Publications by authors named "Sant Chawla"

105 Publications

A Phase I Study of an MPS1 Inhibitor (BAY 1217389) in Combination with Paclitaxel Using a Novel Randomized Continual Reassessment Method for Dose Escalation.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) kinase inhibitor, BAY 1217389 (BAY) synergizes with paclitaxel. This phase I study assessed the combination of BAY with paclitaxel using a novel randomized continuous reassessment method (rCRM) to improve dose determination.

Patients And Methods: Patients with solid tumors were randomized to receive oral BAY (twice daily 2-days-on/5-days-off) with weekly paclitaxel (90 mg/m) or paclitaxel monotherapy in cycle 1. Dose escalation was guided by CRM modeling. Primary objectives were to assess safety, establish the MTD of BAY, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles for both compounds. Simulations were performed to determine the contribution of the rCRM for dose determination.

Results: In total, 75 patients were enrolled. The main dose-limiting toxicities were hematologic toxicities (55.6%). The MTD of BAY was established at 64 mg twice daily with paclitaxel. Inclusion of a control arm enabled the definitive attribution of grade ≥3 neutropenia to higher BAY exposure [AUC (< 0.001)]. After determining the MTD, we included 19 patients with breast cancer at this dose for dose expansion. Other common toxicities were nausea (45.3%), fatigue (41.3%), and diarrhea (40.0%). Overall confirmed responses were seen in 31.6% of evaluable patients. Simulations showed that rCRM outperforms traditional designs in determining the true MTD.

Conclusions: The combination of BAY with paclitaxel was associated with considerable toxicity without a therapeutic window. However, the use of the rCRM design enabled us to determine the exposure-toxicity relation for BAY. Therefore, we propose that the rCRM could improve dose determination in phase I trials that combine agents with overlapping toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4185DOI Listing
September 2021

An open-label single-arm phase II study of regorafenib for the treatment of angiosarcoma.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 17;154:201-208. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Siteman Cancer Center, St Louis, MO, USA; Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St Louis MO, USA; St Louis Children's Hospital, Department id Pediatrics, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose: Angiosarcomas represents a diverse group of aggressive high-grade vascular tumours with limited therapeutic options. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of regorafenib, a small-molecule multikinase inhibitor, in the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced unresectable angiosarcoma.

Patients And Methods: In this single-arm multicentre, open-label phase II clinical trial, 31 patients were enrolled and received regorafenib 160 mg PO daily for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint for the study was progression-free survival at 4 months. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, response rate, and safety. Patients (≥18 years) with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score of 0-1, a life expectancy of at least 4 months who had progressed on at least one but no more than 4 prior lines of therapy were eligible.

Results: Of the 23 patients evaluable for efficacy, 2 had a complete response (8.7%), and 2 had a partial response (8.7%), for a total overall response rate of 17.4%. Median PFS was 5.5 months, and 12/23 patients (52.2%) had a PFS of greater than 4 months. 10/31 (32.3%) patients evaluable for toxicity had a grade 3 or higher adverse events.

Conclusions: Regorafenib is a safe and active treatment for refractory metastatic and unresectable angiosarcoma. Rates of adverse events were comparable to prior studies of regorafenib for other tumour types. Regorafenib, the single agent, could be considered as therapy for patients with metastatic or unresectable AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.027DOI Listing
September 2021

Tumor protein p53 mutation in archived tumor samples from a 12-year survivor of stage 4 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may predict long-term survival with DeltaRex-G: A case report and literature review.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 8;15(3):186. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Cancer Center of Southern California, Santa Monica, CA 90403, USA.

DeltaRex-G is a replication-incompetent amphotropic murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector that displays a collagen-matrix-targeting decapeptide on its surface envelope protein, gp70, and encodes a cytocidal 'dominant negative', i.e. a truncated construct of the executive cyclin G1 () oncogene. DeltaRex-G inhibits the function of promoting cell competence and survival through the commanding /cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)/Myc/mouse double minute 2 homolog (Mdm2)/p53 axis. In 2009, DeltaRex-G was granted Fast Track designation from the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In 2019, the results of a phase 1/2 study that used DeltaRex-G as monotherapy for stage 4 chemotherapy-resistant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were published. A unique participant of the aforementioned phase 1/2 study is now an 84-year-old Caucasian woman with chemoresistant PDAC who was treated with DeltaRex-G, 3x10 colony forming units (cfu)/dose, 3 times/week for 4 weeks with a 2-week rest period, for 1.5 years. During the treatment period, the patient's tumors in the liver, lymph node and peritoneum exhibited progressive decreases in size, which were accompanied by a reduction and normalization of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, and the patient achieved complete remission after 8 months of DeltaRex-G therapy with minimal side effects (grade 2 fatigue). Henceforth, the patient has been in remission for 12 years with no evidence of disease, no late therapy-related adverse events, and no further cancer therapy following DeltaRex-G treatment. The present study reports a mutation of tumor protein p53 (TP53) () found retrospectively in the patient's archived tumor samples. TP53 is a well-characterized tumor suppressor gene, and a critical regulatory component of the executive /CDK/Myc/Mdm2/p53 axis, which regulates proliferative cell competence, DNA fidelity and survival Studies are underway to determine whether TP53 mutations in pancreatic cancer can help identify a subset of patients with advanced metastatic cancer with an otherwise poor prognosis who would respond favorably to DeltaRex-G, which would broaden the treatment options for patients with otherwise lethal PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278409PMC
September 2021

Phase II Randomized Study of CMB305 and Atezolizumab Compared With Atezolizumab Alone in Soft-Tissue Sarcomas Expressing NY-ESO-1.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 14:JCO2003452. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: CMB305 is a heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen created to prime NY-ESO-1-specific CD8 T-cell populations and then activate the immune response with a potent TLR-4 agonist. This open-label randomized phase II trial was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of adding the CMB305 regimen to atezolizumab (anti-programmed death ligand-1 therapy) in comparison with atezolizumab alone in patients with synovial sarcoma or myxoid liposarcoma.

Patients And Methods: Patients with locally advanced, relapsed, or metastatic synovial sarcoma or myxoid liposarcoma (any grade) were randomly assigned to receive CMB305 with atezolizumab (experimental arm) or atezolizumab alone (control arm). The primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Safety and immune responses were assessed.

Results: A total of 89 patients were enrolled; 55.1% had received ≥ 2 prior lines of chemotherapy. Median PFS was 2.6 months and 1.6 months in the combination and control arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.3). Median OS was 18 months in both treatment arms. Patients treated with combination therapy had a significantly higher rate of treatment-induced NY-ESO-1-specific T cells ( = .01) and NY-ESO-1-specific antibody responses ( < .0001). In a post hoc analysis of all dosed patients, OS was longer (36 months) in the subset who developed anti-NY-ESO-1 T-cell immune response (hazard ratio, 0.3; = .02).

Conclusion: Although the combination of CMB305 and atezolizumab did not result in significant increases in PFS or OS compared with atezolizumab alone, some patients demonstrated evidence of an anti-NY-ESO-1 immune response and appeared to fare better by imaging than those without such an immune response. Combining prime-boost vaccines such as CMB305 with anti-programmed death ligand-1 therapies merits further evaluation in other clinical contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03452DOI Listing
July 2021

Dose escalation and expansion phase I studies with the tumour-targeting antibody-tumour necrosis factor fusion protein L19TNF plus doxorubicin in patients with advanced tumours, including sarcomas.

Eur J Cancer 2021 06 23;150:143-154. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medicine A, Hematology, Oncology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert Schweitzer Campus 1, 48149 Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: L19TNF is a recombinant fusion protein composed of a human antibody fragment and human tumour necrosis factor. L19TNF targets the EDB domain of oncofetal fibronectin highly expressed in tumour vasculature and induces tumour remission in mouse tumours. We summarise two phase I trials testing a combination of L19TNF with doxorubicin in patients with solid tumours, particularly soft tissue sarcomas (STS).

Patients And Methods: The first study, an open-label, dose-escalation and expansion phase I study of L19TNF plus doxorubicin, enrolled 27 patients. Three cohorts (10.4-17 μg/kg L19TNF) of patients received L19TNF intravenously at days 1, 3, and 5 and doxorubicin (75 mg/m, then 60 mg/m) on day 1 every 3 weeks. The expansion cohort enrolled patients with STS. The second study tried to re-escalate the doxorubicin dose to 75 mg/m with 13 μg/kg L19TNF. Among primary objectives was the establishment of a recommended dose (RD).

Results: The combination was safely applicable. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred either at 17 μg/kg L19TNF or at 75 mg/m doxorubicin. RD is 13 μg/kg L19TNF plus 60 mg/m doxorubicin. In 15 STS patients of the extension cohort evaluable for efficacy, antitumour activity was observed with complete remission in 1, partial remission in 1 and minor tumour shrinkage in 7 patients. The median overall survival for this heavily pretreated cohort was 14.9 months.

Conclusion: L19TNF can be safely applied in combination with doxorubicin and induces encouraging tumour remissions in patients with soft tissue sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.038DOI Listing
June 2021

Health-related quality of life and pain with selinexor in patients with advanced dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

Future Oncol 2021 Aug 15;17(22):2923-2939. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.

Compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of selinexor versus placebo in patients with dedifferentiated liposarcoma. HRQoL was assessed at baseline and day 1 of each cycle using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item core quality of life questionnaire. Results were reported from baseline to day 169 (where exposure to treatment was maximized while maintaining adequate sample size). Pain scores worsened for placebo versus selinexor across all postbaseline visits, although differences in HRQoL at some visits were not significant. Other domains did not exhibit significant differences between arms; however, scores in both arms deteriorated over time. Patients treated with selinexor reported lower rates and slower worsening of pain compared with patients who received placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0284DOI Listing
August 2021

Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: An Update.

Curr Oncol Rep 2021 03 22;23(5):51. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Sarcoma Oncology Center, 2811 Wilshire Blvd, Santa Monica, CA, 90403, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight the new developments in the management of advanced giant cell tumor of bone, a rare locally aggressive benign tumor, which was traditionally managed with surgery alone by either curettage and local adjuvant therapy, wide resection, or marginal excision. Here, we review the current role of systemic therapy for management of locally advanced or metastatic giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB).

Recent Findings: The elucidation of the pathophysiology of giant cell tumor of bone, especially with regards to the role of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), has led to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of denosumab in the management of locally advanced or metastatic GCTB. For advanced giant cell tumor where surgical resection alone can cause severe morbidity, the paradigm has shifted from local treatment alone to multidisciplinary management with the consideration of use of denosumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11912-021-01047-5DOI Listing
March 2021

COVID-19 vaccine guidance for patients with cancer participating in oncology clinical trials.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2021 05 15;18(5):313-319. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Clinical Trials Program), Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Emerging efficacy data have led to the emergency use authorization or approval of COVID-19 vaccines in several countries worldwide. Most trials of COVID-19 vaccines excluded patients with active malignancies, and thus data on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the vaccines in patients with cancer are currently limited. Given the risk posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, decisions regarding the use of vaccines against COVID-19 in patients participating in trials of investigational anticancer therapies need to be addressed promptly. Patients should not have to choose between enrolling on oncology clinical trials and receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Clinical trial sponsors, investigators and treating physicians need operational guidance on COVID-19 vaccination for patients with cancer who are currently enrolled or might seek to enrol in clinical trials. Considering the high morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in patients with cancer, the benefits of vaccination are likely to far outweigh the risks of vaccine-related adverse events. Herein, we provide operational COVID-19 vaccine guidance for patients participating in oncology clinical trials. In our perspective, continued quality oncological care requires that patients with cancer, including those involved in trials, be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination, which should not affect trial eligibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41571-021-00487-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957448PMC
May 2021

Phase I Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Activity of BAY1436032 in Patients with IDH1-Mutant Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 23;27(10):2723-2733. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Pharmaceuticals Division, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Whippany, New Jersey.

Purpose: BAY1436032, an inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (mIDH1), was active against multiple IDH1-R132X solid tumors in preclinical models. This first-in-human study was designed to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of BAY1436032, and to evaluate its potential pharmacodynamics and antitumor effects.

Patients And Methods: The study comprised of dose escalation and dose expansion cohorts. BAY1436032 tablets were orally administered twice daily on a continuous basis in subjects with m solid tumors.

Results: In dose escalation, 29 subjects with various tumor types were administered BAY1436032 across five doses (150-1,500 mg twice daily). BAY1432032 exhibited a relatively short half-life. Most evaluable subjects experienced target inhibition as indicated by a median maximal reduction of plasma R-2-hydroxyglutarate levels of 76%. BAY1436032 was well tolerated and an MTD was not identified. A dose of 1,500 mg twice daily was selected for dose expansion, where 52 subjects were treated in cohorts representing four different tumor types [lower grade glioma (LGG), glioblastoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and a basket cohort of other tumor types]. The best clinical outcomes were in subjects with LGG ( = 35), with an objective response rate of 11% (one complete response and three partial responses) and stable disease in 43%. As of August 2020, four of these subjects were in treatment for >2 years and still ongoing. Objective responses were observed only in LGG.

Conclusions: BAY1436032 was well tolerated and showed evidence of target inhibition and durable objective responses in a small subset of subjects with LGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4256DOI Listing
May 2021

Avapritinib in unresectable or metastatic PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Long-term efficacy and safety data from the NAVIGATOR phase I trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 03 16;145:132-142. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Essen, Sarcoma Center, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: PDGFRA D842V mutations occur in 5-10% of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), and previously approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are inactive against this mutation. Consequently, patients have a poor prognosis. We present an updated analysis of avapritinib efficacy and long-term safety in this patient population.

Methods: NAVIGATOR (NCT02508532), a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation/dose-expansion phase I study, enrolled adult patients with unresectable GISTs. Patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST were a prespecified subgroup within the overall safety population, which included patients who received ≥1 avapritinib dose. Primary end-points were overall response rate (ORR) and avapritinib safety profile. Secondary end-points were clinical benefit rate (CBR), duration of response (DOR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Overall survival (OS) was an exploratory end-point.

Results: Between 7 October 2015 and 9 March 2020, 250 patients enrolled in the safety population; 56 patients were included in the PDGFRA D842V population, 11 were TKI-naïve. At data cut-off, median follow-up was 27.5 months. Safety profile was comparable between the overall safety and PDGFRA D842V populations. In the PDGFRA D842V population, the most frequent adverse events were nausea (38 [68%] patients) and diarrhoea (37 [66%]), and cognitive effects occurred in 32 (57%) patients. The ORR was 91% (51/56 patients). The CBR was 98% (55/56 patients). The median DOR was 27.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.6-not reached [NR]); median PFS was 34.0 months (95% CI: 22.9-NR). Median OS was not reached.

Conclusion: Targeting PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST with avapritinib resulted in an unprecedented, durable clinical benefit, with a manageable safety profile. Avapritinib should be considered as first-line therapy for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Avapritinib in Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Following at Least Three Prior Lines of Therapy.

Oncologist 2021 04 1;26(4):e639-e649. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) driven by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) mutations develop resistance to available tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments. NAVIGATOR is a two-part, single-arm, dose escalation and expansion study designed to evaluate safety and antineoplastic activity of avapritinib, a selective, potent inhibitor of KIT and PDGFRA, in patients with unresectable or metastatic GIST.

Materials And Methods: Eligible patients were 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed unresectable GIST and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2 and initiated avapritinib at 300 mg or 400 mg once daily. Primary endpoints were safety in patients who initiated avapritinib at 300 mg or 400 mg once daily and overall response rate (ORR) in patients in the safety population with three or more previous lines of TKI therapy.

Results: As of November 16, 2018, in the safety population (n = 204), the most common adverse events (AEs) were nausea (131 [64%]), fatigue (113 [55%]), anemia (102 [50%]), cognitive effects (84 [41%]), and periorbital edema (83 [41%]); 17 (8%) patients discontinued due to treatment-related AEs, most frequently confusion, encephalopathy, and fatigue. ORR in response-evaluable patients with GIST harboring KIT or non-D842V PDGFRA mutations and with at least three prior therapies (n = 103) was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-25). Median duration of response was 10.2 months (95% CI, 7.2-10.2), and median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (95% CI, 2.8-4.6).

Conclusion: Avapritinib has manageable toxicity with meaningful clinical activity as fourth-line or later treatment in some patients with GIST with KIT or PDGFRA mutations.

Implications For Practice: In the NAVIGATOR trial, avapritinib, an inhibitor of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A tyrosine kinases, provided durable responses in a proportion of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) who had received three or more prior therapies. Avapritinib had a tolerable safety profile, with cognitive adverse events manageable with dose interruptions and modification in most cases. These findings indicate that avapritinib can elicit durable treatment responses in some patients with heavily pretreated GIST, for whom limited treatment options exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018324PMC
April 2021

A Phase 1b Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of CMB305, a Lentiviral-Based Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen, in Patients with Locally Advanced, Relapsed, or Metastatic Cancer Expressing NY-ESO-1.

Oncoimmunology 2020 11 19;9(1):1847846. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.

Preclinical data suggest that a "prime-boost" vaccine regimen using a target-expressing lentiviral vector for priming, followed by a recombinant protein boost, may be effective against cancer; however, this strategy has not been evaluated in a clinical setting. CMB305 is a prime-boost vaccine designed to induce a broad anti-NY-ESO-1 immune response. It is composed of LV305, which is an NY-ESO-1 expressing lentiviral vector, and G305, a recombinant adjuvanted NY-ESO-1 protein. This multicenter phase 1b, first-in-human trial evaluated CMB305 in patients with NY-ESO-1 expressing solid tumors. Safety was examined in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design, followed by an expansion with CMB305 alone or in a combination with either oral metronomic cyclophosphamide or intratumoral injections of a toll-like receptor agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid A). Of the 79 patients who enrolled, 81.0% had sarcomas, 86.1% had metastatic disease, and 57.0% had progressive disease at study entry. The most common adverse events were fatigue (34.2%), nausea (26.6%), and injection-site pain (24.1%). In patients with soft tissue sarcomas, a disease control rate of 61.9% and an overall survival of 26.2 months (95% CI, 22.1-NA) were observed. CMB305 induced anti-NY-ESO-1 antibody and T-cell responses in 62.9% and 47.4% of patients, respectively. This is the first trial to test a prime-boost vaccine regimen in patients with advanced cancer. This approach is feasible, can be delivered safely, and with evidence of immune response as well as suggestion of clinical benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1847846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714520PMC
November 2020

A randomized, open-label, phase 2, multicenter trial of gemcitabine with pazopanib or gemcitabine with docetaxel in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma.

Cancer 2021 03 24;127(6):894-904. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona.

Background: Therapeutic options for patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) are limited. The goal of the current phase 2 study was to examine the clinical activity and safety of the combination of gemcitabine plus pazopanib, a multityrosine kinase inhibitor with activity in STS.

Methods: The current randomized, phase 2 trial enrolled patients with advanced nonadipocytic STS who had received prior anthracycline-based therapy. Patients were assigned 1:1 to receive gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m on days 1 and 8 with pazopanib at a dose of 800 mg daily (G+P) or gemcitabine at a dose of 900 mg/m on days 1 and 8 and docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m on day 8 (G+T) every 3 weeks. Crossover was allowed at the time of disease progression. The study used a noncomparative statistical design based on the precision of 95% confidence intervals for reporting the primary endpoints of median progression-free survival (PFS) and rate of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) for these 2 regimens based on the intent-to-treat patient population (AEs were graded using version 4.0 of the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events).

Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled: 45 patients on each treatment arm. The median PFS was 4.1 months for each arm (P = .3, log-rank test). The best overall response of stable disease or better (complete response + partial response + stable disease) was the same for both treatment arms (64% for both the G+T and G+P arms). The rate of related grade ≥3 AEs was 82% for the G+T arm and 78% for the G+P arm. Related grade ≥3 AEs occurring in ≥10% of patients in the G+T and G+P arms were anemia (36% and 20%, respectively), fatigue (29% and 13%, respectively), thrombocytopenia (53% and 49%, respectively), neutropenia (20% and 49%, respectively), lymphopenia (13% and 11%, respectively), and hypertension (2% and 20%, respectively).

Conclusions: The data from the current study have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of G+P as an alternative to G+T for patients with nonadipocytic STS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33216DOI Listing
March 2021

A novel patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model of highly-aggressive liver metastasis for identification of candidate effective drug-combinations.

Sci Rep 2020 11 18;10(1):20105. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

AntiCancer, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

Liver metastasis is a recalcitrant disease that usually leads to death of the patient. The present study established a unique patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model of a highly aggressive liver metastasis of colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate proof-of-concept that candidate drug combinations could significantly inhibit growth and re-metastasis of this recalcitrant tumor. The patient's liver metastasis was initially established subcutaneously in nude mice and the subcutaneous tumor tissue was then orthotopically implanted in the liver of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Two studies were performed to test different drugs or drug combination, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + irinotecan (IRI) + bevacizumab (BEV) and regorafenib (REG) + selumetinib (SEL) had significantly inhibited liver metastasis growth (p = 0.013 and p = 0.035, respectively), and prevented liver satellite metastasis. This study is proof of concept that a PDOX model of highly aggressive colon-cancer metastasis can identify effective drug combinations and that the model has future clinical potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76708-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676248PMC
November 2020

Effect of lurbinectedin on the QTc interval in patients with advanced solid tumors: an exposure-response analysis.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 01 27;87(1):113-124. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

START Madrid-CIOCC, Hospital Universitario San Chinarro, 28050, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: This study assessed the effect of lurbinectedin, a highly selective inhibitor of oncogenic transcription, on the change from baseline in Fridericia's corrected QT interval (∆QTcF) and electrocardiography (ECG) morphological patterns, and lurbinectedin concentration-∆QTcF (C-∆QTcF) relationship, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: Patients with QTcF ≤ 500 ms, QRS < 110 ms, PR < 200 ms, and normal cardiac conduction and function received lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m as a 1-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. ECGs were collected in triplicate via 12-lead digital recorder in treatment cycle 1 and 2 and analyzed centrally. ECG collection time-matched blood samples were drawn to measure lurbinectedin plasma concentration. No effect on QTc interval was concluded if the upper bound (UB) of the least square (LS) mean two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CI) for ΔQTcF at each time point was < 20 ms. C-∆QTcF was explored using linear mixed-effects analysis.

Results: A total of 1707 ECGs were collected from 39 patients (females, 22; median age, 56 years). The largest UB of the 90% CI of ΔQTcF was 9.6 ms, thus lower than the more conservative 10 ms threshold established at the ICH E14 guideline for QT studies in healthy volunteers. C-∆QTcF was better fit by an effect compartment model, and the 90% CI of predicted ΔQTcF at C was 7.81 ms, also below the 10 ms threshold of clinical concern.

Conclusions: ECG parameters and C-ΔQTcF modelling in this prospective study indicate that lurbinectedin was not associated with a clinically relevant effect on cardiac repolarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04153-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801313PMC
January 2021

Antitumor activity of lurbinectedin in second-line small cell lung cancer patients who are candidates for re-challenge with the first-line treatment.

Lung Cancer 2020 12 10;150:90-96. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy.

Introduction: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend re-challenge with the first-line treatment for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI)≥180 days. A phase II study (NCT02454972) showed remarkable antitumor activity in SCLC patients treated with lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m 1 -h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks as second-line therapy. We report results for the pre-planned subset of patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days.

Material And Methods: Twenty patients aged ≥18 years with pathologically proven SCLC diagnosis, pretreated with only one prior platinum-containing line, no CNS metastases, and with CTFI ≥ 180 days were evaluated. The primary efficacy endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by the Investigators according to RECIST v1.1.

Results: ORR was 60.0 % (95 %CI, 36.1-86.9), with a median duration of response of 5.5 months (95 %CI, 2.9-11.2) and disease control rate of 95.0 % (95 %CI, 75.1-99.9). Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95 %CI, 2.6-7.3). With a censoring of 55.0 %, the median overall survival was 16.2 months (95 %CI, 9.6-upper level not reached). Of note, 60.9 % and 27.1 % of patients were alive at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were hematological disorders (neutropenia, 55.0 %; anemia; 10.0 % thrombocytopenia, 10.0 %), fatigue (10.0 %) and increased liver function tests (GGT, 10 %; ALT and AP, 5.0 % each). No febrile neutropenia was reported.

Conclusion: Lurbinectedin is an effective treatment for platinum-sensitive relapsed SCLC, especially in patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days, with acceptable safety and tolerability. These encouraging results suggest that lurbinectedin can be another valuable therapeutic option rather than platinum re-challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.10.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Denosumab Treatment for Giant Cell Tumor of the Spine Including the Sacrum.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar;46(5):277-284

Sarcoma Oncology Center, Santa Monica, CA.

Study Design: This was a subanalysis of an international, multicenter, open-label study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of denosumab in a subset of patients with giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) of the spine including the sacrum from an international, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00680992).

Summary Of Background Data: Standard GCTB treatment is surgical removal, either by curettage or resection, combined with intraoperative adjuvant therapy; however, some sites may not be amenable to resection (e.g., skull, spine).

Methods: Adults or skeletally mature adolescents with pathologically confirmed GCTB of the spine including the sacrum, and radiologically measurable evidence of active disease, were included. Patients received denosumab (120 mg subcutaneously) once every 4 weeks during the treatment phase, with loading doses on days 8 and 15 of the first cycle. Patients had surgically unsalvageable GCTB (Cohort 1), had planned surgery expected to result in severe morbidity (Cohort 2), or were enrolled from a previous GCTB study (Cohort 3).

Results: Overall, 132 patients were included in the safety analysis (103 in Cohort 1, 24 in Cohort 2, and five in Cohort 3); 131 patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimated probabilities of disease progression or recurrence were 3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0-6.2) at year 1 and 7.4% (95% CI, 2.1-12.7) at years 3 and 5 in Cohort 1, and not estimable in Cohorts 2 and 3. Of 23 patients (Cohort 2) with surgery planned at baseline, 10 (43%) had on-study surgery; of these, one patient had reported disease progression or recurrence after the on-study surgery. Clinical benefit was reported in 83% of patients overall (all cohorts).

Conclusion: Results from the analysis suggest that denosumab is potentially effective treatment for patients with GCTB of the spine including the sacrum. The adverse event profile was consistent with the full study population.Level of Evidence: 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864639PMC
March 2021

Oral recombinant methioninase increases TRAIL receptor-2 expression to regress pancreatic cancer in combination with agonist tigatuzumab in an orthotopic mouse model.

Cancer Lett 2020 11 31;492:174-184. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

AntiCancer Inc, San Diego, CA, USA; Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Methionine addiction is a fundamental and general hallmark of cancer. Gene expression analysis showed that methionine restriction (MR) of methionine-addicted cancer cells increases TNF-related apoptosis-induced ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) expression. Here, we determined the effects of MR on TRAIL-R2 targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer by the TRAIL-R2 agonist tigatuzumab. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines were cultured in control or methionine-free medium. The effects of MR on TRAIL-R2 expression and sensitivity to tigatuzumab were evaluated in vitro. An orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model was established to evaluate the efficacy of MR using oral recombinant methioninase (o-rMETase), and the efficacy of tigatuzumab and their combination. MR enabled tigatuzumab-induced apoptosis, by increasing TRAIL-R2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The protein expression level of the melanoma-associated antigen MAGED2, which reduces TRAIL-R2 expression, was decreased by MR. In the orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model, o-rMETase increased TRAIL-R2 expression level in the tumors and enabled the antitumor efficacy of tigatuzumab. MR, effected by o-rMETase, enabled the efficacy of the TRAIL-R2 agonist tigatuzumab by increasing TRAIL-R2 expression in pancreatic cancer. Our results suggest that o-rMETase has clinical potential for treating pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.07.034DOI Listing
November 2020

Avapritinib in advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (NAVIGATOR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 07;21(7):935-946

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Targeting of KIT and PDGFRA with imatinib revolutionised treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumour; however, PDGFRA Asp842Val (D842V)-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumour is highly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of avapritinib, a novel KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor that potently inhibits PDGFRA D842V, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, including patients with KIT and PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (NAVIGATOR).

Methods: NAVIGATOR is a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion, phase 1 study done at 17 sites across nine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and with adequate end-organ function were eligible to participate. The dose-escalation part of the study included patients with unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The dose-expansion part of the study included patients with an unresectable PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour regardless of previous therapy or gastrointestinal stromal tumour with other mutations that either progressed on imatinib and one or more tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or only received imatinib previously. On the basis of enrolment trends, ongoing review of study data, and evolving knowledge regarding the gastrointestinal stromal tumour treatment paradigm, it was decided by the sponsor's medical director together with the investigators that patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations would be analysed separately; the results from this group of patients is reported in this Article. Oral avapritinib was administered once daily in the dose-escalation part (starting dose of 30 mg, with increasing dose levels once daily in continuous 28-day cycles until the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase 2 dose was determined; in the dose-expansion part, the starting dose was the maximum tolerated dose from the dose-escalation part). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, and safety in the dose-escalation part, and overall response and safety in the dose-expansion part. Safety was assessed in all patients from the dose-escalation part and all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the dose-expansion part, and activity was assessed in all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour who received avapritinib and who had at least one target lesion and at least one post-baseline disease assessment by central radiology. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02508532.

Findings: Between Oct 26, 2015, and Nov 16, 2018 (data cutoff), 46 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation part, including 20 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and 36 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour were enrolled in the dose-expansion part. At data cutoff (Nov 16, 2018), 38 (46%) of 82 patients in the safety population (median follow-up of 19·1 months [IQR 9·2-25·5]) and 37 (66%) of the 56 patients in the PDGFRA D842V population (median follow-up of 15·9 months [IQR 9·2-24·9]) remained on treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 300 mg. In the safety population (patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour from the dose-escalation and dose-expansion parts, all doses), treatment-related grade 3-4 events occurred in 47 (57%) of 82 patients, the most common being anaemia (14 [17%]); there were no treatment-related deaths. In the PDGFRA D842V-mutant population, 49 (88%; 95% CI 76-95) of 56 patients had an overall response, with five (9%) complete responses and 44 (79%) partial responses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at doses of 30-400 mg per day. At 600 mg, two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 2 hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and memory impairment in patient 1, and grade 2 hyperbilirubinaemia in patient 2).

Interpretation: Avapritinib has a manageable safety profile and has preliminary antitumour activity in patients with advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30269-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Results of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2.5 Study of Saracatinib (AZD0530), in Patients with Recurrent Osteosarcoma Localized to the Lung.

Sarcoma 2020 30;2020:7935475. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd Mail Stop 57, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

Purpose: Osteosarcoma is a rare cancer and a third of patients who have completed primary treatment will develop osteosarcoma recurrence. The Src pathway has been implicated in the metastatic behavior of osteosarcoma; about 95% of samples examined express Src or have evidence of downstream activation of this pathway. Saracatinib (AZD0530) is a potent and selective Src kinase inhibitor that was evaluated in adults in Phase 1 studies. The primary goal of this study was to determine if treatment with saracatinib could increase progression-free survival (PFS) for patients who have undergone complete resection of osteosarcoma lung metastases in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. . Subjects with recurrent osteosarcoma localized to lung and who had complete surgical removal of all lung nodules were randomized within six weeks after complete surgical resection. Saracatinib, or placebo, was administered at a dose of 175 mg orally, once daily, for up to thirteen 28-day cycles.

Results: Thirty-seven subjects were included in the analyses; 18 subjects were randomized to receive saracatinib and 19 to receive placebo. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated a median PFS of 19.4 months in the saracatinib treatment group and 8.6 months in the placebo treatment group (=0.47). Median OS was not reached in either arm.

Conclusions: Although saracatinib was well tolerated in this patient population, there was no apparent impact of the drug in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial on OS, and Src inhibition alone may not be sufficient to suppress metastatic progression in osteosarcoma. There is a suggestion of potential clinical benefit as evidenced by longer PFS in patients randomized to saracatinib based on limited numbers of patients treated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7935475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211262PMC
April 2020

A Phase 1b Dose Escalation Trial of NC-6300 (Nanoparticle Epirubicin) in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors or Advanced, Metastatic, or Unresectable Soft-tissue Sarcoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 08 7;26(16):4225-4232. Epub 2020 May 7.

Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Purpose: NC-6300 is a novel nanoparticle formulation of epirubicin that has a pH-sensitive linker conjugated to epirubicin. It exhibits selective tumor accumulation owing to enhanced permeability and retention effect. We conducted a phase 1b trial to determine MTD and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of NC-6300 monotherapy in advanced, metastatic, or unresectable solid tumors, including soft-tissue sarcomas.

Patients And Methods: This phase 1b dose-escalation trial of NC-6300 monotherapy employed a Bayesian continuous reassessment method design. NC-6300 was administered on day 1 of every 21-day cycle, with epirubicin-equivalent dose increments from 125 to 215 mg/m. Safety, efficacy, quality of life, and pharmacokinetic profile of NC-6300 monotherapy were evaluated.

Results: Twenty-nine subjects (16 male) were enrolled: 17 with soft-tissue sarcoma, one with osteosarcoma, and 11 with other solid tumors. Observed dose-limiting toxicities included thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, lung infection, and febrile neutropenia. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (59%), anemia (24%), thrombocytopenia (24%), and febrile neutropenia (21%). MTD and RP2D were determined to be 185 mg/m and 150 mg/m, respectively. The objective response rate in the evaluable population was 11%. Partial response was observed in angiosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma. A dose-dependent increase was observed in both total and released epirubicin concentrations.

Conclusions: NC-6300 was well tolerated with a manageable side effect profile, despite the MTD and RP2D being higher than conventional epirubicin doses. A signal of preliminary activity was observed in angiosarcoma. NC-6300 warrants further investigation in patients with advanced solid tumors, including sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0591DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical outcomes of patients with advanced synovial sarcoma or myxoid/round cell liposarcoma treated at major cancer centers in the United States.

Cancer Med 2020 07 6;9(13):4593-4602. Epub 2020 May 6.

Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Background: Outcomes data regarding advanced synovial sarcoma (SS) and myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL) are limited, consisting primarily of retrospective series and post hoc analyses of clinical trials.

Methods: In this multi-center retrospective study, data were abstracted from the medical records of 350 patients from nine sarcoma centers throughout the United States and combined into a registry. Patients with advanced/unresectable or metastatic SS (n = 249) or MRCL (n = 101) who received first-line systemic anticancer therapy and had records of tumor imaging were included. Overall survival (OS), time to next treatment, time to distant metastasis, and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression.

Results: At start of first-line systemic anticancer therapy, 92.4% of patients with SS and 91.1% of patients with MRCL had metastatic lesions. However, 74.7% of patients with SS and 72.3% of patients with MRCL had ≥2 lines of systemic therapy. Median OS and median PFS from first-line therapy for SS was 24.7 months (95% CI, 20.9-29.4) and 7.5 months, respectively (95% CI, 6.4-8.4). Median OS and median PFS from start of first-line therapy for MRCL was 29.9 months (95% CI, 27-44.6) and 8.9 months (95% CI 4.5-12.0).

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest retrospective study of patients with SS and MRCL. It provides an analysis of real-world clinical outcomes among patients treated at major sarcoma cancer centers and could inform treatment decisions and design of clinical trials. In general, the survival outcomes for this selected population appear more favorable than in published literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333839PMC
July 2020

Lurbinectedin as second-line treatment for patients with small-cell lung cancer: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 basket trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 05 27;21(5):645-654. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.

Background: Few options exist for treatment of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of first-line therapy. Lurbinectedin is a selective inhibitor of oncogenic transcription. In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the acti and safety of lurbinectedin in patients with SCLC after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy.

Methods: In this single-arm, open-label, phase 2 basket trial, we recruited patients from 26 hospitals in six European countries and the USA. Adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pathologically proven diagnosis of SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, measurable disease as per Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, absence of brain metastasis, adequate organ function, and pre-treated with only one previous chemotherapy-containing line of treatment (minimum 3 weeks before study initiation) were eligible. Treatment consisted of 3·2 mg/m lurbinectedin administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an overall response (complete or partial response) as assessed by the investigators according to RECIST 1.1. All treated patients were analysed for activity and safety. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02454972.

Findings: Between Oct 16, 2015, and Jan 15, 2019, 105 patients were enrolled and treated with lurbinectedin. Median follow-up was 17·1 months (IQR 6·5-25·3). Overall response by investigator assessment was seen in 37 patients (35·2%; 95% CI 26·2-45·2). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events (irrespective of causality) were haematological abnormalities-namely, anaemia (in nine [9%] patients), leucopenia (30 [29%]), neutropenia (48 [46%]), and thrombocytopenia (seven [7%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 11 (10%) patients, of which neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were the most common (five [5%] patients for each). No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: Lurbinectedin was active as second-line therapy for SCLC in terms of overall response and had an acceptable and manageable safety profile. Lurbinectedin could represent a potential new treatment for patients with SCLC, who have few options especially in the event of a relapse, and is being investigated in combination with doxorubicin as second-line therapy in a randomised phase 3 trial.

Funding: Pharma Mar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30068-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Targeting Refractory Sarcomas and Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors in a Phase I/II Study of Sirolimus in Combination with Ganetespib (SARC023).

Sarcoma 2020 30;2020:5784876. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Purpose: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas. Combining Hsp90 inhibitors to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress with mTOR inhibition results in dramatic MPNST shrinkage in a genetically engineered MPNST mouse model. Ganetespib is an injectable potent small molecule inhibitor of Hsp90. Sirolimus is an oral mTOR inhibitor. We sought to determine the safety, tolerability, and recommended dose of ganetespib and sirolimus in patients with refractory sarcomas and assess clinical benefits in patients with unresectable/refractory MPNSTs. . In this multi-institutional, open-label, phase 1/2 study of ganetespib and sirolimus, patients ≥16 years with histologically confirmed refractory sarcoma (phase 1) or MPNST (phase 2) were eligible. A conventional 3 + 3 dose escalation design was used for phase 1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures were evaluated. Primary objectives of phase 2 were to determine the clinical benefit rate (CBR) of this combination in MPNSTs. Patient-reported outcomes assessed pain.

Results: Twenty patients were enrolled (10 per phase). Toxicities were manageable; most frequent non-DLTs were diarrhea, elevated liver transaminases, and fatigue. The recommended dose of ganetespib was 200 mg/m intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 with sirolimus 4 mg orally once daily with day 1 loading dose of 12 mg. In phase 1, one patient with leiomyosarcoma achieved a sustained partial response. In phase 2, no responses were observed. The median number of cycles treated was 2 (1-4). Patients did not meet the criteria for clinical benefit as defined per protocol. Pain ratings decreased or were stable.

Conclusion: Despite promising preclinical rationale and tolerability of the combination therapy, no responses were observed, and the study did not meet parameters for further evaluation in MPNSTs. This trial was registered with (NCT02008877).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5784876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013290PMC
January 2020

Entrectinib in patients with advanced or metastatic NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours: integrated analysis of three phase 1-2 trials.

Lancet Oncol 2020 02 11;21(2):271-282. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Developmental Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Entrectinib is a potent inhibitor of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) A, B, and C, which has been shown to have anti-tumour activity against NTRK gene fusion-positive solid tumours, including CNS activity due to its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. We present an integrated efficacy and safety analysis of patients with metastatic or locally advanced solid tumours harbouring oncogenic NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 gene fusions treated in three ongoing, early-phase trials.

Methods: An integrated database comprised the pivotal datasets of three, ongoing phase 1 or 2 clinical trials (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2), which enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with metastatic or locally advanced NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours who received entrectinib orally at a dose of at least 600 mg once per day in a capsule. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 and could have received previous anti-cancer therapy (except previous TRK inhibitors). The primary endpoints, the proportion of patients with an objective response and median duration of response, were evaluated by blinded independent central review in the efficacy-evaluable population (ie, patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours who were TRK inhibitor-naive and had received at least one dose of entrectinib). Overall safety evaluable population included patients from STARTRK-1, STARTRK-2, ALKA-372-001, and STARTRK-NG (NCT02650401; treating young adult and paediatric patients [aged ≤21 years]), who received at least one dose of entrectinib, regardless of tumour type or gene rearrangement. NTRK fusion-positive safety evaluable population comprised all patients who have received at least one dose of entrectinib regardless of dose or follow-up. These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001).

Findings: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018) the efficacy-evaluable population comprised 54 adults with advanced or metastatic NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours comprising ten different tumour types and 19 different histologies. Median follow-up was 12.9 months (IQR 8·77-18·76). 31 (57%; 95% CI 43·2-70·8) of 54 patients had an objective response, of which four (7%) were complete responses and 27 (50%) partial reponses. Median duration of response was 10 months (95% CI 7·1 to not estimable). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events in both safety populations were increased weight (seven [10%] of 68 patients in the NTRK fusion-positive safety population and in 18 [5%] of 355 patients in the overall safety-evaluable population) and anaemia (8 [12%] and 16 [5%]). The most common serious treatment-related adverse events were nervous system disorders (three [4%] of 68 patients and ten [3%] of 355 patients). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Entrectinib induced durable and clinically meaningful responses in patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours, and was well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. These results show that entrectinib is a safe and active treatment option for patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours. These data highlight the need to routinely test for NTRK fusions to broaden the therapeutic options available for patients with NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours.

Funding: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30691-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461630PMC
February 2020

Denosumab in patients with giant-cell tumour of bone: a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 12 6;20(12):1719-1729. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Chemotherapy Unit, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli/Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Giant-cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a rare, locally aggressive osteoclastogenic stromal tumour of the bone. This phase 2 study aimed to assess the safety and activity of denosumab in patients with surgically salvageable or unsalvageable GCTB.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study done at 30 sites in 12 countries we enrolled adults and skeletally mature adolescents (aged ≥12 years) weighing at least 45 kg with histologically confirmed and radiographically measurable GCTB, Karnofsky performance status 50% or higher (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0, 1, or 2), and measurable active disease within 1 year of study enrolment. Patients had surgically unsalvageable GCTB (cohort 1), had surgically salvageable GCTB with planned surgery expected to result in severe morbidity (cohort 2), or were enrolled from a previous study of denosumab for GCTB (cohort 3). Patients received 120 mg subcutaneous denosumab once every 4 weeks during the treatment phase, with loading doses (120 mg subcutaneously) administered on study days 8 and 15 to patients in cohorts 1 and 2 (patients in cohort 3 did not receive loading doses). The primary endpoint was safety in terms of the type, frequency, and severity of adverse events; secondary endpoints included time to disease progression from cohort 1 and the proportion of patients without surgery at month 6 for cohort 2. The safety analysis set included all enrolled patients who received at least one dose of denosumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00680992, and has been completed.

Findings: Between Sept 9, 2008, and Feb 25, 2016, 532 patients were enrolled: 267 in cohort 1, 253 in cohort 2, and 12 in cohort 3. At data cutoff on Feb 24, 2017, median follow-up was 58·1 months (IQR 34·0-74·4) in the overall patient population, and 65·8 months (40·9-82·4) in cohort 1, 53·4 months (28·2-64·1) in cohort 2, and 76·4 months (61·2-76·5) in cohort 3. During the treatment phase, the most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were hypophosphataemia (24 [5%] of 526 patients), osteonecrosis of the jaw (17 [3%], pain in extremity (12 [2%]), and anaemia (11 [2%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 138 (26%) of 526 patients; the most common were osteonecrosis of the jaw (17 [3%]), anaemia (6 [1%]), bone giant cell tumour (6 [1%]), and back pain (5 [1%]). 28 (5%) patients had positively adjudicated osteonecrosis of the jaw, four (1%) had atypical femur fracture, and four (1%) had hypercalcaemia occurring 30 days after denosumab discontinuation. There were four cases (1%) of sarcomatous transformation, consistent with historical data. Ten (2%) treatment-emergent deaths occurred (two of which were considered treatment-related; bone sarcoma in cohort 2 and sarcoma in cohort 1). Median time to progression or recurrence for patients in cohort 1 during the first treatment phase was not reached (28 [11%] of 262 patients had progression or recurrence). 227 (92%; 95% CI 87-95) of 248 patients who received at least one dose of denosumab in cohort 2 had no surgery in the first 6 months of the study.

Interpretation: The types and frequencies of adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of denosumab, which showed long-term disease control for patients with GCTB with unresectable and resectable tumours. Our results suggest that the overall risk to benefit ratio for denosumab treatment in patients with GCTB remains favourable.

Funding: Amgen.
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December 2019

Induction of Metastasis by Low-dose Gemcitabine in a Pancreatic Cancer Orthotopic Mouse Model: An Opposite Effect of Chemotherapy.

Anticancer Res 2019 Oct;39(10):5339-5344

AntiCancer, Inc., San Diego, CA, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Gemcitabine is standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, however the efficacy is limited. Although acquired drug resistance and side-effects are known to limit efficacy, opposite effects of a drug, which enhance the malignancy of treated cancer, have been observed but are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether gemcitabine has such opposite effects on the BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell line expressing green fluorescent protein (BxPC-3-GFP) in an orthotopic mouse model.

Materials And Methods: BxPC-3-GFP tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice were harvested. Tumor fragments were orthotopically implanted in the tail of the pancreas of nude mice using the technique of surgical orthotopic implantation. The BxPC-3-GFP orthotopic models were divided randomly into three groups: Group 1: untreated control; Group 2: low-dose gemcitabine (weekly intraperitoneal injection at 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks); Group 3: high-dose gemcitabine (weekly intraperitoneal injection at 125 mg/kg for 6 weeks). Each group comprised eight mice. Tumor size, fluorescent area of metastases, and body weight were measured.

Results: Low- and high-dose gemcitabine inhibited primary tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, and to the greatest extent by high-dose gemcitabine compared to the untreated control (p=0.0134). In contrast, the extent of metastasis on the peritoneum was significantly increased by low-dose gemcitabine compared to the untreated control (p=0.0112). The extent of metastasis showed no significant difference between the untreated control and mice treated with high-dose gemcitabine. Body weight of the treated mice was not significantly different from that of the untreated mice.

Conclusion: The use of very bright GFP expressing of BxPC-3 cells and the orthotopic model demonstrated an unexpected increase in metastasis by low-dose gemcitabine. Future experiments will investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.13726DOI Listing
October 2019

Combination Treatment With Sorafenib and Everolimus Regresses a Doxorubicin-resistant Osteosarcoma in a PDOX Mouse Model.

Anticancer Res 2019 Sep;39(9):4781-4786

AntiCancer, Inc., San Diego, CA, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Osteosarcoma is a rare but recalcitrant type of bone cancer. To discover an effective therapy for osteosarcoma, we used a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. A PDOX mouse model has been established for all major cancer types. Strong synergistic efficacy of sorafenib (SFN) and everolimus (EVL) has been demonstrated in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of a SFN and EVL combination on a doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant osteosarcoma PDOX.

Materials And Methods: The osteosarcoma PDOX models were randomly divided into five treatment groups, each containing six mice: Control; DOX; SFN; EVL; and a combination of SFN and EVL. Mice were treated for 14 days. To observe the efficacy of these treatments, tumor size and body weight were measured, and histological sections were analyzed.

Results: Tumor growth regression was observed only in the mice treated with the combination of SFN-EVL. Histological analysis revealed necrosis with degenerative changes in tumors treated with a combination of SFN-EVL.

Conclusion: A SFN-EVL combination could be a novel effective treatment option for osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.13662DOI Listing
September 2019

Oral Recombinant Methioninase, Combined With Oral Caffeine and Injected Cisplatinum, Overcome Cisplatinum-Resistance and Regresses Patient-derived Orthotopic Xenograft Model of Osteosarcoma.

Anticancer Res 2019 Sep;39(9):4653-4657

AntiCancer, Inc., San Diego, CA, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Osteosarcoma is a recalcitrant neoplasm which occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults. Recently, using a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of malignant soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), we showed that oral recombinant methioninase (o-rMETase), in combination with caffeine, was more efficacious than o-rMETase alone in inhibiting STS tumor growth. In the present report, we determined the efficacy of o-rMETase combined with oral caffeine on a cisplatinum (CDDP)-resistant osteosarcoma PDOX model.

Materials And Methods: Osteosarcoma PDOX models were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (6 mice in each group): untreated control; CDDP alone; o-rMETase alone; o-rMETase with caffeine; CDDP plus o-rMETase; CDDP plus caffeine; and CDDP plus o-rMETase with caffeine. Tumor size and body weight were measured throughout the treatment.

Results: Tumors regressed after treatment with CDDP plus o-rMETase with caffeine. Tumors treated with CDDP plus o-rMETase with caffeine also had the most necrosis.

Conclusion: The combination of o-rMETase and caffeine together with first-line chemotherapy was efficacious for drug-resistant osteosarcoma and has clinical potential in the treatment of this highly-resistant neoplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.13646DOI Listing
September 2019
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