Publications by authors named "Santiago Ponce"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of nintedanib plus docetaxel in patients with refractory advanced epidermal growth factor receptor mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital de La Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Sant Quintí, 89, 08041, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Anti-angiogenic agents are reported to exert clinical activity in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the outcomes of the combination of docetaxel plus nintedanib in refractory NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 19 patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC who had progressed to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and platinum-based chemotherapy receiving docetaxel and nintedanib at 14 Spanish institutions from January 2013 to December 2019. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Median age was 58.9 years (range 42.8-81), 73.7% were female. All patients were Caucasian, and 73.7% were never or light smokers. The baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was 0-1 in 94.7% of patients. All patients had adenocarcinoma. Brain and liver metastases were present in 47.4% and 31.6% of patients, respectively. The most common EGFR mutations were exon 19 deletion (52.6%) and exon 21 L858R mutation (36.8%); 47.4% patients presented the EGFR T790M. 94.8% of the patients had received 2-3 previous treatment lines. Docetaxel was administered at 75 mg/m/3 weeks to 16 patients, at 60 mg/m to 2 patients and at 45 mg/m to one patient. Nintedanib was given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity at 200 mg twice daily except in 2 patients who received 150 mg twice daily and one patient who received 100 mg/12 h. With a median follow-up of 11.4 months (1-38), the median PFS was 6.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.9-7.3] and the median OS 10.1 months (95% CI 5.9-14.3). The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.4% (23.7-66.8%) and the disease control rate (DCR) 72.2% (49.4-88.5%). Efficacy tended to be greater in patients with the acquired T790M who had received osimertinib, with a median PFS of 6.3 (95% CI 2.1-10.5) versus (vs.) 4.8 (95% CI 3.5-6.1) and a median OS of 12.3 months (95% CI 8.6-16.0) vs. 6.7 months (95% CI 3.9-9.4), although this tendency was not statistically significant (p = 0.468 and p = 0.159, respectively). Sixteen patients (84.2%) had a total of 34 adverse events (AEs), with a median of two (0-6) AEs per patient. The most frequent AEs were asthenia (20.6%) and diarrhea (20.6%). One treatment-related death due to portal thrombosis was reported.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that the combination of docetaxel and nintedanib can be considered to be an effective treatment for EGFR TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-021-02661-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Predicting immunotherapy outcomes under therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC using dNLR and its early dynamics.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 19;151:211-220. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: dNLR at the baseline (B), defined by neutrophils/[leucocytes-neutrophils], correlates with immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). However, dNLR is dynamic under therapy and its longitudinal assessment may provide data predicting efficacy. We sought to examine the impact of dNLR dynamics on ICI efficacy and understand its biological significance.

Patients And Methods: aNSCLC patients receiving ICI at 17 EU/US centres were included [Feb/13-Jun/18]. As chemotherapy-only group was evaluated (NCT02105168). dNLR was determined at (B) and at cycle2 (C2) [dNLR≤3 = low]. B+C2 dNLR were combined in one score: good = low (B+C2), poor = high (B+C2), intermediate = other situations. In 57 patients, we prospectively explored the immunophenotype of circulating neutrophils, particularly the CD15+CD244-CD16cells (immature) by flow cytometry.

Results: About 1485 patients treatment with ICI were analysed. In ICI-treated patients, high dNLR (B) (~1/3rd) associated with worse progression-free (PFS)/overall survival (OS) (HR 1.56/HR 2.02, P < 0.0001) but not with chemotherapy alone (N = 173). High dNLR at C2 was associated with worse PFS/OS (HR 1.64/HR 2.15, P < 0.0001). When dNLR at both time points were considered together, those with persistently high dNLR (23%) had poor survival (mOS = 5 months (mo)), compared with high dNLR at one time point (22%; mOS = 9.2mo) and persistently low dNLR (55%; mOS = 18.6mo) (P < 0.0001). The dNLR impact remained significant after PD-L1 adjustment. By cytometry, high rate of immature neutrophils (B) (30/57) correlated with poor PFS/OS (P = 0.04; P = 0.0007), with a 12-week death rate of 49%.

Conclusion: The dNLR (B) and its dynamics (C2) under ICI associate with ICI outcomes in aNSCLC. Persistently high dNLR (B+C2) correlated with early ICI failure. Immature neutrophils may be a key subpopulation on ICI resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Durvalumab, with or without tremelimumab, plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide alone in first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (CASPIAN): updated results from a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 01 4;22(1):51-65. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, H120-CNIO Lung Cancer Unit, Universidad Complutense and Ciberonc, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: First-line durvalumab plus etoposide with either cisplatin or carboplatin (platinum-etoposide) showed a significant improvement in overall survival versus platinum-etoposide alone in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) in the CASPIAN study. Here we report updated results, including the primary analysis for overall survival with durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide alone.

Methods: CASPIAN is an ongoing, open-label, sponsor-blind, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial at 209 cancer treatment centres in 23 countries worldwide. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older (20 years in Japan) and had treatment-naive, histologically or cytologically documented ES-SCLC, with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) in blocks of six, stratified by planned platinum, using an interactive voice-response or web-response system to receive intravenous durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide, durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide, or platinum-etoposide alone. In all groups, patients received etoposide 80-100 mg/m on days 1-3 of each cycle with investigator's choice of either carboplatin area under the curve 5-6 mg/mL/min or cisplatin 75-80 mg/m on day 1 of each cycle. Patients in the platinum-etoposide group received up to six cycles of platinum-etoposide every 3 weeks and optional prophylactic cranial irradiation (investigator's discretion). Patients in the immunotherapy groups received four cycles of platinum-etoposide plus durvalumab 1500 mg with or without tremelimumab 75 mg every 3 weeks followed by maintenance durvalumab 1500 mg every 4 weeks. The two primary endpoints were overall survival for durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide and for durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03043872.

Findings: Between March 27, 2017, and May 29, 2018, 972 patients were screened and 805 were randomly assigned (268 to durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide, 268 to durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide, and 269 to platinum-etoposide). As of Jan 27, 2020, the median follow-up was 25·1 months (IQR 22·3-27·9). Durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide was not associated with a significant improvement in overall survival versus platinum-etoposide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·82 [95% CI 0·68-1·00]; p=0·045); median overall survival was 10·4 months (95% CI 9·6-12·0) versus 10·5 months (9·3-11·2). Durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide showed sustained improvement in overall survival versus platinum-etoposide (HR 0·75 [95% CI 0·62-0·91]; nominal p=0·0032); median overall survival was 12·9 months (95% CI 11·3-14·7) versus 10·5 months (9·3-11·2). The most common any-cause grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (85 [32%] of 266 patients in the durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide group, 64 [24%] of 265 patients in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group, and 88 [33%] of 266 patients in the platinum-etoposide group) and anaemia (34 [13%], 24 [9%], and 48 [18%]). Any-cause serious adverse events were reported in 121 (45%) patients in the durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide group, 85 (32%) in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group, and 97 (36%) in the platinum-etoposide group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 12 (5%) patients in the durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide group (death, febrile neutropenia, and pulmonary embolism [n=2 each]; enterocolitis, general physical health deterioration and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, pneumonia, pneumonitis and hepatitis, respiratory failure, and sudden death [n=1 each]), six (2%) patients in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group (cardiac arrest, dehydration, hepatotoxicity, interstitial lung disease, pancytopenia, and sepsis [n=1 each]), and two (1%) in the platinum-etoposide group (pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia [n=1 each]).

Interpretation: First-line durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide showed sustained overall survival improvement versus platinum-etoposide but the addition of tremelimumab to durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide did not significantly improve outcomes versus platinum-etoposide. These results support the use of durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide as a new standard of care for the first-line treatment of ES-SCLC.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30539-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Antitumor activity of lurbinectedin in second-line small cell lung cancer patients who are candidates for re-challenge with the first-line treatment.

Lung Cancer 2020 12 10;150:90-96. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy.

Introduction: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend re-challenge with the first-line treatment for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI)≥180 days. A phase II study (NCT02454972) showed remarkable antitumor activity in SCLC patients treated with lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m 1 -h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks as second-line therapy. We report results for the pre-planned subset of patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days.

Material And Methods: Twenty patients aged ≥18 years with pathologically proven SCLC diagnosis, pretreated with only one prior platinum-containing line, no CNS metastases, and with CTFI ≥ 180 days were evaluated. The primary efficacy endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by the Investigators according to RECIST v1.1.

Results: ORR was 60.0 % (95 %CI, 36.1-86.9), with a median duration of response of 5.5 months (95 %CI, 2.9-11.2) and disease control rate of 95.0 % (95 %CI, 75.1-99.9). Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95 %CI, 2.6-7.3). With a censoring of 55.0 %, the median overall survival was 16.2 months (95 %CI, 9.6-upper level not reached). Of note, 60.9 % and 27.1 % of patients were alive at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were hematological disorders (neutropenia, 55.0 %; anemia; 10.0 % thrombocytopenia, 10.0 %), fatigue (10.0 %) and increased liver function tests (GGT, 10 %; ALT and AP, 5.0 % each). No febrile neutropenia was reported.

Conclusion: Lurbinectedin is an effective treatment for platinum-sensitive relapsed SCLC, especially in patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days, with acceptable safety and tolerability. These encouraging results suggest that lurbinectedin can be another valuable therapeutic option rather than platinum re-challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.10.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Intratumoral nanoplexed poly I:C BO-112 in combination with systemic anti-PD-1 for patients with anti-PD-1-refractory tumors.

Sci Transl Med 2020 10;12(565)

CIMA and Clínica Universidad de Navarra and CIBERONC, Pamplona 31008, Spain.

Intratumoral therapies, especially Toll-like receptor agonists, can trigger both the innate and adaptive immune systems. BO-112 is a nanoplexed form of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) that induces local and systemic immunotherapeutic effects in mouse models. In a multicenter phase 1 clinical trial, repeated intratumoral administrations of BO-112 induced an increase in tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis, as well as augmented immune reactivity according to gene expression profiling. The first three cohorts receiving BO-112 as a monotherapy resulted in a recommended dose of 1 mg that could be safely repeated. Two grade 3 to 4 adverse reactions in the form of reversible thrombocytopenia were reported. In a fourth cohort of 28 patients with tumors that had primary resistance to anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), the combination of intratumoral BO-112 with nivolumab or pembrolizumab was also well tolerated, and 3 patients (2 with melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma) achieved partial responses, with 10 more patients having stable disease at 8 to 12 weeks. Thus, local BO-112 combined with a systemic anti-PD-1 agent might be a strategy to revert anti-PD-1 resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb0391DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinical-pathological and molecular characterization of long-term survivors with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2020 05;17(2):444-457

Infanta Sofía University Hospital, San Sebastián De Los Reyes, Madrid 28702, Spain.

Long-term survivors (LS) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver alterations, displaying an overall survival (OS) of more than 3 years, comprise around 10% of cases in several series treated with chemotherapy. There are classical prognosis factors for these cases [stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), etc.], but more data are required in the literature. In this multi-center study, we focused on LS of advanced NSCLC with OS above 36 months to perform a clinical-pathological and molecular characterization. In the first step, we conducted a clinical-pathological characterization of the patients. Afterwards, we carried out a genetic analysis by comparing LS to a sample of short-term survivors (SS) (with an OS less than 9 months). We initially used whole-genome RNA-seq to identify differentiating profiles of LS and SS, and later confirmed these with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rest of the samples. A total of 94 patients were included, who were mainly men, former smokers, having adenocarcinoma (AC)-type NSCLC with an ECOG of 0-1. We obtained an initial differential transcriptome expression, displaying 5 over- and 33 under-expressed genes involved in different pathways: namely, the secretin receptor, surfactant protein, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), serpin, Ca-channels, and Toll-like receptor (TLRs) families. Finally, RT-PCR analysis of 40 (20 LS/20 SS) samples confirmed that four genes (surfactant proteins and SFTP) were significantly down-regulated in SS compared to LS by using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model: ( = 0.023), ( = 0.027), ( = 0.02), and ( = 0.047). We present a sequential genetic analysis of a sample of NSCLC LS with no driver alterations, obtaining a differential RNA-seq/RT-PCR profile showing an abnormal expression of SF genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2019.0363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309469PMC
May 2020

Lurbinectedin as second-line treatment for patients with small-cell lung cancer: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 basket trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 05 27;21(5):645-654. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.

Background: Few options exist for treatment of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of first-line therapy. Lurbinectedin is a selective inhibitor of oncogenic transcription. In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the acti and safety of lurbinectedin in patients with SCLC after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy.

Methods: In this single-arm, open-label, phase 2 basket trial, we recruited patients from 26 hospitals in six European countries and the USA. Adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pathologically proven diagnosis of SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, measurable disease as per Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, absence of brain metastasis, adequate organ function, and pre-treated with only one previous chemotherapy-containing line of treatment (minimum 3 weeks before study initiation) were eligible. Treatment consisted of 3·2 mg/m lurbinectedin administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an overall response (complete or partial response) as assessed by the investigators according to RECIST 1.1. All treated patients were analysed for activity and safety. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02454972.

Findings: Between Oct 16, 2015, and Jan 15, 2019, 105 patients were enrolled and treated with lurbinectedin. Median follow-up was 17·1 months (IQR 6·5-25·3). Overall response by investigator assessment was seen in 37 patients (35·2%; 95% CI 26·2-45·2). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events (irrespective of causality) were haematological abnormalities-namely, anaemia (in nine [9%] patients), leucopenia (30 [29%]), neutropenia (48 [46%]), and thrombocytopenia (seven [7%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 11 (10%) patients, of which neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were the most common (five [5%] patients for each). No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: Lurbinectedin was active as second-line therapy for SCLC in terms of overall response and had an acceptable and manageable safety profile. Lurbinectedin could represent a potential new treatment for patients with SCLC, who have few options especially in the event of a relapse, and is being investigated in combination with doxorubicin as second-line therapy in a randomised phase 3 trial.

Funding: Pharma Mar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30068-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Blood mRNA expression of REV3L and TYMS as potential predictive biomarkers from platinum-based chemotherapy plus pemetrexed in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 03 12;85(3):525-535. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Avda de Córdoba s/n, 28041, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Therapeutic options for cancer patients have increased in the last years, although drugs resistance problem remains unresolved. Genetic background in individual susceptibility to cancer treatment could influence the therapy responses. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using blood 4 genes (AEG-1, BRCA-1, REV3L and TYMS) expression levels as a predictor of the efficacy of pemetrexed therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Methods: Sixteen patients from the Medical Oncology Department at "12 de Octubre" Hospital, were included in the study. Total mRNA was isolated from blood samples, and gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR. A panel of lung tumor cell lines were used in cell proliferation tests and siRNA-mediated silencing assays.

Results: Similarity between blood gene expression levels and protein expression in matched tumor tissue was observed in 54.54% (REV3L) and 81.81% (TYMS) of cases. Gene expression of REV3L and TYMS in blood correlated directly and inversely, respectively, with progression-free survival and overall survival in the patients from our cohort. In tumor cell lines, the knockdown of REV3L conferred resistance to pemetrexed treatment, and the TYMS silencing increased the pemetrexed sensitivity of tumor cells.

Conclusions: The use of peripheral blood samples for expression quantification of interest genes is an affordable method with promising results in the evaluation of response to pemetrexed treatment. Therefore, expression levels of REV3L and TYMS genes might be used as predictive biomarkers in advanced NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-019-04008-9DOI Listing
March 2020

Durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide in first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (CASPIAN): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2019 11 4;394(10212):1929-1939. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Most patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) have extensive-stage disease at presentation, and prognosis remains poor. Recently, immunotherapy has demonstrated clinical activity in extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). The CASPIAN trial assessed durvalumab, with or without tremelimumab, in combination with etoposide plus either cisplatin or carboplatin (platinum-etoposide) in treatment-naive patients with ES-SCLC.

Methods: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial was done at 209 sites across 23 countries. Eligible patients were adults with untreated ES-SCLC, with WHO performance status 0 or 1 and measurable disease as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1 ratio) to durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide; durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide; or platinum-etoposide alone. All drugs were administered intravenously. Platinum-etoposide consisted of etoposide 80-100 mg/m on days 1-3 of each cycle with investigator's choice of either carboplatin area under the curve 5-6 mg/mL per min or cisplatin 75-80 mg/m (administered on day 1 of each cycle). Patients received up to four cycles of platinum-etoposide plus durvalumab 1500 mg with or without tremelimumab 75 mg every 3 weeks followed by maintenance durvalumab 1500 mg every 4 weeks in the immunotherapy groups and up to six cycles of platinum-etoposide every 3 weeks plus prophylactic cranial irradiation (investigator's discretion) in the platinum-etoposide group. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. We report results for the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group versus the platinum-etoposide group from a planned interim analysis. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study treatment. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03043872, and is ongoing.

Findings: Patients were enrolled between March 27, 2017, and May 29, 2018. 268 patients were allocated to the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group and 269 to the platinum-etoposide group. Durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival, with a hazard ratio of 0·73 (95% CI 0·59-0·91; p=0·0047]); median overall survival was 13·0 months (95% CI 11·5-14·8) in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group versus 10·3 months (9·3-11·2) in the platinum-etoposide group, with 34% (26·9-41·0) versus 25% (18·4-31·6) of patients alive at 18 months. Any-cause adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 163 (62%) of 265 treated patients in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group and 166 (62%) of 266 in the platinum-etoposide group; adverse events leading to death occurred in 13 (5%) and 15 (6%) patients.

Interpretation: First-line durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide significantly improved overall survival in patients with ES-SCLC versus a clinically relevant control group. Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profiles of all drugs received.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32222-6DOI Listing
November 2019

Patient preference for oral chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic breast and lung cancer.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2019 Nov 30;28(6):e13164. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Although new therapies against metastatic cancer have been developed in recent decades, chemotherapy is still an important treatment option. Prolonged treatment and side-effects are often discouraging for patients, and in many cases, therapy is only palliative, not curative. This study explores patient preference for oral or intravenous (IV) chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic breast or lung cancer.

Methods: It is a descriptive, open label, multicentre, nation-wide study, in which a 16-item questionnaire consisting of single-choice questions scored on a 5-point Likert scale was administered to patients in a single visit, and another 11-item questionnaire was self-administered by the patient's oncologist.

Results: A total of 131 breast and lung cancer specialists at 64 hospitals enrolled 412 patients (lung cancer = 161; breast cancer = 251). To be eligible, patients must have already received IV therapy and at least 2 cycles of oral chemotherapy. Most (77%) patients expressed preference for oral therapy. Most considered their daily life was less disrupted with tablets (70.4%), had no trouble swallowing them (86.9%), and were not concerned about forgetting to take them (56.8%). Half (56.3%) were worried about problems related to drug infusion with IV therapy, 61.7% were concerned about nurses failing to find a suitable vein, and 63.1% were dissatisfied with hospital waiting times. A uniform response was obtained from both samples of patients.

Conclusion: Convenience, ease of administration, fewer side effects and better quality of life tilt the balance towards oral drug administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13164DOI Listing
November 2019

Blood Predictive Biomarkers for Patients With Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Associated With Clinical Response to Nivolumab.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 01 30;21(1):75-85. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Thoracic and Clinical-Translational Oncology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Immunotherapy is a promising cancer treatment, but surrogate biomarkers of clinical efficacy have not been fully validated. The aim of this work was to evaluate several biomarkers as predictors of response to nivolumab monotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

Patients And Methods: Blood samples was collected at baseline, at 2 months after treatment start, and at disease progression. Lactate dehydrogenase level (LDH), neutrophils, and leukocyte values were obtained from medical record. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-11, and kynurenine/tryptophan levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total protein was extracted from circulating CD8+ T cells, and BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) protein expression tested by western blotting.

Results: Baseline LDH levels were significantly higher in non-responder patients than in those who responded (P = .045). The increase in indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase activity was related to progression of disease, mainly in patients who did not respond to nivolumab treatment (P = .001). Increased levels of circulating IL-8 were observed in initially responding patients at time of progression, and it was related to lower overall survival (hazard ratio, 7.49; P = .025). A highest expression of BIM in circulating CD8+ T cells could be related to clinical benefit. The Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare groups for continuous variables. Time to events was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared by the log-rank test.

Conclusions: Changes in plasma LDH and IL-8, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase activity, and BIM expression in CD8+ T cells could be used to monitor and predict clinical benefit from nivolumab treatment in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2019.08.006DOI Listing
January 2020

Oral vinorelbine versus etoposide with cisplatin and chemo-radiation as treatment in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer: A randomized phase II (RENO study).

Lung Cancer 2019 09 1;135:161-168. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Medical Oncology, University Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda Medical Oncology. Spanish Lung Cancer Group (SLCG), Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: Concomitant chemo-radiation is the standard treatment for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of oral vinorelbine and cisplatin (OVP) compared with etoposide and cisplatin (EP), both in combination with radiotherapy, in this setting.

Material And Methods: An open-label, randomized phase II trial was undertaken including 23 hospitals in Spain. Adults with untreated unresectable stage III NSCLC were randomized1:1 to receive: oral vinorelbine (days 1 and 8 with cisplatin on day 1 in 3-week cycles; 2 cycles of induction, 2 cycles in concomitance) or etoposide (days 1-5 and 29-32 with cisplatin on days 1 and 8 in 4-week cycles; 2 cycles in concomitance). Both groups received concomitant radiotherapy 2 Gy/day (66 Gy). The primary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS).

Results: One hundred and forty patients were enrolled. Sixty-nine patients received OVP and 71 received EP. Globally adverse events grade 3/4 per cycle were fewer in the vinorelbine arm (19.4%) than in the etoposide arm (62.6%) (p < 0.001). One patient (1.5%) in the OVP arm and 12 pts (17.6%) in the EP arm presented esophagitis grade 3/4 (p = 0.002). Median PFS was similar in both groups (10.8 [95% CI 7.7-13.8] and 9.6 months [95% CI 4.4-14.8]; p = 0.457, respectively). Preliminary median overall survival was 30 months in the OVP arm and 31.9 months in the EP arm (p = 0.688).

Conclusions: Our findings show that OVP could be considered a standard combination with similar efficacy and better safety profile for the treatment of LA-NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.11.041DOI Listing
September 2019

Multidisciplinary expert opinion on the treatment consensus for patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC with brain metastases.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Jun 3;138:190-206. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Clinical Research in Solid Tumors (CReST) and Neuro-Oncology Group. Oncobell, IDIBELL, Avda Gran Via 199-203, 08907, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Thoracic Oncology Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology. Avda Gran Via 199-203, 08907, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

The presence of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is associated with higher incidence of brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, patients with synchronous brain metastases at diagnosis have generally been excluded from clinical trials. As there is limited clinical evidence for managing this patient population, a multidisciplinary group of Spanish medical and radiation oncologists, and neuro-oncologist with expertise treating brain metastases in lung cancer patients met with the aim of reaching and developing an expert opinion consensus on the management of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC with brain metastases. This consensus contains 26 recommendations and 20 conclusion statements across 21 questions in 7 areas, as well as a first-line treatment algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.03.017DOI Listing
June 2019

A cross-sectional, comparative, syndromic description of oncological mixed pain in Medical Oncology units in Spain.

Support Care Cancer 2019 Aug 18;27(8):2921-2931. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Statistical Design and Biometrics, Medicxact SL, Alpedrete, Spain.

Objective: The reason cancer pain remains prevalent and hard to classify may be partially explained by the failure to identify neuropathic mechanisms. The objective of this research was to identify the syndromes of cancer pain that may be particularly hard to manage due to their mixed pathophysiology.

Design: A series of 384 patients who had cancer of any type, at any stage, and suffered from chronic pain (symptom onset > 3 months) were assessed during a routine return visit in Spain. Medical oncologists indicated the presence and pathophysiology of 33 predefined pain syndromes on a per-patient basis. This information was then measured against clinical, psychosocial, and health care-related data to determine which syndromes pose particular challenges.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 61.6 (12.6) years, 49.7% were women. Most (82%) had advanced metastatic disease, 68.7% were on second-line or palliative therapies. The worst syndrome was nociceptive, pure neuropathic, and mixed in 34.6, 26.9, and 38.6% of patients, respectively. Any syndrome could be of mixed pathophysiology. Only 10 syndromes were common (≥ 5% of patients). Syndromes related to malignant bone pain and involvement of chest wall structures were the most frequent. Certain syndromes (including tumor-related bone pain, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies, paraneoplastic pain syndromes, and malignant neuralgias or injury to cranial nerves) can be particularly challenging when they have a mixed pathophysiology, because the neuropathic component is rarely or unevenly considered.

Conclusions: Virtually all cancer pain syndromes can present mixed pathophysiology. Certain syndromes can include neuropathic components that are frequently overlooked.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-018-4575-5DOI Listing
August 2019

A Placebo-Controlled Phase II Study of Ruxolitinib in Combination With Pemetrexed and Cisplatin for First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Systemic Inflammation.

Clin Lung Cancer 2018 09 23;19(5):e567-e574. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR.

Background: Dysregulation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway contributes to abnormal inflammatory responses and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib plus pemetrexed/cisplatin first-line in patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC with systemic inflammation (modified Glasgow prognostic score [mGPS] 1/2).

Patients And Methods: Part 1 was an open-label, safety run-in, in which we assessed ruxolitinib (15 mg twice daily [b.i.d.]) plus pemetrexed (500 mg/m intravenous, day 1) and cisplatin (75 mg/m intravenous, day 1). Ruxolitinib dose selection for part 2 required <3 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) for 9 evaluable patients. In part 2 patients were randomized to ruxolitinib or placebo (each plus pemetrexed/cisplatin). The trial terminated early for reasons unrelated to this trial.

Results: Fifteen patients enrolled in part 1 (median age, 64 years; 80% male, 80% mGPS 1) received ruxolitinib 15 mg b.i.d. plus pemetrexed/cisplatin. Median treatment duration was 140 days and no DLTs occurred in 11 evaluable patients. No new safety concerns arose when ruxolitinib was combined with pemetrexed/cisplatin. At study termination, 39 patients were randomized to ruxolitinib and 37 to placebo in part 2. Median treatment duration was 43 days. Response rate was 31% (12 of 39) with ruxolitinib and 35% (13 of 37) with placebo (all partial responses).

Conclusion: Ruxolitinib 15 mg b.i.d. had an acceptable safety profile in combination with pemetrexed/cisplatin asfirst-line treatment of patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC and systemic inflammation. Early study termination limited the interpretation of efficacy data in the randomized phase II part of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2018.03.016DOI Listing
September 2018

Clinical management and outcome of patients with advanced NSCLC carrying EGFR mutations in Spain.

BMC Cancer 2018 01 30;18(1):106. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Although the benefit of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) over chemotherapy has been demonstrated in several clinical trials, data from clinical practice is lacking and the optimal EGFR TKI to be used remains unclear. This study aims to assess the real-life diagnostic and clinical management and outcome of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying EGFR mutations in Spain.

Methods: All consecutive patients recently diagnosed with advanced or metastatic NSCLC from April 2010 to December 2011 in 18 Spanish hospitals and carrying EGFR mutations were retrospectively evaluated.

Results: Between March and November 2013, a total of 187 patients were enrolled (98.3% Caucasian, 61.9% female, 54.9% never-smokers, 89.0% adenocarcinoma). Mutation testing was mainly performed on biopsy tumour tissue specimens (69.0%) using a qPCR-based test (90%) (47.0% Therascreen EGFR PCR Kit). Common sensitising mutations were detected in 79.8% of patients: 57.1% had exon 19 deletions and 22.6% exon 21 L858R point mutations. The vast majority of patients received first-line therapy (n = 168; 92.8%). EGFR TKIs were the most commonly used first-line treatment (81.5%), while chemotherapy was more frequently administered as a second- and third-line option (51.9% and 56.0%, respectively). Of 141 patients who experienced disease progression, 79 (56.0%) received second-line treatment. After disease progression on first-line TKIs (n = 112), 33.9% received chemotherapy, 8.9% chemotherapy and a TKI, and 9.8% continued TKI therapy. Most patients received first-line gefitinib (83.0%), while erlotinib was more frequently used in the second-line setting (83.0%). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients harbouring common mutations were 11.1 months and 20.1 months respectively (exon 19 deletions: 12.4 and 21.4 months; L858R: 8.3 and 14.5 months), and 3.9 months and 11.1 months respectively for those with rare mutations.

Conclusion: EGFR TKIs (gefitinib and erlotinib) are used as the preferred first-line treatment while chemotherapy is more frequently administered as a second- and third-line option in routine clinical practice in Spain. In addition, efficacy data obtained in the real-life setting seem to concur with data from EGFR TKI phase III pivotal studies in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4004-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791371PMC
January 2018

Association of the Lung Immune Prognostic Index With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Outcomes in Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Mar;4(3):351-357

Medical Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Importance: Derived neutrophils/(leukocytes minus neutrophils) ratio (dNLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level have been correlated with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) outcomes in patients with melanoma.

Objective: To determine whether pretreatment dNLR and LDH are associated with resistance to ICIs in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter retrospective study with a test (n = 161) and a validation set (n = 305) treated with programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors in 8 European centers, and a control cohort (n = 162) treated with chemotherapy only. Complete blood cell counts, LDH, and albumin levels were measured before ICI treatment. A lung immune prognostic index (LIPI) based on dNLR greater than 3 and LDH greater than upper limit of normal (ULN) was developed, characterizing 3 groups (good, 0 factors; intermediate, 1 factor; poor, 2 factors).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and disease control rate (DCR).

Results: In the pooled ICI cohort (N = 466), 301 patients (65%) were male, 422 (90%) were current or former smokers, and 401 (87%) had performance status of 1 or less; median age at diagnosis was 62 (range, 29-86) years; 270 (58%) had adenocarcinoma and 159 (34%) had squamous histologic subtype. Among 129 patients with PD-L1 data, 96 (74%) had PD-L1 of at least 1% by immunohistochemical analysis, and 33 (26%) had negative results. In the test cohort, median PFS and OS were 3 (95% CI, 2-4) and 10 (95% CI, 8-13) months, respectively. A dNLR greater than 3 and LDH greater than ULN were independently associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.22; 95% CI, 1.23-4.01 and HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.32-4.76, respectively). Median OS for poor, intermediate, and good LIPI was 3 months (95% CI, 1 month to not reached [NR]), 10 months (95% CI, 8 months to NR), and 34 months (95% CI, 17 months to NR), respectively, and median PFS was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.7-4.0), 3.7 (95% CI, 3.0-4.8), and 6.3 (95% CI, 5.0-8.0) months (both P < .001). Disease control rate was also correlated with dNLR greater than 3 and LDH greater than ULN. Results were reproducible in the ICI validation cohort for OS, PFS, and DCR, but were nonsignificant in the chemotherapy cohort.

Conclusions And Relevance: Pretreatment LIPI, combining dNLR greater than 3 and LDH greater than ULN, was correlated with worse outcomes for ICI, but not for chemotherapy, suggesting that LIPI can serve as a potentially useful tool when selecting ICI treatment, raising the hypothesis that the LIPI might be useful for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from treatment with an ICI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.4771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885829PMC
March 2018

Randomized, Double-Blind Phase Ib/III Study of Erlotinib With Ramucirumab or Placebo in Previously Untreated EGFR-Mutant Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (RELAY): Phase Ib Results.

Clin Lung Cancer 2018 05 21;19(3):213-220.e4. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the likelihood of an initial response to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients develop disease progression. Antiangiogenic agents in combination with an EGFR TKI might provide additional benefit in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. In this article we report safety, exposure, and progression-free survival (PFS) results for part A (phase Ib) of RELAY, a randomized, double-blind, phase Ib/III study investigating safety and efficacy of erlotinib (EGFR TKI) with ramucirumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody) or placebo in first-line EGFR-mutant stage IV NSCLC.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients had untreated stage IV NSCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1, and activating EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R substitution). Patients received ramucirumab 10 mg/kg on day 1 of a repeating 14-day cycle and erlotinib 150 mg/d. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability, in terms of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), during the first 2 cycles.

Results: Fourteen patients were treated and 12 were evaluable for DLTs. One patient experienced a DLT of Grade 3 elevated alanine aminotransferase during the DLT assessment period. Adverse events were reported in all patients, but were generally mild and manageable. The most common Grade 3 adverse events were hypertension, rash, and diarrhea. No serious or Grade 4 to 5 events occurred. Median PFS was 17.1 months (95% confidence interval, 8.8-not reached). Five patients continue receiving study treatment.

Conclusion: Ramucirumab with erlotinib showed no unexpected toxicities and encouraging clinical activity in part A. Phase III enrollment has been initiated, maintaining ramucirumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks with erlotinib 150 mg/d.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2017.11.003DOI Listing
May 2018

Gefitinib Plus Chemotherapy Versus Chemotherapy in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Resistant to First-Line Gefitinib (IMPRESS): Overall Survival and Biomarker Analyses.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Dec 2;35(36):4027-4034. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Tony S.K. Mok, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China; Yi-Long Wu and Jin-Ji Yang, Guangdong General Hospital and Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou; Jie Wang, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing; You Lu, Sichuan University, Sichuan; Xiaojin Shi, AstraZeneca, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; James Chih-Hsin Yang, The National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Sang-We Kim, University of Ulsan College of Medicine; Myung-Ju Ahn, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Kindai University; Shinji Atagi, Kinkichuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka, Japan; Santiago Ponce, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; Yuri Rukazenkov, AstraZeneca, Cambridge; Vincent Haddad, AstraZeneca, Royston, United Kingdom; Kenneth S. Thress, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA; and Jean-Charles Soria, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif, France.

Purpose The Iressa Mutation-Positive Multicentre Treatment Beyond ProgRESsion Study (IMPRESS) compared the continuation of gefitinib plus chemotherapy with placebo plus chemotherapy in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with progression (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1) after first-line gefitinib. Primary results indicated no difference between treatments in terms of progression-free survival (PFS). The current analysis presents final, mature, overall survival (OS) data, together with exploratory analyses that examined whether specific biomarkers, including T790M mutation status, were able to differentiate a relative treatment effect. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to gefitinib 250 mg or placebo, in addition to cisplatin 75 mg/m plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m (maximum of six cycles of chemotherapy). EGFR mutation status was determined from plasma-derived circulating free tumor-derived DNA samples (beads, emulsification, amplification, and magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction assay, allelic fraction analysis). Results A total of 265 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned, and overall data maturity was 66%. Continuation of gefitinib plus cisplatin and pemetrexed was detrimental to OS when compared with placebo plus cisplatin and pemetrexed (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.94; P = .016; median OS, 13.4 v 19.5 months). The detriment was statistically significant in patients with T790M mutation-positive plasma samples (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.21), whereas statistical significance was not reached in T790M mutation-negative patients (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.94). PFS in T790M mutation-positive patients was similar between treatments, and the difference observed in T790M mutation-negative patients did not reach statistical significance (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.03; P = .0745). Conclusion Final OS data from IMPRESS are supportive of earlier PFS results and are sufficient to warn physicians against the continuation of treatment with first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors beyond radiologic disease progression when chemotherapy is initiated. Plasma biomarker analyses suggest that this effect may be driven by T790M-positive status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.73.9250DOI Listing
December 2017

Phase 1/2 Study of the CD56-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate Lorvotuzumab Mertansine (IMGN901) in Combination With Carboplatin/Etoposide in Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients With Extensive-Stage Disease.

Clin Lung Cancer 2017 01 3;18(1):68-76.e2. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre and Lung Cancer Unit CNIO, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: This trial assessed the safety and efficacy of LM in combination with carboplatin/etoposide therapy compared to carboplatin/etoposide treatment alone in patients with previously untreated extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC).

Patients And Methods: A run-in phase 1 stage was used to determine the recommended phase 2 dose and characterize the dose-limiting toxicities of LM in combination with carboplatin/etoposide followed by LM alone in patients with CD56-positive solid tumors. In phase 2, chemotherapy-naive ED-SCLC patients were randomized 2:1 to carboplatin AUC (area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve) of 5 day 1 + etoposide 100 mg/m days 1 to 3 plus LM (arm 1) or alone (arm 2).

Results: In the phase 1 study (n = 33), a dose of LM at 112 mg/m with carboplatin/etoposide was identified as the recommended phase 2 dose. However, because of an increased incidence of peripheral neuropathy events during early phase 2, this dose was reduced to 90 mg/m. In phase 2, a total of 94 and 47 evaluable patients were assigned to arms 1 and 2, respectively. No difference in median progression-free survival was observed between arms 1 and 2 (6.2 vs. 6.7 months). The most common treatment-emergent adverse event leading to discontinuation was peripheral neuropathy (29%). A total of 21 patients had a treatment-emergent adverse event leading to death (18 in arm 1 and 3 in arm 2); for 10 individuals, this was an infection (pneumonia or sepsis) deemed to be related to the study drug.

Conclusion: The combination of LM plus carboplatin/etoposide did not improve efficacy over standard carboplatin/etoposide doublet therapy in ED-SCLC patients and showed increased toxicity, including a higher incidence of serious infections with fatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2016.09.002DOI Listing
January 2017

Treatment Rationale and Study Design for the RELAY Study: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Erlotinib With Ramucirumab or Placebo in Patients With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation-Positive Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2017 01 8;18(1):96-99. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: We present the treatment rationale and study design for the RELAY study (NCT02411448 ). This phase Ib/III study will assess safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the combination of ramucirumab with erlotinib in previously untreated stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.

Patients And Methods: The study is being conducted in approximately 120 sites in North America, Europe, and Asia and is currently open for enrollment. In part A (phase Ib), approximately 12 patients will receive ramucirumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks with erlotinib (150 mg) every day. Dose-limiting toxicity will be assessed during 2 cycles (4 weeks) of treatment. In part B (phase III), approximately 450 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ramucirumab or placebo every 2 weeks with erlotinib daily until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other withdrawal criteria are met. The primary end point is progression-free survival, on the basis of investigator assessment. Secondary end points include overall survival, objective response rate, disease control rate, duration of response, safety, and quality of life.

Conclusion: Erlotinib with ramucirumab combination was chosen because the addition of an antiangiogenic agent, such as ramucirumab, would further improve the efficacy of erlotinib, which is a standard of care in the first-line treatment of patients with activating EGFR mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2016.05.023DOI Listing
January 2017

Blood-based biomarkers for monitoring antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Med Oncol 2016 Oct 27;33(10):105. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

Translational Oncology, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), Avda de Córdoba s/n, 28041, Madrid, Spain.

Tumor angiogenesis pathways have been identified as important therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer. However, no biomarkers have been described as predictors of response to antiangiogenic therapy in these patients. In this study, plasma levels of VEGF, bFGF, E-selectin, and S-ICAM and gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were analyzed before and after treatment. Values were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and treatment response. Plasma factor levels were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. The TaqMan(®) human angiogenesis array was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression profiles. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes using WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit. Our results suggest a benefit for patients with increased plasma levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and S-ICAM in the course of bevacizumab treatment. Also, we identified differentially expressed genes between paired blood samples from patients before and after treatment, and significantly perturbed pathways were predicted. These changes in gene expression and levels of plasma factors could be used to assess the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy, in addition to standard clinical and radiological evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-016-0824-yDOI Listing
October 2016

Current Challenges in Cancer Treatment.

Clin Ther 2016 Jul 2;38(7):1551-66. Epub 2016 May 2.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación I+12. Lung Cancer Clinical Research Unit CNIO, I+12, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Purpose: In this review, we highlight the current concepts and discuss some of the current challenges and future prospects in cancer therapy. We frequently use the example of lung cancer.

Methods: We conducted a nonsystematic PubMed search, selecting the most comprehensive and relevant research articles, clinical trials, translational papers, and review articles on precision oncology and immuno-oncology. Papers were prioritized and selected based on their originality and potential clinical applicability.

Findings: Two major revolutions have changed cancer treatment paradigms in the past few years: targeting actionable alterations in oncogene-driven cancers and immuno-oncology. Important challenges are still ongoing in both fields of cancer therapy. On the one hand, druggable genomic alterations are diverse and represent only small subsets of patients in certain tumor types, which limits testing their clinical impact in biomarker-driven clinical trials. Next-generation sequencing technologies are increasingly being implemented for molecular prescreening in clinical research, but issues regarding clinical interpretation of large genomic data make their wide clinical use difficult. Further, dealing with tumor heterogeneity and acquired resistance is probably the main limitation for the success of precision oncology. On the other hand, long-term survival benefits with immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-programmed death cell protein-1/programmed death cell ligand-1[PD-1/L1] and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibodies) are restricted to a minority of patients, and no predictive markers are yet robustly validated that could help us recognize these subsets and optimize treatment delivery and selection. To achieve long-term survival benefits, drug combinations targeting several molecular alterations or cancer hallmarks might be needed. This will probably be one of the most challenging but promising precision cancer treatment strategies in the future.

Implications: Targeting single molecular abnormalities or cancer pathways has achieved good clinical responses that have modestly affected survival in some cancers. However, this approach to cancer treatment is still reductionist, and many challenges need to be met to improve treatment outcomes with our patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2016.03.026DOI Listing
July 2016

Necitumumab for first-line treatment of advanced, squamous, non-small-cell lung cancer: a relevant step forward?

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2016 Feb;5(1):95-7

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Instituto de Investigación i+12, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2218-6751.2015.08.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4758970PMC
February 2016

SIADH-related hyponatremia in hospital day care units: clinical experience and management with tolvaptan.

Support Care Cancer 2016 Jan 2;24(1):499-507. Epub 2015 Oct 2.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Hyponatremia (Na ˂ 135 mmol/l) is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in clinical practice, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the commonest cause of hyponatremia in cancer patients. Correcting hyponatremia in these patients can reduce morbidity and mortality, increase the response to anti-cancer agents, and help reduce hospital length of stay and costs. Tolvaptan is an oral medication used to treat SIADH-related hyponatremia patients that needs to be initiated at hospital so patients can have their serum sodium monitored. If tolvaptan could be initiated in hospital day care units (DCUs), performing the same tests, hospitalization could be avoided, quality of life improved, and costs reduced. This is the first publication where a panel of oncologists are sharing their experience and making some recommendations with the use of tolvaptan to treat SIADH-related hyponatremia in DCU after collecting and examining 35 clinical cases with these type of patients. The conclusion from this retrospective observational analysis is that the use of tolvaptan in DCU is safe and effective in the therapeutic management of SIADH-related hyponatremia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-015-2948-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4669367PMC
January 2016

Gefitinib plus chemotherapy versus placebo plus chemotherapy in EGFR-mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer after progression on first-line gefitinib (IMPRESS): a phase 3 randomised trial.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Aug 6;16(8):990-8. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of South China, Hong Kong Cancer Institute, Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Optimum management strategies for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors are undefined. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of continuing gefitinib combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with EGFR-mutation-positive advanced NSCLC with acquired resistance to first-line gefitinib.

Methods: The randomised, phase 3, multicentre IMPRESS study was done in 71 centres in 11 countries in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years with histologically confirmed, chemotherapy-naive, stage IIIB-IV EGFR-mutation-positive advanced NSCLC with previous disease control with first-line gefitinib and recent disease progression (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by central block randomisation to oral gefitinib 250 mg or placebo once daily in tablet form; randomisation did not include stratification factors. All patients also received the platinum-based doublet chemotherapy cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) on the first day of each cycle. After completion of a maximum of six chemotherapy cycles, patients continued their randomly assigned treatment until disease progression or another discontinuation criterion was met. All study investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. The study has completed enrolment, but patients are still in follow-up for overall survival. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01544179.

Findings: Between March 29, 2012, and Dec 20, 2013, 265 patients were randomly assigned: 133 to the gefitinib group and 132 to the placebo group. At the time of data cutoff (May 5, 2014), 98 (74%) patients had disease progression in the gefitinib group compared with 107 (81%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·65-1·13; p=0·27; median progression-free survival 5·4 months in both groups [95% CI 4·5-5·7 in the gefitinib group and 4·6-5·5 in the placebo group]). The most common adverse events of any grade were nausea (85 [64%] of 132 patients in the gefitinib group and 81 [61%] of 132 patients in the placebo group) and decreased appetite (65 [49%] and 45 [34%]). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were anaemia (11 [8%] of 132 patients in the gefitinib group and five [4%] of 132 patients in the placebo group) and neutropenia (nine [7%] and seven [5%]). 37 (28%) of 132 patients in the gefitinib group and 28 (21%) of 132 patients in the placebo group reported serious adverse events.

Interpretation: Continuation of gefitinib after radiological disease progression on first-line gefitinib did not prolong progression-free survival in patients who received platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as subsequent line of treatment. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy remains the standard of care in this setting.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00121-7DOI Listing
August 2015

The new IASLC/ATS/ERS lung adenocarcinoma classification from a clinical perspective: current concepts and future prospects.

J Thorac Dis 2014 Oct;6(Suppl 5):S526-36

1 Medical Oncology Department, 2 Pathology Department, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre i+12, Madrid, Spain.

The new the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/the European Respiratory Society (ERS) pathologic classification of lung cancer has markedly changed the pathologic diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This classification deals with many aspects that directly affect clinical practice, and opens new gateways for future research. By means of a multidisciplinary approach, it differs significantly from the former 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, which was mainly written by pathologist. The present review, in line with the consensus article, is divided in two components: the diagnosis and classification of lung adenocarcinoma in resection specimens and the diagnosis of lung cancer in small biopsies and cytology. Resection specimens are currently classified according to the predominant histologic pattern after comprehensive subtyping in 5% increments. This approach has led to the addition of new pathologic subtypes [adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and micropapillary predominant adenocarcinoma)] and to the discontinuation of some heterogeneous entities included in the former 2004 WHO classification (mixed subtype adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma). Overall, these changes have resulted in a better stratification of lung adenocarcinoma tumors in more homogeneous morphologic, clinical and biological subgroups. Pathologic subtyping has demonstrated prognostic utility in resected stage I-III patients, and recent data support their predictive role for the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, comprehensive pathologic subtyping may potentially affect TNM staging and surgical management or early-stage tumors. On the other hand, for the first time, the novel pathologic classification provides standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria of small biopsies and cytology. Criteria are proposed not only for adenocarcinoma but also for other histologies, but special emphasis was put on the distinction between adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma due to its major clinical implications. This review outlines the main issues of the new lung adenocarcinoma classification from a clinical perspective. We describe the different pathologic subtypes in resection specimens, with their most relevant clinical implications. Further on, we address the new terminology and diagnostic criteria for lung adenocarcinomas in small specimens, oriented to their importance for the management and treatment of metastatic lung cancer patients. Finally, we discuss some unanswered questions and relevant issues for the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.01.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209392PMC
October 2014

Prognostic value of dual-specificity phosphatase 6 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Tumour Biol 2015 Feb 25;36(2):1199-206. Epub 2014 Oct 25.

Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), Avda de Córdoba S/N, 28041, Madrid, Spain.

Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6/MKP-3) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase that regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) activity via feedback mechanisms, with an increasingly recognized role in tumour biology. The aim of this study was to explore the role of DUSP6 expression in the prognosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DUSP6 expression levels were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 60 NSCLC samples from patients who underwent pulmonary resection at 12 de Octubre University Hospital. We performed a statistical analysis to investigate the correlation of DUSP6 expression and the clinical outcomes. We found that 66.7% of the tumour samples show the downregulation of DUSP6 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels compared to benign epithelial lung tissues and 55% of them show at least twofold downregulation of DUSP6 gene expression. Patients were classified into three groups according to their DUSP6 expression levels and those with very low levels (at least twofold downregulation) had the worst outcomes. Using the value of twice below the mean value in benign epithelial lung tissue as a cutoff, the overall survival of patients with very low DUSP6 levels was significantly lower than that in the rest of patients (31.9 ± 18.8 months vs. not reached, P = 0.049). This was most pronounced in adenocarcinoma histology and high-stage tumour samples. Our results suggest that DUSP6 gene expression in tumour samples may be a prognostic marker in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2729-8DOI Listing
February 2015

[Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

Cir Esp 2013 Dec 3;91(10):625-32. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Servicio de Cirugía Torácica, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, Madrid, España. Electronic address:

Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ciresp.2013.01.007DOI Listing
December 2013

[Prevalence of fibrocystic disease of breast in patients with endometriosis].

Ginecol Obstet Mex 1996 Jun;64:283-5

Hospital de Ginecopediatría, Centro Médico Nacional El Fénix, Mérida, Yuc. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

The prevalence of fibrocystic breast disease in patients with endometriosis, was determined. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. The 43 women were diagnosed as having endometriosis by laparoscopy. In these patients, during their control period, a deliberate search for clinical and ultrasonography data on fibrocystic breast disease was carried out. The average age was 28 years, ranging between 18 and 36 years. From 43 the patients with endometriosis, 37% of them were diagnosed with fibrocystic breast disease. The group of age more frequent was between 30 and 34 years in 37.5%, and 31% between 20 and 24 years of age. 43% of the patients with both diseases had antecedent of pregnancy and 25% had menstrual alterations. The prevalence of fibrocystic breast disease in patients with endometriosis was 37%, thus observing a strong evidence of association between both pathologies.
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June 1996
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