Publications by authors named "Sannu A Thomas"

3 Publications

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Reversible action of diaminothiazoles in cancer cells is implicated by the induction of a fast conformational change of tubulin and suppression of microtubule dynamics.

Mol Cancer Ther 2014 Jan 5;13(1):179-89. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Corresponding Author: Suparna Sengupta, Division of Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, India.

Diaminothiazoles are novel cytotoxic compounds that have shown efficacy toward different cancer cell lines. They show potent antimitotic and antiangiogenic activity upon binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin. However, the mechanism of action of diaminothiazoles at the molecular level is not known. Here, we show a reversible binding to tubulin with a fast conformational change that allows the lead diaminothiazole DAT1 [4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenyl amino)thiazole] to cause a reversible mitotic block. DAT1 also suppresses microtubule dynamic instability at much lower concentration than its IC(50) value in cancer cells. Both growth and shortening events were reduced by DAT1 in a concentration-dependent way. Colchicine, the long-studied tubulin-binding drug, has previously failed in the treatment of cancer due to its toxicity, even though it generates a strong apoptotic response. The toxicity is attributable to its slow removal from the cell due to irreversible tubulin binding caused by a slow conformational change. DAT1 binds to tubulin at an optimal pH lower than colchicine. Tubulin conformational studies showed that the binding environments of DAT1 and colchicine are different. Molecular dynamic simulations showed a difference in the number of H-bonding interactions that accounts for the different pH optima. This study gives an insight of the action of compounds targeting tubulin's colchicine-binding site, as many such compounds have entered into clinical trials recently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-0479DOI Listing
January 2014

Upregulation of DR5 receptor by the diaminothiazole DAT1 [4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenyl amino) thiazole] triggers an independent extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in colon cancer cells with compromised pro and antiapoptotic proteins.

Apoptosis 2013 Jun;18(6):713-26

Division of Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum 695014, India.

Mitochondria mediated signalling is the more common way of apoptosis induction exhibited by many chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. Death receptor mediated signalling for apoptosis in many cells also requires further amplification from the mitochondrial pathway activation through tBid. Thus the potential of most chemotherapeutic agents in tumours with intrinsic apoptosis resistance due to changes in molecules involved in the mitochondrial pathway is limited. Diaminothiazoles were shown earlier to bind to tubulin thereby exhibiting cytotoxicity towards different cancer cells. We observed that the lead diaminothiazole, DAT1 [4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenyl amino) thiazole] could induce apoptosis in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 by both pathways. However, in contrast to many other chemotherapeutic agents, DAT1 triggered apoptosis where the intrinsic pathway was blocked by changing the pro and antiapoptotic proteins. An independent extrinsic pathway activation triggered by the upregulation of DR5 receptor accounted for that. The induction of DR5 occurred in the transcriptional level and the essential role of DR5 was confirmed by the fact that siRNA downregulation of DR5 significantly reduced DAT1 induced apoptosis. HCT116 cells were earlier shown to have a type II response for apoptosis induction where extrinsic pathway was connected to the intrinsic pathway via the mediator protein tBid. Our finding thus indicates that the signalling events in the manifestation of apoptosis depend not only on the cancer cell type, but also on the inducer. Our results also place diaminothiazoles in a promising position in the treatment of tumours with compromised apoptotic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-013-0826-6DOI Listing
June 2013

Diaminothiazoles inhibit angiogenesis efficiently by suppressing Akt phosphorylation.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2012 Jun 13;341(3):718-24. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Division of Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, India.

The prevention of neovessel formation or angiogenesis is a recent popular strategy for limiting and curing cancer. Diaminothiazoles are a class of compounds that have been reported to show promise in the treatment of cancer by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, because of their effects on microtubules and as inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases. Many microtubule-targeting agents are being studied for their antiangiogenic activity, and a few have shown promising activity in the treatment of cancer. Here, we report that diaminothiazoles can be highly effective as antiangiogenic agents, as observed in the chick membrane assay. The lead compound, 4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxyphenylamino)thiazole (DAT1), inhibits endothelial cell processes such as invasion, migration, and tubule formation, which require a functional cytoskeleton. DAT1 also decreases the expression of cell adhesion markers. The antiangiogenic activities of DAT1 occur at concentrations that are not cytotoxic to the normal endothelium. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways shows that DAT1 inhibits Akt phosphorylation, which is actively involved in the angiogenic process. The antiangiogenic properties of diaminothiazoles, in addition to their promising antimitotic and cytotoxic properties in cancer cell lines, give them an extra advantage in the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.112.192559DOI Listing
June 2012
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