using seven prespecified scores from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality Of Life Questionnaire core module (QLQ-C30) and breast cancer-specific questionnaire (QLQ-BR23) at baseline and every 6 weeks. Descriptive statistics summarized scores over time, mixed models evaluated differences between treatment arms, and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to assess time to deterioration in HRQoL scores of ≥ 10 points.

Results: Of the 621 patients randomized in NALA, patients were included in the HRQoL analysis if they completed baseline and at least one follow-up questionnaire. The summary, global health status, physical functioning, fatigue, constipation, and systemic therapy side effects scores were stable over time with no persistent differences between treatment groups. There were no differences in time to deterioration (TTD) for the QLQ-C30 summary score between treatment arms; the hazard ratio (HR) for N + C vs. L + C was 0.94 (95% CI 0.63-1.40). Only the diarrhea score worsened significantly more in the N + C arm as compared to the L + C arm, and this remained over time (HR for TTD for N + C vs. L + C was 1.71 [95% CI 1.32-2.23]).

Conclusion: In NALA, patients treated with N + C maintained their global HRQoL over time, despite a worsening of the diarrhea-related scores. These results may help guide optimal treatment selection for HER2-positive MBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06217-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Sacituzumab Govitecan in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 04;384(16):1529-1541

From the Division of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center (A. Bardia), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (S.M.T.) - both in Boston; the University of California, Los Angeles, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles (S.A.H.); the Medical Oncology Department and the Department of Drug Development and Innovation, Institut Curie, Paris (D.L.), Institut Claudius Regaud, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole, Toulouse (F.D.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (V.D.) - all in France; the Department of General Medical Oncology and Multidisciplinary Breast Center, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (K.P.), and the Clinical Trials Conduct Unit (P.A.), Institut Jules Bordet-Université Libre de Bruxelles (M.J.P.), Brussels - all in Belgium; the Medical Oncology Department and Breast Cancer Group, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (M.O.), and the International Breast Cancer Center, Quiron Group (J.C.) - all in Barcelona; Magee-Womens Hospital and the Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh (A. Brufsky); Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus (S.D.S.); Columbia University Irving Medical Center (K.K.) and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (T.T.) - both in New York; Northside Hospital, Atlanta (A.B.Z.); Florida Cancer Specialists, Tampa (R.W.); Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (F.L.); Rocky Mountain Cancer Centers, Greenwood Village, CO (S.D.); Baylor University Medical Center and Texas Oncology, Dallas (J.O.); Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal (C.F.); Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London (P.S.); University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill (L.A.C.); Gianni Bonadonna Foundation, Milan (L.G.); the Department of Medicine and Research, Hämatologisch-Onkologische Gemeinschaftspraxis am Bethanien-Krankenhaus, Frankfurt, Germany (S.L.); Immunomedics, Morris Plains, NJ (D.M.G., Q.H., M.S.O., L.M.I.); and the University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (H.S.R.).

Background: Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer have a poor prognosis. Sacituzumab govitecan is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an antibody targeting the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop-2), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers, coupled to SN-38 (topoisomerase I inhibitor) through a proprietary hydrolyzable linker.

Methods: In this randomized, phase 3 trial, we evaluated sacituzumab govitecan as compared with single-agent chemotherapy of the physician's choice (eribulin, vinorelbine, capecitabine, or gemcitabine) in patients with relapsed or refractory metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. The primary end point was progression-free survival (as determined by blinded independent central review) among patients without brain metastases.

Results: A total of 468 patients without brain metastases were randomly assigned to receive sacituzumab govitecan (235 patients) or chemotherapy (233 patients). The median age was 54 years; all the patients had previous use of taxanes. The median progression-free survival was 5.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 6.3; 166 events) with sacituzumab govitecan and 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.6; 150 events) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.52; P<0.001). The median overall survival was 12.1 months (95% CI, 10.7 to 14.0) with sacituzumab govitecan and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 7.7) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.59; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with an objective response was 35% with sacituzumab govitecan and 5% with chemotherapy. The incidences of key treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (51% with sacituzumab govitecan and 33% with chemotherapy), leukopenia (10% and 5%), diarrhea (10% and <1%), anemia (8% and 5%), and febrile neutropenia (6% and 2%). There were three deaths owing to adverse events in each group; no deaths were considered to be related to sacituzumab govitecan treatment.

Conclusions: Progression-free and overall survival were significantly longer with sacituzumab govitecan than with single-agent chemotherapy among patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Myelosuppression and diarrhea were more frequent with sacituzumab govitecan. (Funded by Immunomedics; ASCENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02574455; EudraCT number, 2017-003019-21.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2028485DOI Listing
April 2021

Is weight-based IV dosing of trastuzumab preferable to SC fixed-dose in some patients? A systematic scoping review.

Breast 2021 Jun 18;57:95-103. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Amgen Global Health Economics, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320USA, USA. Electronic address:

Trastuzumab, a key treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer, is available in weight-based IV and fixed-dose (600 mg) SC formulations. While the Phase 3 HannaH trial indicated non-inferiority of the SC formulation, there is some concern that the target plasma concentration may not be reached in overweight/obese patients whereas low-body-weight patients may be at risk of toxicity. This scoping review evaluated whether overweight/obese patients are at risk of below-target exposure with fixed-dose SC trastuzumab, whether low-body-weight patients are at risk of increased toxicity, especially cardiotoxicity, and whether IV and SC trastuzumab are equivalent in terms of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (e.g. infections). Thirty-seven publications that met the eligibility criteria were included. Body weight is not an important determinant of exposure to trastuzumab at steady state (i.e. pre-dose cycle 8); however, real-world evidence suggests that the target concentration (20 μg/mL) may not be reached with the first SC dose in overweight/obese patients. There is no evidence that low-body-weight patients are at increased risk of cardiotoxicity with SC trastuzumab, although this may be confounded by the higher rate of cardiovascular comorbidities in overweight patients. In Phase 3 trials, SC trastuzumab was associated with higher rates of ISRs, ADAs and SAEs, the latter often requiring hospitalization and occurring during adjuvant treatment when patients are not burdened by chemotherapy. The route of administration of trastuzumab (IV vs SC) in different treatment settings should be discussed with the patient, taking into account the risks and benefits associated with each route.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044716PMC
June 2021

Phase I/II trial of exemestane, ribociclib, and everolimus in women with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer after progression on CDK4/6 inhibitors (TRINITI-1).

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Breast Medical Oncolohy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

PURPOSE Standard-of-care treatment for metastatic hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer includes endocrine therapy (ET) combined with a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor (CDK4/6i). Optimal treatment after progression on CDK4/6i is unknown. The TRINITI-1 trial investigated ribociclib, a CDK4/6i which has recently demonstrated significant OS benefit in 2 phase III trials, in combination with everolimus and exemestane in patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer (ABC) after progression on a CDK4/6i. METHODS This multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase I/II study included patients with locally advanced/metastatic HR+/HER2- BC. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate (CBR) at week 24 among patients with ET-refractory disease with progression on a CDK4/6i. Other endpoints included safety and biomarker analysis. RESULTS Of 104 patients enrolled (phases I and II), 96 had prior CDK4/6i. Recommended phase II doses (all once daily days 1-28 of 28-day cycle) were ribociclib 300 mg, everolimus 2.5 mg, and exemestane 25 mg (group 1) and ribociclib 200 mg, everolimus 5 mg, and exemestane 25 mg (group 2). CBR among 95 efficacy-evaluable patients (phases I and II) at week 24 was 41.1% (95% CI, 31.1%-51.6%), which met the primary endpoint (predetermined threshold: 10%). Common adverse events included neutropenia (69.2%) and stomatitis (40.4%). No new safety signals were observed; no grade 3/4 QTc prolongation was reported. CONCLUSION Preliminary TRINITI-1 safety and efficacy results support further investigation of CDK4/6 blockade and targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in patients with ETrefractory HR+/HER2- ABC after progression on a CDK4/6i.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2114DOI Listing
March 2021

Baseline characteristics and first-line treatment patterns in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the SystHERs registry.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Feb 28. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Florida Precision Oncology, a Division of 21st Century Oncology, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Background: Systemic Therapies for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Study (SystHERs, NCT01615068) was a prospective, observational disease registry designed to identify treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in real-world treatment settings.

Methods: SystHERs enrolled patients aged ≥ 18 years with recently diagnosed HER2-positive MBC. Treatment regimens and clinical management were determined by the treating physician. In this analysis, patients were compared descriptively by first-line treatment, age, or race. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations between baseline variables and treatment selections. Clinical outcomes were assessed in patients treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin [H]) + pertuzumab (Perjeta [P]).

Results: Patients were enrolled from June 2012 to June 2016. As of February 22, 2018, 948 patients from 135 US treatment sites had received first-line treatment, including HP (n = 711), H without P (n = 175), or no H (n = 62) (with or without chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy). Overall, 68.7% received HP + taxane and 9.3% received H without P + taxane. Patients aged < 50 years received HP (versus H without P) more commonly than those ≥ 70 years (odds ratio 4.20; 95% CI, 1.62-10.89). Chemotherapy was less common in patients ≥ 70 years (68.2%) versus those < 50 years (88.0%) or 50-69 years (87.4%). Patients treated with HP had median overall survival of 53.8 months and median progression-free survival of 15.8 months.

Conclusions: Our analysis of real-world data shows that most patients with HER2-positive MBC received first-line treatment with HP + taxane. However, older patients were less likely to receive dual HER2-targeted therapy and chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06103-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Do all patients with cancer experience fatigue? A longitudinal study of fatigue trajectories in women with breast cancer.

Cancer 2021 Apr 19;127(8):1334-1344. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Fatigue is a common and expected side effect of cancer treatment. However, the majority of studies to date have focused on average levels of fatigue, which may obscure important individual differences in the severity and course of fatigue over time. The current study was designed to identify distinct trajectories of fatigue from diagnosis into survivorship in a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer.

Methods: Women with stage 0 to stage IIIA breast cancer (270 women) were recruited before (neo)adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or endocrine therapy and completed assessments at baseline; posttreatment; and at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months of follow-up. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of fatigue, and differences among the trajectory groups with regard to demographic, medical, and psychosocial variables were examined.

Results: Five distinct trajectories of fatigue were identified: Stable Low (66%), with low levels of fatigue across assessments; Stable High (13%), with high fatigue across assessments; Decreasing (4%), with high fatigue at baseline that resolved over time; Increasing (9%), with low fatigue at baseline that increased over time; and Reactive (8%), with increased fatigue after treatment that resolved over time. Both psychological and treatment-related factors were found to be associated with fatigue trajectories, with psychological factors most strongly linked to high fatigue at the beginning of and over the course of treatment.

Conclusions: There is considerable variability in the experience of fatigue among women with early-stage breast cancer. Although the majority of women report relatively low fatigue, those with a history of depression and elevated psychological distress may be at risk of more severe and persistent fatigue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33327DOI Listing
April 2021

Activation of the IFN Signaling Pathway is Associated with Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Activation in ER-Positive Breast Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) are highly effective against estrogen receptor-positive (ER)/HER2 breast cancer; however, intrinsic and acquired resistance is common. Elucidating the molecular features of sensitivity and resistance to CDK4/6i may lead to identification of predictive biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets, paving the way toward improving patient outcomes.

Experimental Design: Parental breast cancer cells and their endocrine-resistant derivatives (EndoR) were used. Derivatives with acquired resistance to palbociclib (PalboR) were generated from parental and estrogen deprivation-resistant MCF7 and T47D cells. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed in palbociclib-sensitive and PalboR lines. Gene expression data from CDK4/6i neoadjuvant trials and publicly available datasets were interrogated for correlations of gene signatures and patient outcomes.

Results: Parental and EndoR breast cancer lines showed varying degrees of sensitivity to palbociclib. Transcriptomic analysis of these cell lines identified an association between high IFN signaling and reduced CDK4/6i sensitivity; thus an "IFN-related palbociclib-resistance Signature" (IRPS) was derived. In two neoadjuvant trials of CDK4/6i plus endocrine therapy, IRPS and other IFN-related signatures were highly enriched in patients with tumors exhibiting intrinsic resistance to CDK4/6i. PalboR derivatives displayed dramatic activation of IFN/STAT1 signaling compared with their short-term treated or untreated counterparts. In primary ER/HER2 tumors, the IRPS score was significantly higher in lumB than lumA subtype and correlated with increased gene expression of immune checkpoints, endocrine resistance, and poor prognosis.

Conclusions: Aberrant IFN signaling is associated with intrinsic resistance to CDK4/6i. Experimentally, acquired resistance to palbociclib is associated with activation of the IFN pathway, warranting additional studies to clarify its involvement in resistance to CDK4/6i.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-4191DOI Listing
February 2021

Phase II randomized trial of a non-steroidal mouth wash for prevention and treatment of stomatitis in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer treated with everolimus.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 30;12:1758835920967259. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Stomatitis is a frequent dose limiting toxicity of everolimus, an approved therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer. No randomized trials of a prophylactic measure to prevent mucositis have been reported.

Methods: We conducted a phase II, open-label trial in which patients with metastatic breast cancer starting everolimus were randomized to best supportive care (BSC) prophylactic use of an oral mucoadhesive, non-steroid containing mouth wash. The primary endpoint was rate of any grade stomatitis as reported by the treating physicians. Secondary endpoints were severity of stomatitis according to the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) and rates of everolimus dose reduction or discontinuation due to mucositis.

Results: Of 61 evaluable patients, 32 were randomized to and treated with oral mucoadhesive and 29 with BSC. Any grade stomatitis developed in 46.9% (15/32) of study arm and 65.5% (19/29) of BSC arm patients ( = 0.14). The difference between the two arms was significantly in favor of the mucoadhesive arm when mucositis was scored according to the OMAS with average score of 0.3 in study arm 0.5 in the control arm ( = 0.03). There were fewer dose adjustments or therapy discontinuations in the study arm compared with BSC (16% 31%, respectively) but the difference did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: Here we provide early evidence from the first randomized trial supporting the use of oral prophylactic mucoadhesive for everolimus-associated stomatitis. A trial comparing prophylactic oral mucoadhesive to steroid mouth wash may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920967259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711222PMC
November 2020

Pathologic and molecular responses to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and/or lapatinib from a phase II randomized trial in HER2-positive breast cancer (TRIO-US B07).

Nat Commun 2020 11 17;11(1):5824. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

In this multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II investigator-sponsored neoadjuvant trial with funding provided by Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline (TRIO-US B07, Clinical Trials NCT00769470), participants with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (N = 128) were recruited from 13 United States oncology centers throughout the Translational Research in Oncology network. Participants were randomized to receive trastuzumab (T; N = 34), lapatinib (L; N = 36), or both (TL; N = 58) as HER2-targeted therapy, with each participant given one cycle of this designated anti-HER2 therapy alone followed by six cycles of standard combination chemotherapy with the same anti-HER2 therapy. The primary objective was to estimate the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) at the time of surgery in each of the three arms. In the intent-to-treat population, we observed similar pCR rates between T (47%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30-65%) and TL (52%, 95% CI 38-65%), and a lower pCR rate with L (25%, 95% CI 13-43%). In the T arm, 100% of participants completed all protocol-specified treatment prior to surgery, as compared to 69% in the L arm and 74% in the TL arm. Tumor or tumor bed tissue was collected whenever possible pre-treatment (N = 110), after one cycle of HER2-targeted therapy alone (N = 89), and at time of surgery (N = 59). Higher-level amplification of HER2 and hormone receptor (HR)-negative status were associated with a higher pCR rate. Large shifts in the tumor, immune, and stromal gene expression occurred after one cycle of HER2-targeted therapy. In contrast to pCR rates, the L-containing arms exhibited greater proliferation reduction than T at this timepoint. Immune expression signatures increased in all arms after one cycle of HER2-targeted therapy, decreasing again by the time of surgery. Our results inform approaches to early assessment of sensitivity to anti-HER2 therapy and shed light on the role of the immune microenvironment in response to HER2-targeted agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19494-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673127PMC
November 2020

HER2DX: a tool that might inform treatment choices for HER2-positive breast cancer.

Authors:
Sara A Hurvitz

Lancet Oncol 2020 11;21(11):1392-1393

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30552-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Innovations in targeted therapies for triple negative breast cancer.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2021 Feb;33(1):34-47

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by a lack of targets, namely hormone receptor (HR) expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification. Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Though TNBC constitutes approximately 10-15% of breast cancer, it is disproportionally lethal, but it is hoped that outcomes will improve as targetable oncogenic drivers are identified.

Recent Findings: Translational work in TNBC has focused on subsets defined by defects in homologous recombination repair, immune cell infiltration, or programmed death ligand receptor 1 expression, an over-active phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway, or expression of androgen receptors. Though not specific to TNBC, the novel cell surface antigen trophoblast antigen 2 has also been identified and successfully targeted. This work has led to Food and Drug Administration approvals for small molecule poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase inhibitors in patients with deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, the combination of nab-paclitaxel with immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies in the first-line metastatic setting for programmed death ligand receptor 1+ TNBC, and use of the antibody-drug conjugate sacituzumab govitecan in the later-line metastatic setting.

Summary: Identification of targetable oncogenic drivers in TNBC is an area of intense cancer biology research, hopefully translating to new therapies and improved outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GCO.0000000000000671DOI Listing
February 2021

Oncological care organisation during COVID-19 outbreak.

ESMO Open 2020 08;5(4)

Department of Medical Oncology, CHU de Liège, Liege, Belgium.

Background: COVID-19 appeared in late 2019, causing a pandemic spread. This led to a reorganisation of oncology care in order to reduce the risk of spreading infection between patients and healthcare staff. Here we analysed measures taken in major oncological units in Europe and the USA.

Methods: A 46-item survey was sent by email to representatives of 30 oncological centres in 12 of the most affected countries. The survey inquired about preventive measures established to reduce virus spread, patient education and processes employed for risk reduction in each oncological unit.

Results: Investigators from 21 centres in 10 countries answered the survey between 10 April and 6 May 2020. A triage for patients with cancer before hospital or clinic visits was conducted by 90.5% of centres before consultations, 95.2% before day care admissions and in 100% of the cases before overnight hospitalisation by means of phone calls, interactive online platforms, swab test and/or chest CT scan. Permission for caregivers to attend clinic visits was limited in many centres, with some exceptions (ie, for non-autonomous patients, in the case of a new diagnosis, when bad news was expected and for terminally ill patients). With a variable delay period, the use of personal protective equipment was unanimously mandatory, and in many centres, only targeted clinical and instrumental examinations were performed. Telemedicine was implemented in 76.2% of the centres. Separated pathways for COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients were organised, with separate inpatient units and day care areas. Self-isolation was required for COVID-19-positive or symptomatic staff, while return to work policies required a negative swab test in 76.2% of the centres.

Conclusion: Many pragmatic measures have been quickly implemented to deal with the health emergency linked to COVID-19, although the relative efficacy of each intervention should be further analysed in large observational studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-000853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451457PMC
August 2020

Targeting activated PI3K/mTOR signaling overcomes acquired resistance to CDK4/6-based therapies in preclinical models of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2020 08 14;22(1):89. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Combined targeting of CDK4/6 and ER is now the standard of care for patients with advanced ER+/HER2- breast cancer. However, acquired resistance to these therapies frequently leads to disease progression. As such, it is critical to identify the mechanisms by which resistance to CDK4/6-based therapies is acquired and also identify therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance.

Methods: In this study, we developed and characterized multiple in vitro and in vivo models of acquired resistance to CDK4/6-based therapies. Resistant models were screened by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) for cell signaling changes that are activated in resistance.

Results: We show that either a direct loss of Rb or loss of dependence on Rb signaling confers cross-resistance to inhibitors of CDK4/6, while PI3K/mTOR signaling remains activated. Treatment with the p110α-selective PI3K inhibitor, alpelisib (BYL719), completely blocked the progression of acquired CDK4/6 inhibitor-resistant xenografts in the absence of continued CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment in models of both PIK3CA mutant and wild-type ER+/HER2- breast cancer. Triple combination therapy against PI3K:CDK4/6:ER prevented and/or delayed the onset of resistance in treatment-naive ER+/HER2- breast cancer models.

Conclusions: These data support the clinical investigation of p110α-selective inhibitors of PI3K, such as alpelisib, in patients with ER+/HER2- breast cancer who have progressed on CDK4/6:ER-based therapies. Our data also support the investigation of PI3K:CDK4/6:ER triple combination therapy to prevent the onset of resistance to the combination of endocrine therapy plus CDK4/6 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-01320-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427086PMC
August 2020

Globo H-KLH vaccine adagloxad simolenin (OBI-822)/OBI-821 in patients with metastatic breast cancer: phase II randomized, placebo-controlled study.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 07;8(2)

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Purpose: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase II trial assessed the efficacy and safety of adagloxad simolenin (OBI-822; a Globo H epitope covalently linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)) with adjuvant OBI-821 in metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Methods: At 40 sites in Taiwan, USA, Korea, India, and Hong Kong, patients with MBC of any molecular subtype and ≤2 prior progressive disease events with stable/responding disease after the last anticancer regimen were randomized (2:1) to adagloxad simolenin (AS/OBI-821) or placebo, subcutaneously for nine doses with low-dose cyclophosphamide. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, correlation of clinical outcome with humoral immune response and Globo H expression, and safety.

Results: Of 349 patients randomized, 348 received study drug. Patients with the following breast cancer subtypes were included: hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) (70.4%), triple negative (12.9%), and HER2+ (16.7%), similarly distributed between treatment arms. Median PFS was 7.6 months (95% CI: 6.5-10.9) with AS/OBI-821 (n=224) and 9.2 months (95% CI: 7.3-11.3) with placebo (n=124) (HR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.74-1.25; p=0.77), with no difference by breast cancer subtype. AS/OBI-821 recipients with anti-Globo H IgG titer ≥1:160 had significantly longer median PFS (11.1 months (95% CI: 9.3-17.6)) versus those with titers <1:160 (5.5 months (95% CI: 3.7-5.6); HR=0.52; p<0.0001) and placebo recipients (HR=0.71; p=0.03). Anti-KLH immune responses were similar at week 40 between AS/OBI-821 recipients with anti-Globo IgG titer ≥1:160 and those with anti-Globo IgG titer <1:160. The most common adverse events with AS/OBI-821 were grade 1 or 2 injection site reactions (56.7%; placebo, 8.9%) and fever (20.1%; placebo, 6.5%).

Conclusion: AS/OBI-821 did not improve PFS in patients with previously treated MBC. However, humoral immune response to Globo H correlated with improved PFS in AS/OBI-821 recipients, leading the way to further marker-driven studies. Treatment was well tolerated.NCT01516307.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2019-000342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380846PMC
July 2020

Neratinib Plus Capecitabine Versus Lapatinib Plus Capecitabine in HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Previously Treated With ≥ 2 HER2-Directed Regimens: Phase III NALA Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 17;38(27):3138-3149. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Gunma, Japan.

Purpose: NALA (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01808573) is a randomized, active-controlled, phase III trial comparing neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), plus capecitabine (N+C) against lapatinib, a reversible dual TKI, plus capecitabine (L+C) in patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with ≥ 2 previous HER2-directed MBC regimens.

Methods: Patients, including those with stable, asymptomatic CNS disease, were randomly assigned 1:1 to neratinib (240 mg once every day) plus capecitabine (750 mg/m twice a day 14 d/21 d) with loperamide prophylaxis, or to lapatinib (1,250 mg once every day) plus capecitabine (1,000 mg/m twice a day 14 d/21 d). Coprimary end points were centrally confirmed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). NALA was considered positive if either primary end point was met (α split between end points). Secondary end points were time to CNS disease intervention, investigator-assessed PFS, objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DoR), clinical benefit rate, safety, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Results: A total of 621 patients from 28 countries were randomly assigned (N+C, n = 307; L+C, n = 314). Centrally reviewed PFS was improved with N+C (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93; stratified log-rank 0059). The OS HR was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.07; 2098). Fewer interventions for CNS disease occurred with N+C versus L+C (cumulative incidence, 22.8% 29.2%; 043). ORRs were N+C 32.8% (95% CI, 27.1 to 38.9) and L+C 26.7% (95% CI, 21.5 to 32.4; 1201); median DoR was 8.5 versus 5.6 months, respectively (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.74; .0004). The most common all-grade adverse events were diarrhea (N+C 83% L+C 66%) and nausea (53% 42%). Discontinuation rates and HRQoL were similar between groups.

Conclusion: N+C significantly improved PFS and time to intervention for CNS disease versus L+C. No new N+C safety signals were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499616PMC
September 2020

Outcomes in Clinically Relevant Patient Subgroups From the EMBRACA Study: Talazoparib vs Physician's Choice Standard-of-Care Chemotherapy.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Feb 21;4(1):pkz085. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Interdisziplinäres Onkologisches Zentrum München, Munich, Germany.

Background: Talazoparib is a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that causes death in cells with breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 or 2 () mutations.

Methods: EMBRACA (NCT01945775) was a randomized phase III study comparing efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of talazoparib (1 mg) with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT: capecitabine, eribulin, gemcitabine, vinorelbine) in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer with a germline (g) mutation. Prespecified patient subgroups were analyzed for progression-free survival, objective response, clinical benefit, duration of response, and safety. PROs were evaluated in hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroups.

Results: Of 431 patients, 287 were randomly assigned to talazoparib and 144 to PCT. Prespecified subgroup analyses showed prolonged progression-free survival with talazoparib (HR+/HER2-: hazard ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval = 0.32 to 0.71; TNBC: hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.41 to 0.87) and greater objective response rate (odds ratio = 1.97 to 11.89), clinical benefit rate (odds ratio = 2.05 to 7.77), and duration of response with talazoparib in all subgroups. PROs in HR+/HER2- and TNBC subgroups showed consistent overall improvement and delay in time to definitive clinically meaningful deterioration with talazoparib vs PCT. Across subgroups, common adverse events included anemia, fatigue, and nausea with talazoparib and neutropenia, fatigue, and nausea with PCT. Seven patients (2.4%) receiving talazoparib had grade II alopecia and 22.7% had grade I alopecia.

Conclusions: Across all patient subgroups with g-mutated advanced breast cancer, talazoparib demonstrated clinically significant superiority in outcomes compared with PCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkz085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050154PMC
February 2020

Mechanistic basis for PI3K inhibitor antitumor activity and adverse reactions in advanced breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jun 9;181(2):233-248. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is involved in several physiological processes, including glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth. Hyperactivation of this signaling pathway has been associated with tumorigenesis and resistance to treatment in various cancer types. Mutations that activate PIK3CA, encoding the PI3K isoform p110α, are common in breast cancer, particularly in the hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) subtype. A number of PI3K inhibitors have been developed and evaluated for potential clinical use in combinations targeting multiple signaling pathways in cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of PI3K inhibitor mechanisms of action for antitumor activity and adverse events in advanced breast cancer (ABC).

Methods: Published results from phase 3 trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of PI3K inhibitors in patients with ABC and relevant literature were reviewed.

Results: Although PI3K inhibitors have been shown to prolong progression-free survival (PFS), the therapeutic index is often unfavorable. Adverse events, such as hyperglycemia, rash, and diarrhea are frequently observed in these patients. In particular, hyperglycemia is intrinsically linked to the inhibition of PI3Kα, a key mediator of insulin signaling. Off-target effects, including mood disorders and liver toxicity, have also been associated with some PI3K inhibitors.

Conclusion: Recent clinical trial results show that specifically targeting PI3Kα can improve PFS and clinical benefit. Broad inhibition of class I PI3Ks appears to result in an unfavorable safety profile due to off-target effects, limiting the clinical utility of the early PI3K inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05618-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Talazoparib in Patients with a Germline BRCA-Mutated Advanced Breast Cancer: Detailed Safety Analyses from the Phase III EMBRACA Trial.

Oncologist 2020 03 25;25(3):e439-e450. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background: In the EMBRACA phase III study (NCT01945775), talazoparib was associated with a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT) in germline BRCA1/2-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). Herein, the safety profile of talazoparib is explored in detail.

Materials And Methods: Overall, 412 patients received ≥1 dose of talazoparib (n = 286) or PCT (n = 126). Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated, including timing, duration, and potential overlap of selected AEs. The relationship between talazoparib plasma exposure and grade ≥3 anemia was analyzed. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models assessed the impact of dose reductions on PFS. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with common AEs and health resource utilization (HRU) were assessed in both treatment arms.

Results: The most common AEs with talazoparib were hematologic (195 [68.2%] patients) and typically occurred within the first 3-4 months of receiving talazoparib. Grade 3-4 anemia lasted approximately 7 days for both arms. Overlapping grade 3-4 hematologic AEs were infrequent with talazoparib. Higher talazoparib exposure was associated with grade ≥3 anemia. Permanent discontinuation of talazoparib due to hematologic AEs was low (<2%). A total of 150 (52.4%) patients receiving talazoparib had AEs associated with dose reduction. Hematologic toxicities were managed by supportive care medication (including transfusion) and dose modifications. Among patients with anemia or nausea and/or vomiting AEs, PROs favored talazoparib. After accounting for the treatment-emergent period, talazoparib was generally associated with a lower rate of hospitalization and supportive care medication use compared with chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Talazoparib was associated with superior efficacy, favorable PROs, and lower HRU rate versus chemotherapy in gBRCA-mutated ABC. Toxicities were manageable with talazoparib dose modification and supportive care.

Implications For Practice: Talazoparib was generally well tolerated in patients with germline BRCA-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in the EMBRACA trial. Common toxicities with talazoparib were primarily hematologic and infrequently resulted in permanent drug discontinuation (<2% of patients discontinued talazoparib due to hematologic toxicity). Hematologic toxicities typically occurred during the first 3-4 months of treatment and were managed by dose modifications and supportive care measures. A significant efficacy benefit, improved patient-reported outcomes, lower rate of health resource utilization and a tolerable safety profile support incorporating talazoparib into routine management of germline BRCA-mutated locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066700PMC
March 2020

De Novo Versus Recurrent HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, and Survival from the SystHERs Registry.

Oncologist 2020 02 14;25(2):e214-e222. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Limited data exist describing real-world treatment of de novo and recurrent HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Materials And Methods: The Systemic Therapies for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Study (SystHERs) was a fully enrolled (2012-2016), observational, prospective registry of patients with HER2-positive MBC. Patients aged ≥18 years and ≤6 months from HER2-positive MBC diagnosis were treated and assessed per their physician's standard practice. The primary endpoint was to characterize treatment patterns by de novo versus recurrent MBC status, compared descriptively. Secondary endpoints included patient characteristics, progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS, by Kaplan-Meier method; hazard ratio [HR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] by Cox regression), and patient-reported outcomes.

Results: Among 977 eligible patients, 49.8% (n = 487) had de novo and 50.2% (n = 490) had recurrent disease. A higher proportion of de novo patients had hormone receptor-negative disease (34.9% vs. 24.9%), bone metastasis (57.1% vs. 45.9%), and/or liver metastasis (41.9% vs. 33.1%), and a lower proportion had central nervous system metastasis (4.3% vs. 13.5%). De novo patients received first-line regimens containing chemotherapy (89.7%), trastuzumab (95.7%), and pertuzumab (77.8%) more commonly than recurrent patients (80.0%, 85.9%, and 68.6%, respectively). De novo patients had longer median PFS (17.7 vs. 11.9 months; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59-0.80; p < .0001) and OS (not estimable vs. 44.5 months; HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.69; p < .0001).

Conclusion: Patients with de novo versus recurrent HER2-positive MBC exhibit different disease characteristics and survival durations, suggesting these groups have distinct outcomes. These differences may affect future clinical trial design. Clinical trial identification number. NCT01615068 (clinicaltrials.gov).

Implications For Practice: SystHERs was an observational registry of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC), which is a large, modern, real-world data set for this population and, thereby, provides a unique opportunity to study patients with de novo and recurrent HER2-positive MBC. In SystHERs, patients with de novo disease had different baseline demographics and disease characteristics, had superior clinical outcomes, and more commonly received first-line chemotherapy and/or trastuzumab versus those with recurrent disease. Data from this and other studies suggest that de novo and recurrent MBC have distinct outcomes, which may have implications for disease management strategies and future clinical study design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011632PMC
February 2020

Phase 1 Dose Escalation Study of the Allosteric AKT Inhibitor BAY 1125976 in Advanced Solid Cancer-Lack of Association between Activating AKT Mutation and AKT Inhibition-Derived Efficacy.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Dec 10;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Bayer AG, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

This open-label, phase I first-in-human study (NCT01915576) of BAY 1125976, a highly specific and potent allosteric inhibitor of AKT1/2, aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose of BAY 1125976 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Oral dose escalation was investigated with a continuous once daily (QD) treatment (21 days/cycle) and a twice daily (BID) schedule. A dose expansion in 28 patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, including nine patients harboring the mutation, was performed at the recommended phase 2 dose (R2D) of 60 mg BID. Dose-limiting toxicities (Grades 3-4) were increased in transaminases, γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase in four patients in both schedules and stomach pain in one patient. Of the 78 patients enrolled, one patient had a partial response, 30 had stable disease, and 38 had progressive disease. The clinical benefit rate was 27.9% among 43 patients treated at the R2D. mutation status was not associated with tumor response. Genetic analyses revealed additional mutations that could promote tumor cell growth despite the inhibition of AKT1/2. BAY 1125976 was well tolerated and inhibited AKT1/2 signaling but did not lead to radiologic or clinical tumor responses. Thus, the refinement of a selection of biomarkers for AKT inhibitors is needed to improve their monotherapy activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966663PMC
December 2019

Tucatinib, Trastuzumab, and Capecitabine for HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2020 02 11;382(7):597-609. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

From M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (R.K.M., G.H.); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (S. Loi); the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (A.O.), and Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Edinburgh (D.C.) - both in the United Kingdom; Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta (E.P.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology-Nashville (E.H.) and Vanderbilt University Medical Center (V.A.), Nashville; University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center-Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles (S.A.H., D.S.), and Stanford Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Palo Alto (M.P.) - both in California; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (N.U.L., I.K., E.P.W.); University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora (V.B.); Duke Cancer Institute, Durham (C.A.), and University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill (L.A.C.) - both in North Carolina; University Health Network, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (P.L.B.), and British Columbia Cancer, Vancouver (K.G.) - both in Canada; Hospital Universitario Vall D'Hebron, Barcelona (M.O.); Sygehus Lillebaelt-Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark (E.J.); Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France (T.B.); Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel (S.S.S.); Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (V.M.), and German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg (S. Loibl) - both in Germany; Hospital Cuf Descobertas R. Mário Botas, Lisbon, Portugal (S.B.); Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (F.P.D.); Third Medical Department, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg Cancer Research Institute-Center for Clinical Cancer and Immunology Trials, and Cancer Cluster Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria (R.G.); Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, IRCCS, University of Milan, Milan (G.C.); and Seattle Genetics, Bothell, WA (M.C.P.-W., L.W., W.F.).

Background: Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer who have disease progression after therapy with multiple HER2-targeted agents have limited treatment options. Tucatinib is an investigational, oral, highly selective inhibitor of the HER2 tyrosine kinase.

Methods: We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine, who had or did not have brain metastases, to receive either tucatinib or placebo, in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine. The primary end point was progression-free survival among the first 480 patients who underwent randomization. Secondary end points, assessed in the total population (612 patients), included overall survival, progression-free survival among patients with brain metastases, confirmed objective response rate, and safety.

Results: Progression-free survival at 1 year was 33.1% in the tucatinib-combination group and 12.3% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.71; P<0.001), and the median duration of progression-free survival was 7.8 months and 5.6 months, respectively. Overall survival at 2 years was 44.9% in the tucatinib-combination group and 26.6% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.88; P = 0.005), and the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 17.4 months, respectively. Among the patients with brain metastases, progression-free survival at 1 year was 24.9% in the tucatinib-combination group and 0% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.69; P<0.001), and the median progression-free survival was 7.6 months and 5.4 months, respectively. Common adverse events in the tucatinib group included diarrhea, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting. Diarrhea and elevated aminotransferase levels of grade 3 or higher were more common in the tucatinib-combination group than in the placebo-combination group.

Conclusions: In heavily pretreated patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, including those with brain metastases, adding tucatinib to trastuzumab and capecitabine resulted in better progression-free survival and overall survival outcomes than adding placebo; the risks of diarrhea and elevated aminotransferase levels were higher with tucatinib. (Funded by Seattle Genetics; HER2CLIMB ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02614794.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1914609DOI Listing
February 2020

Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in Previously Treated HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2020 02 11;382(7):610-621. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

From Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (S.M.); Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (C.S., J.C.), and IOB Institute of Oncology, Quiron Group, Barcelona and Madrid (J.C.); Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (T.Y.), National Cancer Center Hospital (K.T.), the Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (Y.I.), and the Advanced Cancer Translational Research Institute, Showa University (J.T.), Tokyo, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (H.I.), Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (J.T.), Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (K.A.), and the National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka (E.T.) - all in Japan; Samsung Medical Center (Y.H.P.), Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (S.-B.K.), Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System (J. Sohn), and Seoul National University Hospital, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.-A.I.), Seoul, and the National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi (K.S.L.) - all in South Korea; Institut Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Sud, Villejuif (F.A.), and Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (C.P.) - both in France; the US Oncology Network, Virginia Cancer Specialists, Arlington (N.D.); the University of California, Los Angeles-Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles (S.A.H.); Daiichi Sankyo, Basking Ridge, NJ (C.L., S.C., L.Z., J. Shahidi, A.Y.); and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (I.K.).

Background: Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201) is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibody, a cleavable tetrapeptide-based linker, and a cytotoxic topoisomerase I inhibitor. In a phase 1 dose-finding study, a majority of the patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer had a response to trastuzumab deruxtecan (median response duration, 20.7 months). The efficacy of trastuzumab deruxtecan in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab emtansine requires confirmation.

Methods: In this two-part, open-label, single-group, multicenter, phase 2 study, we evaluated trastuzumab deruxtecan in adults with pathologically documented HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who had received previous treatment with trastuzumab emtansine. In the first part of the study, we evaluated three different doses of trastuzumab deruxtecan to establish a recommended dose; in the second part, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the recommended dose. The primary end point was the objective response, according to independent central review. Key secondary end points were the disease-control rate, clinical-benefit rate, duration of response and progression-free survival, and safety.

Results: Overall, 184 patients who had undergone a median of six previous treatments received the recommended dose of trastuzumab deruxtecan (5.4 mg per kilogram of body weight). In the intention-to-treat analysis, a response to therapy was reported in 112 patients (60.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 53.4 to 68.0). The median duration of follow-up was 11.1 months (range, 0.7 to 19.9). The median response duration was 14.8 months (95% CI, 13.8 to 16.9), and the median duration of progression-free survival was 16.4 months (95% CI, 12.7 to not reached). During the study, the most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were a decreased neutrophil count (in 20.7% of the patients), anemia (in 8.7%), and nausea (in 7.6%). On independent adjudication, the trial drug was associated with interstitial lung disease in 13.6% of the patients (grade 1 or 2, 10.9%; grade 3 or 4, 0.5%; and grade 5, 2.2%).

Conclusions: Trastuzumab deruxtecan showed durable antitumor activity in a pretreated patient population with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. In addition to nausea and myelosuppression, interstitial lung disease was observed in a subgroup of patients and requires attention to pulmonary symptoms and careful monitoring. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo and AstraZeneca; DESTINY-Breast01 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03248492.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1914510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458671PMC
February 2020

Baseline Characteristics, Treatment Patterns, and Outcomes in Patients with HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer by Hormone Receptor Status from SystHERs.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 03 26;26(5):1105-1113. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Florida Precision Oncology, a division of 21st Century Oncology, Boca Raton, Florida.

Purpose: We report treatments and outcomes in a contemporary patient population with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) by hormone receptor (HR) status from the Systemic Therapies for HER2-positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Study (SystHERs).

Experimental Design: SystHERs (NCT01615068) was an observational, prospective registry study of U.S.-based patients with newly diagnosed HER2-positive MBC. Endpoints included treatment patterns and clinical outcomes.

Results: Of 977 eligible patients (enrolled from 2012 to 2016), 70.1% ( = 685) had HR-positive and 29.9% ( = 292) had HR-negative disease. Overall, 59.1% (405/685) of patients with HR-positive disease received any first-line endocrine therapy (with or without HER2-targeted therapy or chemotherapy); 34.9% (239/685) received HER2-targeted therapy + chemotherapy + sequential endocrine therapy. Patients with HR-positive versus HR-negative disease had longer median overall survival (OS; 53.0 vs 43.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.87). Compared with patients with high HR-positive staining (10%-100%, = 550), those with low HR-positive staining (1%-9%, = 60) received endocrine therapy less commonly (64.2% vs 33.3%) and had shorter median OS (53.8 vs 40.1 months). Similar median OS (43.4 vs 40.1 months) was observed in patients with HR-negative versus low HR-positive tumors (1%-9%).

Conclusions: Despite evidence that first-line HER2-targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and sequential endocrine therapy improves survival in patients with HR-positive, HER2-positive disease, only 34.9% of patients in this real-world setting received such treatment. Patients with low tumor HR positivity (1%-9%) had lower endocrine therapy use and worse survival than those with high tumor HR positivity (10%-100%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-2350DOI Listing
March 2020

Talazoparib in Patients with a Germline -Mutated Advanced Breast Cancer: Detailed Safety Analyses from the Phase III EMBRACA Trial.

Oncologist 2019 Nov 25. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background: In the EMBRACA phase III study (NCT01945775), talazoparib was associated with a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT) in germline -mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). Herein, the safety profile of talazoparib is explored in detail.

Materials And Methods: Overall, 412 patients received ≥1 dose of talazoparib ( = 286) or PCT ( = 126). Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated, including timing, duration, and potential overlap of selected AEs. The relationship between talazoparib plasma exposure and grade ≥3 anemia was analyzed. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models assessed the impact of dose reductions on PFS. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with common AEs and health resource utilization (HRU) were assessed in both treatment arms.

Results: The most common AEs with talazoparib were hematologic (195 [68.2%] patients) and typically occurred within the first 3-4 months of receiving talazoparib. Grade 3-4 anemia lasted approximately 7 days for both arms. Overlapping grade 3-4 hematologic AEs were infrequent with talazoparib. Higher talazoparib exposure was associated with grade ≥3 anemia. Permanent discontinuation of talazoparib due to hematologic AEs was low (<2%). A total of 150 (52.4%) patients receiving talazoparib had AEs associated with dose reduction. Hematologic toxicities were managed by supportive care medication (including transfusion) and dose modifications. Among patients with anemia or nausea and/or vomiting AEs, PROs favored talazoparib. After accounting for the treatment-emergent period, talazoparib was generally associated with a lower rate of hospitalization and supportive care medication use compared with chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Talazoparib was associated with superior efficacy, favorable PROs, and lower HRU rate versus chemotherapy in g-mutated ABC. Toxicities were manageable with talazoparib dose modification and supportive care.

Implications For Practice: Talazoparib was generally well tolerated in patients with germline -mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in the EMBRACA trial. Common toxicities with talazoparib were primarily hematologic and infrequently resulted in permanent drug discontinuation (<2% of patients discontinued talazoparib due to hematologic toxicity). Hematologic toxicities typically occurred during the first 3-4 months of treatment and were managed by dose modifications and supportive care measures. A significant efficacy benefit, improved patient-reported outcomes, lower rate of health resource utilization and a tolerable safety profile support incorporating talazoparib into routine management of germline -mutated locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0493DOI Listing
November 2019

Totality of Scientific Evidence in the Development of ABP 980, a Biosimilar to Trastuzumab.

Target Oncol 2019 12;14(6):647-656

Amgen Inc, 1 Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA, 91320, USA.

ABP 980 was developed as a biosimilar to trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), that is indicated for the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, early breast cancer (EBC), and metastatic gastric cancer. ABP 980 is approved in the United States, European Union, and Japan for all the indications of trastuzumab, based on the totality of evidence (TOE) gathered by the systematic step-wise accumulation of comparative analytical, preclinical, and clinical (pharmacokinetics [PK], efficacy, safety and immunogenicity) data for ABP 980 and trastuzumab reference product (RP). As a key first step of the ABP 980 biosimilar program, comprehensive analytical characterization of critical quality attributes established that ABP 980 is structurally and functionally similar to trastuzumab RP. Complementing these data, results of non-clinical pharmacology, toxicology, and toxicokinetic studies supported similarity between ABP 980 and trastuzumab RP. A randomized study in healthy subjects demonstrated clinical PK equivalence of ABP 980 relative to trastuzumab RP in these subjects. In the final clinical evaluation step, a randomized comparative study (LILAC) confirmed the lack of clinically meaningful differences between ABP 980 and trastuzumab RP in efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity in women with HER2-positive EBC in the neoadjuvant-adjuvant setting. Neoadjuvant EBC represented a sensitive homogenous population for biosimilar demonstrations, and the primary endpoint of pathologic complete response served as a sensitive surrogate endpoint. An important aspect of the LILAC study design is that it is the only study that evaluated the effect of switching from the trastuzumab RP to a trastuzumab biosimilar during the adjuvant phase. No new or unexpected safety signals emerged in the clinical evaluations, with the safety profile of ABP 980 consistent with that previously described for trastuzumab. Overall, the TOE data generated for ABP 980 support the conclusion that it is highly similar to trastuzumab RP, thus providing the scientific justification for extrapolation to all the approved indications of trastuzumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-019-00675-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875516PMC
December 2019

Potent Cell-Cycle Inhibition and Upregulation of Immune Response with Abemaciclib and Anastrozole in neoMONARCH, Phase II Neoadjuvant Study in HR/HER2 Breast Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 02 15;26(3):566-580. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Purpose: neoMONARCH assessed the biological effects of abemaciclib in combination with anastrozole in the neoadjuvant setting.

Patients And Methods: Postmenopausal women with stage I-IIIB HR/HER2 breast cancer were randomized to a 2-week lead-in of abemaciclib, anastrozole, or abemaciclib plus anastrozole followed by 14 weeks of the combination. The primary objective evaluated change in Ki67 from baseline to 2 weeks of treatment. Additional objectives included clinical, radiologic, and pathologic responses, safety, as well as gene expression changes related to cell proliferation and immune response.

Results: Abemaciclib, alone or in combination with anastrozole, achieved a significant decrease in Ki67 expression and led to potent cell-cycle arrest after 2 weeks of treatment compared with anastrozole alone. More patients in the abemaciclib-containing arms versus anastrozole alone achieved complete cell-cycle arrest (58%/68% vs. 14%, < 0.001). At the end of treatment, following 2 weeks lead-in and 14 weeks of combination therapy, 46% of intent-to-treat patients achieved a radiologic response, with pathologic complete response observed in 4%. The most common all-grade adverse events were diarrhea (62%), constipation (44%), and nausea (42%). Abemaciclib, anastrozole, and the combination inhibited cell-cycle processes and estrogen signaling; however, combination therapy resulted in increased cytokine signaling and adaptive immune response indicative of enhanced antigen presentation and activated T-cell phenotypes.

Conclusions: Abemaciclib plus anastrozole demonstrated biological and clinical activity with generally manageable toxicities in patients with HR/HER2 early breast cancer. Abemaciclib led to potent cell-cycle arrest, and in combination with anastrozole, enhanced immune activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498177PMC
February 2020

Advances in Targeted Therapies for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Drugs 2019 Jul;79(11):1217-1230

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 2336 Santa Monica, Suite 304, Santa Monica, Los Angeles, CA, 90404, USA.

While the outcomes for patients diagnosed with hormone receptor positive (HR+) and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers have continued to improve with the development of targeted therapies, the same cannot be said yet for those affected with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Currently, the mainstay of treatment for the 10-15% of patients diagnosed with TNBC remains cytotoxic chemotherapy, but it is hoped that through an enhanced characterization of TNBC biology, this disease will be molecularly delineated into subgroups with targetable oncogenic drivers. This review will focus on recent therapeutic innovations for TNBC, including poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-019-01155-4DOI Listing
July 2019

Is the duration of adjuvant trastuzumab debate still clinically relevant?

Authors:
Sara A Hurvitz

Lancet 2019 06 6;393(10191):2565-2567. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30946-8DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical features of pseudocirrhosis in metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Sep 7;177(2):409-417. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, 10945 Le Conte Ave, PVUB Suite 3360, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Purpose: Pseudocirrhosis has been demonstrated to mimic cirrhosis radiographically, but studies evaluating the pathophysiology and clinical features are lacking. To better understand the incidence, risk factors, clinical course, and etiology of pseudocirrhosis, we performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Methods: Of 374 patients treated for MBC from 2006 to 2012, 199 had imaging available for review. One radiologist evaluated computed tomography scans for evidence of pseudocirrhosis. Features of groups with and without pseudocirrhosis were compared by Kaplan-Meier product-limit survival estimates and log-rank tests. Wilcoxon Rank-Sum testing evaluated if patients more heavily treated were more likely to develop pseudocirrhosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models investigated factors associated with mortality.

Results: Pseudocirrhosis developed in 37 of 199 patients (19%). Of the patients with liver metastases, 55% developed pseudocirrhosis. Liver metastases were demonstrated in 100% of patients with pseudocirrhosis. Survival in the subset with liver metastases favored those without pseudocirrhosis, 189 versus 69 months (p = 0.01). The number of systemic regimens received were higher in patients with pseudocirrhosis (p = 0.01). Ascites was demonstrated in 68%, portal hypertension in 11%, and splenomegaly in 8% of patients with pseudocirrhosis.

Conclusions: Pseudocirrhosis does not occur in the absence of liver metastases, can manifest as hepatic decompensation, and appears to be associated with poorer survival amongst patients with hepatic metastases. Higher cumulative exposure to systemic therapy may be causative, instead of the previously held belief of pseudocirrhosis as an adverse effect of a particular systemic agent/class.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-019-05311-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664810PMC
September 2019