Publications by authors named "Santos Villafaina"

53 Publications

Effects of Dog-Assisted Education on Physical and Communicative Skills in Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities: A Pilot Study.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Animal-Assisted Intervention Office, King Juan Carlos University, Móstoles, 28933 Madrid, Spain.

Animal-assisted interventions have shown promising benefits in different populations such as children with cerebral palsy or autism spectrum disorder. Human-animal interaction leads to different physical, cognitive, and emotional benefits in the child. The aim of the current pilot study was to evaluate the effects of a dog-assisted education program on the postural, oculomotor, linguistic and autonomy dimensions in children affected by severe and multiple disabilities. Fourteen children aged 3-12 years and affected by intellectual and physical disabilities participated in a dog-assisted program consisted of 12 sessions. The intervention involved different types of activities, exercises, and games with the dogs. A strict protocol to ensure animal wellbeing and avoid any type of stress or fatigue was followed. Children who participated in the study improved their postural control, eye-motor coordination, expression of sensations and feelings, spontaneous interaction, autonomy, and confidence. However, these results must be taken with caution due to the lack of a control group and the heterogeneity of the participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230480PMC
June 2021

Psychophysiological response of military pilots in different combat flight maneuvers in a flight simulator.

Physiol Behav 2021 Sep 10;238:113483. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Spain; Grupo de Investigación en Cultura, Educación y Sociedad, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla 080002, Colombia. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the psychophysiological response during takeoff, landing, air-air attack and air-ground attack maneuvers.

Methods: A total of 11 expert pilots (age=33.36 (5.37)) from the Spanish Air Force participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants had to complete in a flight simulator the following missions: 1) takeoff; 2) Air-air attack; 3) Air-Ground attack, and 4) Landing. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were collected during all these maneuvers.

Results: Significant higher values of theta (during takeoff, air-air attack and air-ground attack) EEG power spectrum were obtained when compared to baseline. Significant difference in the P3 scalp location was observed between landing and takeoff maneuvers in the beta EEG power spectrum. Furthermore, significant lower values of HRV were obtained during takeoff, landing, air-air attack and air-ground attack when compared to baseline values. Also, landing showed a higher sympathetic response when compared to takeoff maneuver.

Conclusion: Takeoff, landing, air-air attack or air-ground attack maneuvers performed in a flight simulator produced significant changes in the electroencephalographic activity and autonomic modulation of professional pilots. Beta EEG power spectrum modifications suggest that landing maneuvers induced more attentional resources than takeoff. In the same line, a reduced HRV during landing was obtained when compared to takeoff. These results should be considered to training purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113483DOI Listing
September 2021

Neurophysiological and autonomic responses of high and low level chess players during difficult and easy chess endgames - A quantitative EEG and HRV study.

Physiol Behav 2021 08 8;237:113454. Epub 2021 May 8.

Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Avda: Universidad S/N, 10003, Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to analyze the heart rate variability (HRV) and the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum in low and high performance chess players during easy and difficult chess endgames. A total of 28 chess players participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were divided into two groups according to their ELO level (rating system used by the international chess federation): 1) high level chess players (more than 1600 of ELO score); and 2) low level chess players (ELO less than 1599 of ELO score). Chess players had to complete two easy and two difficult endgames while the electroencephalographic activity and heart rate variability were assessed. High level chess players exhibit more alpha EEG power spectrums (p-value>0.05) during difficult than during easy chess endgames in the occipital area (O1 and O2 electrodes). Moreover, high performance players showed a reduced autonomic modulation (p-value>0.05) during the difficult chess endgames which low performance players did not reach. These results could suggest that high level chess players adapt their neurophysiological response to the task demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113454DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of COVID-19 on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents and Children: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 25;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

HEME Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

The aim of the present systematic review was to assess and provide an up-to-date analysis of the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents. Thus, an electronic search of the literature, in two well-known databases (PubMed and Web of Science), was performed until February 2021 (without date restriction). PRISMA guideline methodology was employed and data regarding the HRQoL were extracted from eligible studies. Articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) children and/or adolescent population (4 to 19 years old); (b) HRQoL as a main assessment; (c) German, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English language; and (d) pre-pandemic and during pandemic HRQoL data. Following the initial search, 241 possible related articles were identified. A total of 79 articles were identified as duplicates. Moreover, 129 articles were removed after reading the title and abstract. Of the remaining 33 articles, 27 were removed since they were not focused on children or adolescents ( = 19), articles did not report pre- and post- pandemic HRQoL values ( = 6), articles were not focused on HRQoL ( = 6), and one article was an editorial. Finally, six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and, therefore, were included in the systematic review. A total of 3177 children and/or adolescents during COVID-19 were included in this systematic review. Three articles showed that COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the HRQoL of children and adolescents, and another did not report comparison between pre- and during COVID-19 pandemic, although a reduction in the HRQoL can be observed. Nevertheless, two articles did not find significant changes and another one did not report -values. Regarding sex differences, only two studies analyzed this topic, observing no differences between girls and boys in the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on HRQoL. Taking into account these results, this systematic review might confirm that COVID-19 has a negative impact on the HRQoL of children and/or adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123423PMC
April 2021

Association between 30-s Chair Stand-Up Test and Anthropometric Values, Vibration Perception Threshold, FHSQ, and 15-D in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Health Economy Motricity and Education (HEME), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, worldwide disease affecting more than 400 million people. This pathology involves several associated problems, such as diabetic neuropathy complications, obesity, and foot problems, both in terms of health and sensitivity.

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the relationships of the 30-s chair stand-up test with the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), the vibration perception threshold (VPT), and the 15-dimensional (15-D) questionnaire in T2DM people.

Methodology: Ninety participants with T2DM were assessed in terms of fat mass percentage, VPT, foot health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the 30-s chair stand-up test.

Results: The 30-s chair stand-up test was found to exhibit a moderate relationship with "physical activity" (rho = 0.441; ≤ 0.001) and "vigor" (rho = 0.443; ≤ 0.001) from FHSQ. The 30-s chair stand-up test was also found to be weakly associated with foot pain (rho = 0.358; = 0.001), 15-D total score (rho = 0.376; ≤ 0.001), "sleeping" (rho = 0.371; < 0.001), and "depression" (rho = 0.352; = 0.001).

Conclusions: The 30-s chair stand-up test is associated with "physical activity", "vigor", and "foot pain" from the FHSQ and the 15-D questionnaire total score and its dimensions "sleeping" and "depression" in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Therefore, following the results obtained, qualified clinicians can use the 30-s chair stand-up test as a good tool for monitoring and managing type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10030246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004132PMC
March 2021

Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Training on Stress, Depression, Anxiety, and Resilience in Healthy Adults During Coronavirus Disease 2019 Confinement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:643069. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

This study aimed to compare the effects of two intervention programs, (1) high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and (2) moderate-intensity training (MIT), on anxiety, depression, stress, and resilience during the confinement caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthy adults. A total of 67 adults who participated were randomly assigned to two groups: HIIT and MIT groups. The MIT group had to perform a home-based intervention based on aerobic exercises, whereas the HIIT group had to perform a home-based intervention based on HIIT exercises. The two groups (HIIT and MIT) had to complete the same physical exercise volume, 40 min per session (6 days per week) during the confinement period (6 weeks). Depression, anxiety, stress, and resilience were assessed before and after the intervention. Results showed that HIIT and MIT significantly reduced the stress, anxiety, and depression as well as increase the resilience ( < 0.05). Moreover, the improvements obtained in the HIIT group seem to be greater than those of the MIT group in depression ( < 0.05). HIIT and MIT decreased anxiety, stress, and depression as well as increased resilience during the COVID-19 confinement. In addition, the HIIT intervention seemed to be more beneficial to reduce depression than the MIT intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943442PMC
February 2021

The Role of Exercise to Reduce the Impact of Diabetes in the Seminal Quality: A Systematic Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Feb 10;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Specific Didactics, Faculty of Human Sciences and Education, Experimental Sciences Area, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

: One of the most relevant consequences of diabetes mellitus is the temporal or complete infertility which can happen in young individuals. Therefore, the current systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of exercise to reduce the impact of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in seminal quality and related parameters. : A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed and Web of Science databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines (PRISMA). The inclusion criteria were: (1) the study included at least one experimental and one comparison group, (2) the sample of the study was comprised of humans or animals with diabetes mellitus, (3) an intervention based on physical exercise was conducted, and (4) the study reported variables related to the seminal quality. : A total of 115 articles were identified. However, only six accomplished the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This systematic review includes a sample size of 260 participants (180 rats and 80 humans). Intervention ranged from 6 to 14 weeks, with 3-6 days per week. All interventions performed endurance training (50-70% VOmax or maximum heart rate). Physical exercise increased sperm count, motility, and morphology, as well as improved testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels. Moreover, physical exercise intervention reduced the percentages of sperms with negative Tubular Differentiation Index (TDI) and Spermiogenesis Index (SPI), DNA fragmentation, and also ameliorated the diabetes-induced apoptosis and improved sperm apoptosis index. : Physical exercise could ameliorate diabetic pathological effects on sperm quality and related parameters that cause infertility or subfertility conditions. However, further homogeneous studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57020159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916555PMC
February 2021

Impact of Fibromyalgia in the Hippocampal Subfields Volumes of Women-An MRI Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 6;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Av. De Universidad s/n, 10003 Caceres, Spain.

Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) show widespread pain associated with other symptoms such as cognitive problems, depression, and anxiety among others associated with alterations in the central nervous system. The hippocampal subfields had differences in function, histology, and connectivity with other brain regions, and are altered in different diseases. This study evaluates the volumetric differences between patients with FM compared with a healthy control group. A total of 49 women with, and 43 healthy women completed this study. T1-weighted MRI was used to assess brain volume, and FreeSurfer software was used to segment the hippocampal subfields. Women with FM had a significant reduction in most of the hippocampal subfields. The regression equation models were obtained to predict the volume of specific subfields of the right and left hippocampus. These findings provide that women with FM have lower hippocampal subfields volumes compared with healthy women. Besides, regression models show that different covariates, such as age, cognitive impairment, or depression, are related to specific subfields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915872PMC
February 2021

Impact of Real and Simulated Flights on Psychophysiological Response of Military Pilots.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 18;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Objective: The present research aimed to analyse the autonomic, anxiety, perceived exertion, and self-confidence response during real and simulated flights.

Methods: This cross-sectional study participated 12 experienced male pilots (age = 33.08 (5.21)) from the Spanish Air Force. Participants had to complete a real and a simulated flight mission randomly. The heart rate variability (HRV), anxiety, self-confidence, and rating of perceived exertion were collected before and after both manoeuvres, and HRV was also collected during both simulated and real flights.

Results: When studying the acute effects of real and simulated flights, the mean heart rate, the R-to-R interval, the cognitive anxiety and the perceived exertion were significantly impacted only by real flights. Furthermore, significant differences in the mean heart rate and RR interval were found when compared to the acute effects of real and simulated flights (with higher acute effects observed in real flights). Additionally, when compared the HRV values during simulated and real flights, significant differences were observed in the RR and heart rate mean (with lower RR interval and higher heart rate mean observed during real flights).

Conclusion: Real flights significantly reduced the RR interval and cognitive anxiety while increased the heart rate mean and the rating of perceived exertion, whereas simulated flights did not induce any significant change in the autonomic modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831919PMC
January 2021

MoCA vs. MMSE of Fibromyalgia Patients: The Possible Role of Dual-Task Tests in Detecting Cognitive Impairment.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 1;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome that is characterized by widespread pain; fatigue; stiffness; reduced physical fitness; sleep disturbances; psychological symptoms, such as anxiety and depression; and deficits in cognitive functions, such as attention, executive function, and verbal memory deficits. It is important to analyze the potentially different performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test in patients with fibromyalgia as well as examine the relationship of that performance with physical and cognitive performance. A total of 36 women with fibromyalgia participated in the study. Participants completed the MoCA test, the MMSE, and the TUG physical fitness test under dual-task conditions. The results obtained on cognitive tests were 28.19 (1.74) on the MMSE and 25.17 (2.79) on the MoCA. The participants' performance on cognitive tests was significantly related to the results of the TUG dual-task test. In this way, cognitive performance on a dual-task test can be used to support the diagnosis of cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia. The MoCA test may be a more sensitive cognitive screening tool than the MMSE for patients with fibromyalgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796019PMC
January 2021

Zumba, Fat Mass and Maximum Oxygen Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 25;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Health, Economy, Motricity and Education Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Background And Objectives: Obesity or overweight is associated with many health risk factors and preventable mortality. Even people with normal weight and without history of obesity or overweight should avoid weight gain to reduce health risks factors. In this regard Latin aerobic dances involved in Zumba practice make this modality motivating for people. Apart from weight loss and VO2 benefits, Zumba practice is also interesting by the increase in adherence which can also avoid weight regain. The aim was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of any randomized intervention of Zumba practice on total fat mass (%) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO), besides establishing directions for the clinical practice.

Evidence Acquisition: Two systematic searches were conducted in two electronic databases following the PRISMA guidelines. The eligibility criteria were (a) outcomes: body mass or VO data including mean and standard deviation (SD) before and after Zumba intervention, (b) study design: randomized controlled trial (RCT) and (c) language: English. GRADE guidelines were used to assess the quality of evidence. A meta-analysis was performed to determine mean differences. Nine and four studies were selected for fat mass percentage and VO in the systematic review, respectively. However, only eight studies for fat mass percentage and three for VO could be included in the meta-analysis.

Evidence Synthesis: The overall standardized mean difference for fat mass was -0.25 with a 95% CI from -0.67 to 0.16 with a p-value of 0.69, with large heterogeneity. On the other hand, the overall effect size for VO was 0.53 (95% CI from 0.04 to 1.02 with a p-value of 0.03) with large heterogeneity.

Conclusions: Based on the evidence, we cannot conclude that Zumba is effective at reducing body mass but it may improve VO. However, the limited number of studies that met the inclusion criteria makes it too early to reach a definite conclusion, so more research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794937PMC
December 2020

Neurophysiological Differences Between Women With Fibromyalgia and Healthy Controls During Dual Task: A Pilot Study.

Front Psychol 2020 4;11:558849. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Background: Women with FM have a reduced ability to perform two simultaneous tasks. However, the impact of dual task (DT) on the neurophysiological response of women with FM has not been studied.

Objective: To explore both the neurophysiological response and physical performance of women with FM and healthy controls while performing a DT (motor-cognitive).

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: A total of 17 women with FM and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (1:1 ratio) were recruited. The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded while participants performed two simultaneous tasks: a motor (30 seconds arm-curl test) and a cognitive (remembering three unrelated words). Theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-30) frequency bands were analyzed by using EEGLAB.

Results: Significant differences were obtained in the healthy control group between single task (ST) and DT in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands (-value < 0.05). Neurophysiological differences between ST and DT were not found in women with FM. In addition, between-group differences were found in the alpha and beta frequency bands between healthy and FM groups, with lower values of beta and alpha in the FM group. Therefore, significant groupcondition interactions were detected in the alpha and beta frequency bands. Regarding physical condition performance, between groups, analyses showed that women with FM obtained significantly worse results in the arm curl test than healthy controls, in both ST and DT.

Conclusion: Women with FM showed the same electrical brain activity pattern during ST and DT conditions, whereas healthy controls seem to adapt their brain activity to task commitment. This is the first study that investigates the neurophysiological response of women with FM while simultaneously performing a motor and a cognitive task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.558849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672184PMC
November 2020

Effects of Dog-Based Animal-Assisted Interventions in Prison Population: A Systematic Review.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10004 Cáceres, Spain.

Background: Animal-assisted interventions, in concrete dog-assisted intervention, have been introduced in prisons to reduce recidivism as well as to improve the well-being of prisoners. Therefore, the aim of the present systematic review is to provide an up-to-date analysis of the research on the effects of dog-based animal-assisted therapy in prison population.

Methods: An electronic search of the literature was performed, and 20 articles were included. The PRISMA guideline methodology was employed.

Results: Included studies involved a total of 1577 participants. The vast majority of protocols included activities related with dog training, dog caring, or activities, which included vocational or educational components. Duration of dog-based therapies ranged between 60 and 120 min, with the frequency being between 1 and 3 days/week. Statistically significant improvements in prisoners were observed in 13 studies.

Conclusions: Dog-based animal-assisted therapy may improve anxiety, stress, recidivism, and other social variables in male or female inmates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697666PMC
November 2020

The Effect of COVID-19 Confinement in Behavioral, Psychological, and Training Patterns of Chess Players.

Front Psychol 2020 11;11:1812. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has triggered a pandemic, jeopardizing global health. The sports world is also suffering enormous consequences, such as the suspension of the Olympic Games in Tokyo or, in chess, the cancelation of the World Candidates Tournament 2020. Chess is a sport characterized by high psychophysiological demands derived from long training durations, tournaments, and games, leading to mental, emotional, and physical stress. These characteristics could provide chess players a certain advantage in facing quarantine situations. This study aimed to analyze the effect of COVID-19 confinement on behavioral, psychological, and training patterns of chess players based on their gender, level of education, and level of chess played. We analyzed chess players (: 450; age = 38.12 ± 14.01 years) in countries where confinement was mandatory: Professional players (: 55; age = 43.35 ± 13), high-performance players (: 53; age = 38.57 ± 13.46), competitive players (: 284; age = 36.82 ± 13.91), and amateur players (: 58; age = 39.10 ± 14.99). Results showed that chess players significantly decreased physical activity per day while increased chess practise during the confinement period. However, anxiety levels remained moderate despite the anti-stress effects of physical activity. Amateur players showed a significantly higher level of social alarm than professional and high-performance players. Moreover, professional players showed higher values of extraversion than high-performance players and amateur players. In neuroticism, professional players showed higher values than high-performance players. In addition, the professional players showed higher scores in psychological inflexibility than competitive players. Finally, chess players with the highest academic level showed higher levels of personal concern and anxiety due to COVID-19 as well as lower psychological inflexibility compared to those with a lower academic level. In conclusion, chess players, especially those with a higher academic level, might have adapted their psychological profile to fit confinement situations and the worrying levels of physical inactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516050PMC
September 2020

Impact of cognitive tasks on biomechanical and kinematic parameters of gait in women with fibromyalgia: A cross-sectional study.

Physiol Behav 2020 12 18;227:113171. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Faculty of Sport Science. University of Extremadura, Av. De Universidad s/n, Caceres, 10003, Extremadura, Spain.

Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease whose symptoms may cause altered walking pattern, which is important given the relevance of walking in daily life activities. These activities use to require the ability to perform both a motor and a cognitive task simultaneously. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of performing a simultaneous cognitive task in the gait pattern of women with FM.

Methods: A total of 36 women recruited from a local association took part in this cross-sectional study. The time required to complete the 10-meters-walking-test and kinematic outcomes including number of steps, cadence, trunk tilt and ranges of motion were analyzed under single (motor task only) and dual task (motor and cognitive tasks simultaneously) conditions. The secondary task consisted in counting aloud backward in rows of two.

Results: Results showed a significant increment in the time required to complete the test (p < 0.01) when participants performed the motor and cognitive tasks at the same time. Moreover, relevant changes in kinematic parameters such as increment of number of steps (p < 0.01), cadence (p < 0.01), trunk tilt (p < 0.01) and both hip (p < 0.01) and knee (p = 0.03) ranges of motion were also observed.

Conclusion: Adding a cognitive task to a primary motor task affects the walking motor pattern in women with FM, making it more stable and safer walking pattern when the attention is focused on two simultaneous tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113171DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of Equine-Assisted Therapies or Horse-Riding Simulators on Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Aug 31;56(9). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, 10003 Extremadura, Spain.

Chronic pain is a complex global public health problem that affects the health status, quality of life, activities of daily living, and different work-related variables. Riding a horse may lead to some benefits in chronic pain patients through the improvement of postural control and other biopsychosocial processes. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of horse riding (with real or simulated horses) on chronic pain. A systematic literature search was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines in Web of Science (WOS) and PubMed (Medline) electronic databases. Eleven articles (seven randomized controlled trials) were selected to be included in the review. Due to some risk of bias concerns, two meta-analyses (using postintervention or change-from-baseline measures) were conducted utilizing Review Manager Software (RevMan 5.3). : Horse-riding simulators significantly reduced the pain levels of patients with low back pain ( = 0.03, with a SMD of -1.14 and a 95% CI from -2.16 to -0.11) using change-from-baseline measures. However, the -value in the meta-analysis with the postintervention measures was 0.06. Regarding interventions with real horses, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis due to the low number of studies. : Horse riding could be a useful exercise to reduce pain, but more studies are needed to make evidence-based recommendations and to compare the effects of horse-riding with real and simulated horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56090444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557603PMC
August 2020

Effects of 24-Week Exergame Intervention on the Gray Matter Volume of Different Brain Structures in Women with Fibromyalgia: A Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 30;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Background: Exergame-induced changes in the volume of brain gray matter have not been studied in fibromyalgia (FM). This study evaluates the effects of a 24-week exergame-based intervention on the gray matter volume of different brain structures in patients with FM through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: A total of 25 FM patients completed 24 weeks of intervention program, and another 25 FM patients did not receive any intervention. T1-weighted MRI was used to assess brain volume, and FreeSurfer software was used to segment the brain regions.

Results: No significant effects on gray matter volume of different structures and total gray matter were found.

Conclusions: FM patients did not show significant changes in gray matter brain volume between the control and experimental groups after 24 weeks. FM patients showed significant relationships between peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) and the left and right regions of the hippocampus and the left and right regions of the amygdala.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463870PMC
July 2020

Dynamics of the Prefrontal Cortex during Chess-Based Problem-Solving Tasks in Competition-Experienced Chess Players: An fNIR Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 14;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura. Avda: Universidad S/N, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

This study aimed to compare the dynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), between adult and adolescent chess players, during chess-based problem-solving tasks of increasing level of difficulty, relying on the identification of changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and hemoglobin (HHb) through the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) method. Thirty male federated chess players (mean age: 24.15 ± 12.84 years), divided into adults and adolescents, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were asked to solve three chess problems with different difficulties (low, medium, and high) while changes in HbO2 and HHb were measured over the PFC in real-time with an fNIRS system. Results indicated that the left prefrontal cortex (L-PFC) increased its activation with the difficulty of the task in both adolescents and adults. Interestingly, differences in the PFC dynamics but not in the overall performance were found between adults and adolescents. Our findings contributed to a better understanding of the PFC resources mobilized during complex tasks in both adults and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20143917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411872PMC
July 2020

Acute Effects of a Whole Body Vibration Session on the Vibration Perception Threshold in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 18;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Health Economy Motricity and Education (HEME), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that affects millions of people, and according to the International Diabetes Federation, 46.5% of people have undiagnosed diabetes. One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is loss of peripheral sensation. Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a therapy, and it would be interesting to know if it can be considered as a training method to improve the Vibration Perception Threshold (VPT). The aim of the study is to verify whether there are really acute effects on the VPT after a WBV training session in people with T2DM.

Methods: Ninety people with T2DM (56 men and 34 women) were randomly allocated to two groups: the WBV group and the placebo group. The ninety subjects went through a VPT training test before receiving the assigned intervention, and they performed the VPT test using the Vibratron II device.

Results: After one session of WBV, an increase of the VPT in the WBV group was found, with respect to the placebo group.

Conclusions: Vibration perception threshold is increased after a WBV training session in people with T2DM, compared to a placebo group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345478PMC
June 2020

Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) in Spanish People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Preliminary Values Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 22;17(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Background And Objectives: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. T2DM affects millions of people, and has a lot of complications such as impaired sensation in the feet. Moreover, it is important to know the health of the feet of people with T2DM. The aim of this study is to know the preliminary values of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) in people with T2DM.

Materials And Methods: A total of 87 patients with T2DM with an average age of 65.56 years, divided in 54 men and 33 women, participated in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome was the health of the foot as measured by the FHSQ questionnaire. This questionnaire collects data on eight dimensions: Foot Pain, Foot Function, Shoe, General Foot Health, General Health, Physical Activity, Social Capacity, and Vigor.

Results: Patients with T2DM have lower values in Foot Pain; median values in General Foot Health and high values in Foot Function, Shoe, Physical Activity and Social Capacity. Some of these dimensions are affected by age, diabetes control, Body Mass Index (BMI), and years of diagnosis. Females with T2DM have more problems than males in the Shoe, General Foot Health, Physical Activity and Vigor dimensions.

Conclusions: this research gives us preliminary values of the FHSQ in Spanish patients with T2DM and divided by gender, age, diabetes control, BMI, and years of diagnosis in people with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277571PMC
May 2020

Heart rate variability and pre-competitive anxiety according to the demanding level of the match in female soccer athletes.

Physiol Behav 2020 08 12;222:112926. Epub 2020 May 12.

Faculty of Sport Science. University of Extremadura. Avda: Universidad S/N, 10003, Cáceres, Spain. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a highly-demanding match and a lowly-demanding match on pre-competitive heart rate variability (HRV) and anxiety in semi-professional female soccer athletes. A total of 14 players, with a mean age of 23.78 (4.93), from the Cáceres Women Football Club of the Spanish Second National Division participated in our study. They were evaluated in two microcycles which correspond to a highly- and a lowly-demanding matches. For each microcycle a baseline and a pre-competitive measures were collected. Results indicated that HRV was significantly reduced before a highly demanding match whereas a lowly-demanding match did not lead to any change. Significant differences in HRV and cognitive anxiety were observed when compared the highly and the lowly demanding matches, which means an increase in the anxiety levels before the highly-demanding match. HRV could be an indicator of precompetitive anxiety in semi-professional female soccer players. This could be used by coaches or physical trainers as a tool to examine the precompetitive anxiety in athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112926DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of Ashwagandha () on VO: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 17;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, Fuenlabrada, 28943 Madrid, Spain.

The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of supplementation with Ashwagandha () on maximum oxygen consumption (VO), as well as to provide directions for clinical practice. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines (PRISMA). The inclusion criteria were: (a) VO data, with means ± standard deviation before and after the supplement intervention, (b) the study was randomized controlled trial (RCT), (c) the article was written in English. The quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A meta-analysis was performed to determine effect sizes. Five studies were selected in the systematic review (162 participants) and four were included in the meta-analysis (142 participants). Results showed a significant enhancement in VO in healthy adults and athletes ( = 0.04). The mean difference was 3.00 (95% CI from 0.18 to 5.82) with high heterogeneity. In conclusion, Ashwagandha supplementation might improve the VO in athlete and non-athlete people. However, further research is need to confirm this hypothesis since the number of studies is limited and the heterogeneity was high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230697PMC
April 2020

Mobility Assessment under Dual Task Conditions in Women With Fibromyalgia: A Test-Retest Reliability Study.

PM R 2021 01 8;13(1):66-72. Epub 2020 May 8.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Objective: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 10-step stair ascent test, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and 10-meter walking test under dual-task conditions in patients with fibromyalgia.

Design: Test-retest reliability.

Settings: Local fibromyalgia association and university facilities.

Participants: Thirty-eight women with fibromyalgia.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measures: Fear of falling and the number of falls in the last year were measured using a visual analogue scale. The 10-step stair ascent test, TUG test, and 10-meter walking test were conducted under single- and dual-task conditions. The order between single- and dual-task condition was randomized in both test and retest. Retest measurement was assessed the week following the test.

Results: The reliability of the performance on the 10-step stair ascent test under dual and single conditions ranged between good (>0.75 to < 0.9) and excellent (≥0.9), but there were significant differences between test and retest. The reliability of the TUG is between good (≥0.75 to < 0.9) and excellent (≥0.9) under the dual-task condition as well as moderate (≥0.5 to <0.75) and excellent (≥0.9) under the single-task condition. The reliability of the 10-meter walking dual-task test is between moderate (≥0.5 to <0.75) and good (≥0.75 to < 0.9) under dual- and single-task condition, respectively.

Conclusions: The TUG and 10-meter walking tests are reliable for assessing mobility under the dual-task condition in women with fibromyalgia. The performance on the TUG, 10-step stair ascent, and 10-meter walking test under single- and dual-task conditions was significantly related to fear of falling. These results may help healthcare professionals and researchers to interpret the effect of interventions in women with fibromyalgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmrj.12375DOI Listing
January 2021

Association between TUG and Anthropometric Values, Vibration Perception Threshold, FHSQ and 15-D in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 19;17(6). Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease and it is characterized by reduced insulin sensitivity and/or impaired insulin production. It affects approximately 415 million people worldwide and involves a variety of complications. DM has a number of complications, including diabetic neuropathy. All of these complications can have effects on body composition, vibration perception threshold (VPT), foot health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). : The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between the Timed Up and Go (TUG), VPT, Foot Health Status Questionnaire and 15-D Questionnaire in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. : A total of 90 T2DM patients (56 men and 34 women) were evaluated on their body composition, VPT, the foot health status through the FHSQ, the HRQoL was evaluated through the 15-D Questionnaire and the TUG test was performed. : Statistically significant associations were found between TUG and lean and fat mass, VPT, the sections "General Foot Health" and "Physical Activity" in the FHSQ questionnaire, and the 15D total score and its sections "Mobility" and "Depression". : There is a moderate direct correlation between the Timed Up and Go and the fat mass percentage and the vibration perception threshold. Moreover, there is a moderate inverse correlation between Timed Up and Go and fat-free mass, foot health and health-related quality of life in T2DM patients. Therefore, Timed Up and Go can be a tool to assist clinicians in monitoring and managing T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143289PMC
March 2020

Effects of exergames on heart rate variability of women with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 03 20;10(1):5168. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Extremadura, Spain.

The objective of the present manuscript was to evaluate the effects of 24-weeks exergame intervention on the heart rate variability (HRV) of women with fibromyalgia. First, 56 women with fibromyalgia were assessed for eligibility. A total of 55 women fulfilled the inclusion criteria and participated in this single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A 24-weeks of exergames were completed by the exercise group in the university facilities. It was focused on the mobility, postural control, upper and lower limbs coordination, aerobic fitness and strength. A total of 120 min per week, divided into two sessions of 60 min, was completed. A short-term 5 min record at rest was used to assess the HRV. Time (SDNN and RMSSD) and non-linear indexes (Higuchi´s Fractal Dimension, SD1, SD2, ln stress score, and SD1/SD2) of HRV were extracted. Fifty participants (achieving an 89.28% of adherence), recruited from the local fibromyalgia association completed the study. They were randomly divided into an exercise (age = 54.04[8.45]) and a control group (52.72[9.98]). Significant interaction (group*time) effects in SDNN, ln stress score, SD2, and SD1/SD2 ratio were found. The EG showed an increase of SDNN and a decreased ln stress score and SD2. The CG showed an increased ln stress score, SD1/SD2. In conclusion, 24-weeks of exergame intervention based on the tool VirtualEx-FM improved the autonomic control in patients with fibromyalgia. However, significant effects on Higuchi´s fractal dimension were not found. This is the first study using exergame as a therapy in women with fibromyalgia which has led to an improvement the autonomic balance in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61617-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083950PMC
March 2020

Test-Retest Reliability of Vibration Perception Threshold Test in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 9;17(5). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by fasting hyperglycemia. It affects approximately 415 million people worldwide and involves a variety of complications. One of them is the loss of sensitivity to peripheral vibration.

Objective: Our study aims to discover the test-retest reliability of a procedure for assessing vibration sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: 90 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (56 men and 34 women) performed the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test using the Vibratron II device. A re-test was completed seven days after the first reading.

Results: The relative reliability of the VPT test result is excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96). The same applies to gender and obesity subgroups. Regarding absolute reliability, the standard error of measurement is 8.99%, and the small real difference is 24.94%.

Conclusions: The relative and absolute reliability results of the vibration perception threshold in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus offer excellent results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084471PMC
March 2020

Effect of dance therapies on motor-cognitive dual-task performance in middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Disabil Rehabil 2020 Mar 17:1-12. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

To systematically review the effectiveness of dance-based programs to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance in middle-aged and older adults. Five scientific databases were selected to identify the articles included in this systematic review. Ninety-one articles were found in the electronic databases. Fourteen articles fulfilled all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with a modified version of Downs and Black checklist. PRISMA guidelines were followed in the data extraction process. The overall effect size of the improvements was calculated through a meta-analysis. All the studies had an acceptable methodological quality. Dance-based interventions had a duration of 8-52 weeks, 1-3 sessions per week, with sessions lasting 40-90 min. According to the overall effect size, dance-based interventions significantly improved dual-task performance (-0.48 with a 95% confidence interval from -0.88 to -0.08). Dance-based intervention programs may be effective at improving the performance on motor-cognitive dual-task in middle-aged and older adults. Apart from the effects on the cognitive Time Up and Go test, dance interventions may also improve speed walking with a cognitive task. All these conclusions must be taken with caution due to the heterogeneity and the small number of articles. Future research can be developed to increase the knowledge on these issues.Implications for rehabilitationInterventions based on dance as part of rehabilitation can improve the performance on TUG under dual-task condition in aging.Interventions based on dance can be effective to improve the development of some tasks of daily life by reducing time in a motor task under dual task condition in aging.Physical therapists, personal trainers and other clinicians can use different types of dance for improving dual-tasking among the adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2020.1735537DOI Listing
March 2020

Effects of 8-Week Whole-Body Vibration Training on the HbA1c, Quality of Life, Physical Fitness, Body Composition and Foot Health Status in People with T2DM: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 18;17(4). Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Physical Activity and Quality of Life Research Group (AFYCAV), Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) on the quality of life, physical fitness, body composition, glycosylate hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, and foot health status in people with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was performed as a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of 90 people with T2DM. Primary care facilities were used. The 8-week WBV training consisted of maintaining a knee flexion at 45° during five to nine series of 30-60 s in a vibration frequency that oscillated between 12.5-18.5 and 30 s of recovery between series. The placebo group had to perform the same protocol but without vibration. Participants performed the protocol three times per week. The WBV training significantly reduced the fat mass (%) of people with T2DM. However, significant effects of WBV training were not found in the quality of life, physical fitness, foot health status, lipid profile, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, or HbA1c. Nevertheless, within groups enhances were found in HbA1c, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, foot health status, health-related quality of life, timed-up and go test, and chair-stand test in both WBV and placebo groups. WBV was shown to be beneficial for reducing the fat mass and lipid profile of people with T2DM. The improvements of the placebo group could be due to both the social benefits of enrolling in an intervention and the physical fitness benefits of isometric contractions. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of WBV and to establish a dose-response relationship in people with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068407PMC
February 2020

The global burden of falls: global, regional and national estimates of morbidity and mortality from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 15;26(Supp 1):i3-i11. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Hypertension, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Falls can lead to severe health loss including death. Past research has shown that falls are an important cause of death and disability worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) provides a comprehensive assessment of morbidity and mortality from falls.

Methods: Estimates for mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were produced for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 for all ages using the GBD 2017 framework. Distributions of the bodily injury (eg, hip fracture) were estimated using hospital records.

Results: Globally, the age-standardised incidence of falls was 2238 (1990-2532) per 100 000 in 2017, representing a decline of 3.7% (7.4 to 0.3) from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardised prevalence was 5186 (4622-5849) per 100 000 in 2017, representing a decline of 6.5% (7.6 to 5.4) from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardised mortality rate was 9.2 (8.5-9.8) per 100 000 which equated to 695 771 (644 927-741 720) deaths in 2017. Globally, falls resulted in 16 688 088 (15 101 897-17 636 830) YLLs, 19 252 699 (13 725 429-26 140 433) YLDs and 35 940 787 (30 185 695-42 903 289) DALYs across all ages. The most common injury sustained by fall victims is fracture of patella, tibia or fibula, or ankle. Globally, age-specific YLD rates increased with age.

Conclusions: This study shows that the burden of falls is substantial. Investing in further research, fall prevention strategies and access to care is critical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571347PMC
October 2020

Effect of Exergame Training and Detraining on Lower-Body Strength, Agility, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Women with Fibromyalgia: Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 12 24;17(1). Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Avda: Universidad S/N, 10003 Cáceres, Spain.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 24 week exergame intervention and 24 weeks of detraining on lower-limb strength, agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness in women with fibromyalgia (FM). It was performed as a single-blinded randomized controlled trial of 55 women with FM. University facilities were used. The 24 week exergame intervention was focused on mobility, postural control, upper- and lower-limb coordination, aerobic fitness, and strength. Participants performed 120 min of exergaming per week, which was divided into two sessions. Twenty-four weeks after the end of the intervention, participants were re-evaluated. A chair-stand test, 10 step stair test, and six-minute walk test were conducted to assess lower-body strength, agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness, respectively. The exergame intervention significantly improved lower-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. However, no significant effects on agility were observed. After the detraining period, lower-limb strength and agility returned to their baseline level, but improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness were sustained over time. Exergaming was therefore shown to be beneficial for physical fitness in people with FM. However, exergames had to be played regularly to maintain the benefits. This long-term intervention (24 weeks) may have changed the lifestyle of women with FM, which could explain why cardiorespiratory fitness improvements remained after the detraining period. Future research should focus on lifestyle changes after long-term interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981878PMC
December 2019
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