Publications by authors named "Sanjeev Pandey"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reliability of Imaging-Based Diagnosis of Lateral Ventricular Masses in Children.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Objective: We studied the accuracy of the radiologic diagnosis of lateral ventricular masses in children (<20 years of age).

Methods: In this retrospective study, data were collected from children with lateral ventricular masses managed in our unit between 2001 and 2016. There were 43 patients (26 boys and 17 girls; mean age, 12.1 years; range, 8 months to 20 years). Magnetic resonance imaging was available for 36 patients, whereas in 7 patients only a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan was available. The images were read independently by 3 radiologists, who were blinded to the pathology. Two differential diagnoses were offered for each patient. The agreement between the 3 radiologists was calculated using the Fleiss κ statistic.

Results: The common pathologic diagnoses were subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) (20.9%), low-grade astrocytoma (16.3%), high-grade astrocytoma (9.3%), choroid plexus papilloma (9.3%), and meningioma (9.3%). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the radiologic diagnoses were 62%, 96.7%, and 94.2%, respectively. Low-grade tumors such as low-grade gliomas, SEGAs, choroid plexus papillomas, and meningiomas were diagnosed with a high level of accuracy. High-grade gliomas, choroid plexus carcinomas, and other malignant neoplasms were difficult to diagnose on imaging. Cavernous angiomas were also difficult to diagnose. There was only fair agreement between the 3 radiologists (Fleiss κ = 0.24).

Conclusions: The pathologic spectrum of lateral ventricular tumors in children is wide, and identifying the pathology on imaging is difficult for malignant tumors. Benign tumors such as SEGAs, low-grade astrocytomas, and choroid plexus papillomas are relatively easier to diagnose. There is significant interobserver variability in the radiologic diagnosis of these tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.12.196DOI Listing
January 2019

Corrigendum to "Controlled release of drug and better bioavailability using poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles" [Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 89 (2016) 99-110].

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 07 17;114:1361. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.038DOI Listing
July 2018

Characterization of Cd-resistant Klebsiella michiganensis MCC3089 and its potential for rice seedling growth promotion under Cd stress.

Microbiol Res 2018 May 8;210:12-25. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Microbiology Laboratory, UGC Centre for Advanced Study, Department of Botany, Burdwan University, Burdwan, 713104, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Application of heavy metal resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has an important role as they help to evade metal-induced toxicity in plants on one hand and enhance plant growth on the other. The present study is therefore focused on the characterization of a cadmium resistant bacterial strain isolated from heavy metal contaminated rhizospheric soil designated as S8. This S8 strain was selected in terms of cadmium resistance and plant growth promoting traits. Moreover, it also showed resistance to lead and arsenic to a considerable extent. The selected strain S8 was identified as Klebsiella michiganensis by modern approaches of bacterial taxonomy. The plant growth promoting traits exhibited by the strain include 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (58.33 ng α-keto butyrate/mg protein/h), Indole-3-acetic acid production (671 μg/ml), phosphate solubilization (71.98 ppm), nitrogen fixation (3.72 μg of nitrogen fixed/h/mg protein) etc. Besides, the strain also exhibited high cadmium removal efficiency (73-97%) from the medium and intracellular accumulation as well. Its efficiency to alleviate cadmium-induced toxicity was determined against a rice cultivar in terms of morphological and biochemical changes. Enhanced growth and reduced oxidative stress were detected in presence of the bacterium. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that K. michiganensis strain S8 is cadmium accumulating plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that can be applied in cadmium contaminated agricultural soil to achieve better productivity of rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2018.03.003DOI Listing
May 2018

Erratum: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of melatonin entrapped PLA nanoparticles: An oxidative stress and T-cell response using golden hamster. (J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2015:103A:3034-3044).

J Biomed Mater Res A 2018 03;106(3):858

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36340DOI Listing
March 2018

A halotolerant Enterobacter sp. displaying ACC deaminase activity promotes rice seedling growth under salt stress.

Res Microbiol 2018 Jan 9;169(1):20-32. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Microbiology Laboratory, UGC Centre for Advanced Study, Department of Botany, Burdwan University, Burdwan, 713104, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined. Among them, strain P23, identified as an Enterobacter sp. based on phenotypic characteristics, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry data and the 16S rDNA sequence, was selected as the best-performing isolate for several PGP traits, including phosphate solubilization, IAA production, siderophore production, HCN production, etc. Enterobacter sp. P23 was shown to promote rice seedling growth under salt stress, and this effect was correlated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes and stress-induced ethylene. Isolation of an acdS mutant strain enabled concluding that the reduction in stress-induced ethylene content after inoculation of strain P23 was linked to ACC deaminase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2017.08.005DOI Listing
January 2018

Controlled release of drug and better bioavailability using poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

Int J Biol Macromol 2016 Aug 23;89:99-110. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221 005, India. Electronic address:

Tamoxifen (Tmx) embedded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-Tmx) is prepared to evaluate its better DNA cleavage potential, cytotoxicity using Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. PLGA-Tmx nanoparticles are prepared through emulsified nanoprecipitation technique with varying dimension of 17-30nm by changing the concentrations of polymer, emulsifier and drug. Nanoparticles dimension are measured through electron and atomic force microscopy. Interactions between tamoxifen and PLGA are verified through spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. PLGA-Tmx shows excellent DNA cleavage potential as compared to pure Tmx raising better bioavailability. In vitro cytotoxicity studies indicate that PLGA-Tmx reduces DLA cells viability up to ∼38% against ∼15% in pure Tmx. Hoechst stain is used to detect apoptotic DLA cells through fluorescence imaging of nuclear fragmentation and condensation exhibiting significant increase of apoptosis (70%) in PLGA-Tmx vis-à-vis pure drug (58%). Enhanced DNA cleavage potential, nuclear fragmentation and condensation in apoptotic cells confirm greater bioavailability of PLGA-Tmx as compared to pure Tmx in terms of receptor mediated endocytosis. Hence, the sustained release kinetics of PLGA-Tmx nanoparticles shows much better anticancer efficacy through enhanced DNA cleavage potential and nuclear fragmentation and, thereby, reveal a novel vehicle for the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.04.065DOI Listing
August 2016

Clinical, Biochemical and Outcome Profile of Biotinidase Deficient Patients from Tertiary Centre in Northern India.

J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Dec 1;9(12):SC08-10. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Professor, Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital , New Delhi, India .

Introduction: Biotinidase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder with estimated birth incidence of 1 in 61,000 for profound and partial deficiency. Estimated incidence of profound and partial biotinidase deficiency is 1 in 1, 37,000 and 1 in 1, 10,000 respectively. The carrier frequency in general population is 1 in 120. We attempt to study clinical, biochemical and outcome from 10 Biotinidase deficient patients.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective case record study was conducted to record Clinical, biochemical and outcome profile from genetic records. Biotinidase level was measured using spectrophotometric method.

Results: Study group comprised of 8 males and 2 females with median age of presentation 6 (2-45.75) months. Median (interquartile range) Biotinidase level in study group 0.3 (0.08-1.5) nmol/ml/min. Study group was further divided in to early onset group (< 12 months, n-6) and late onset group (> 12 months, n-4). Seizure, alopecia and hearing loss were predominant phenotypes in study group. The other rare presentations were: hypotonia, ataxia, skin rash, seborrhoea. The most common seizure type was focal seizure. Control of seizure activity was important immediate outcome measured in study group. Median duration (interquartile range) of seizure control in early onset group was 3 (2-4)days against 13.5 (12.25-14.75) days in late onset group.

Conclusion: This study highlights the need of early diagnosis for favourable outcome for a potentially treatable inherited metabolic disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/12958.6941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717689PMC
December 2015

Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of melatonin entrapped PLA nanoparticles: an oxidative stress and T-cell response using golden hamster.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2015 Sep 12;103(9):3034-44. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221 005, India.

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of melatonin entrapped PLA nanoparticles (Mel-NPs) and pure Mel on impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS), blastogenic responses (%SR) in terms of proliferation of splenocytes. ROS have been proposed to play an important role in balancing the pro- and antioxidant homeostasis during different physiological condition of organism. Melatonin has been suggested as an effective free radical scavenger that may have an important role during this process. Mel-NPs were prepared by using emulsification (o/w) nanoprecipitation method and their physicochemical characterizations were studied for evaluation of particle size and encapsulation efficiency by using SEM, TEM, particle size analyzer, DSC and FTIR. The TEM micrograph showed excellent findings regarding size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and difference between pure PLA nanoparticles and Mel-NPs. The SEM micrographs of Mel-NPs showed spherical shape, smooth surfaces and the homogeneous particle size distribution. In TEM micrograph, the average diameter of Mel-NPs was found to be 36 ± 8 nm with ∼78% (w/w) of entrapment efficiency. The size of pure PLA nanoparticles was found to be larger as compared to Mel-NPs which confirm that the drug supports the reduction of the size of Mel-NPs. In in vitro study, we observed that Mel-NPs significantly reduce the level of ROS in splenocytes and increased the level %SR at 96 h of splenocytes culture as compared to the culture with pure Mel. Thus our results propose high clinical value for improvement of depressed immunity by Mel-NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.35441DOI Listing
September 2015

Anti-cancer evaluation of quercetin embedded PLA nanoparticles synthesized by emulsified nanoprecipitation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2015 Apr 17;75:521-9. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Electronic address:

This study was carried out to synthesize quercetin (Qt) embedded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (PLA-Qt) and to evaluate anti-cancer efficacy of PLA-Qt by using human breast cancer cells. PLA-Qt were synthesized by using novel emulsified nanoprecipitation technique with varying dimension of 32 ± 8 to 152 ± 9 nm of PLA-Qt with 62 ± 3% (w/w) entrapment efficiency by varying the concentration of polymer, emulsifier, drug and preparation temperature. The dimension of PLA-Qt was measured through transmission electron microscopy indicating larger particle size at higher concentration of PLA. The release rate of Qt from PLA-Qt was found to be more sustained for larger particle dimension (152 ± 9 nm) as compared to smaller particle dimension (32 ± 8 nm). Interaction between Qt and PLA was verified through spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. Delayed diffusion and stronger interaction in PLA-Qt caused the sustained delivery of Qt from the polymer matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity study indicate the killing of ∼ 50% breast cancer cells in two days at 100 μg/ml of drug concentration while the ∼ 40% destruction of cells require 5 days for PLA-Qt (46 ± 6 nm; 20mg/ml of PLA). Thus our results propose anticancer efficacy of PLA-Qt nanoparticles in terms of its sustained release kinetics revealing novel vehicle for the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.02.011DOI Listing
April 2015

Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of tamoxifen loaded PLA nanoparticles for breast cancer.

Int J Biol Macromol 2015 Jan 23;72:309-19. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Electronic address:

This study was carried out to assess the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of tamoxifen (Tmx) loaded poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (Tmx-NPs) for breast cancer. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effect of Tmx-NPs on DMBA induced mammary tumor in female Wistar rat. The experimental results showed that the mean diameter of Tmx-NPs was 224 ± 3 nm with 68 ± 2% (w/w) of entrapment efficiency. In in vivo study, the tumor size in rat was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) by treating Tmx-NPs as compared to pure Tmx and untreated group (control DMBA). Tmx-NPs showed the marked reduction in hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity when compared to pure Tmx as evidenced by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues as well as estimation of AST, ALT levels, and creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen levels. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation was estimated in spleen, liver and kidney and was found significantly high in pure Tmx treated group as compared to Tmx-NPs and control group. Immunological parameters like blastogenic response of splenocytes, TLC, DLC were studied and found significantly high in pure Tmx treated group but the variations were nonsignificant in Tmx-NPs group as compared to control. Thus, Tmx-NPs have significant therapeutic efficacy with reduced side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.08.012DOI Listing
January 2015

Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-18 gene promoter region in rheumatoid arthritis patients from southern India.

J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Jun 20;8(6):SC01-4. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Professor, Department of Human Genetics, Andhra University , Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India .

Background: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro inflammatory cytokine which plays a key role in the acute and chronic inflammatory phases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-18 gene promoter region at positions -137 and -607, are postulated to be associated with RA. To test this, this study aimed to identify the association between these SNPs of the IL-18 gene promoter region of RA in south Indian patients.

Materials And Methods: This study was carried on 190 subjects among which 90 were RA patients and 100 were age and sex matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted by Salting out method. IL 18 gene promotor region SNPs, IL 18 - 607 and IL 18 -137 were amplified by using sequence specific primers. The amplified products of different samples were separated by using a 1.5% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and photographed. All statistical analyses were carried out by using SYSTAT 12 software.

Results: At position 607, the frequencies of C allele, CC genotype, A allele and AA genotype were found to be significantly higher in patients and controls respectively and there was no significant difference in CA genotype. At position 137, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to G and C allelles but there was a significant increase in GG genotype of patients and CC genotype of controls. There was no association between duration of morning stiffness, rheumatoid factor positivity or negativity, age of onset and gender with distribution of genotypes and alleles.

Conclusion: C allele, CC genotype at position-607 and GG genotype at position-137 are risk factors and A allele, AA genotype at position-607 and CC genotype at position-137 have protective effect for RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/6931.4517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129293PMC
June 2014

Influence of heavy metals on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the metal resistant strains of Ochrobactrum and Bacillus sp.

J Environ Biol 2013 Nov;34(6):1033-7

Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan, West Bengal--713 104, India.

Three bacterial strains, a cadmium resistant Ochrobactrum sp. designated as CdSP9 and two strains of Bacillus sp. named PbSP6 and AsSP9 resistant to lead and arsenate, respectively were characterized here with respect to their oxidative enzyme activities. The bacterial strains were grown in basal medium supplemented with 50 microg ml(-1) of respective elements to determine the changes in the level of oxidative enzymes. The superoxide dismutase activity increased in all three isolates, but the catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration were relatively more in CdSP9 than PbSP6 and AsSP9. The glutathione peroxidase, however, remained almost uninduced in CdSP9 but was enhanced in PbSP6 and AsSP9. A possible role of these enzymes in metal tolerance is evident from these results.
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November 2013

Association of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism with BMD and Homocysteine in Premenopausal North Indian Women.

J Clin Diagn Res 2013 Dec 15;7(12):2908-11. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, MAMC , New Delhi, India .

Background And Aim: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common nutrigenomic disease associated with various genetic components. Observational studies have indicated that mildly elevated homocysteine was a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Yet there is no clear biologic mechanism for an effect of homocysteine on bone.The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and to verify the association of these polymorphisms with bone mineral density and homocysteine in premenopausal women of northern India.

Material And Methods: We included 402 north Indian patients with altered BMD, both Osteopenic (OPN) and Osteoporosis, and normal controls. Genotype identification for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method, correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Homocysteine (Hcy), Folate and Vitamin B12.

Results: The study groups did not differ in terms of age, weight and body mass indices. Prevalence of Genotype frequencies (GFs) for MTHFRC677T OP were (n: 402): CC 361 (89.8%), CT 25 (6.22%), TT 16 (3.98%) and that for MTHFR A1298C were (n: 402) AA 353(87.81%), AC 29(7.21%), CC 20(4.98%). Folate was significantly lower in the OP group than those in both the other groups, while there was no significant difference in Hcy in the OP group relative to OPN, as compared to controls.

Conclusion: The GFs for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not different between both groups. In conclusion, polymorphism of the MTHFR 677T is associated with small differences in BMD with folate levels. Further, more investigations should be done in larger studies for other epigenetic pathways, that may increase the risk of Osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/6670.3722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919399PMC
December 2013

Heparin cofactor II thrombin complex as a biomarker for mucopolysaccharidosis: Indian experience.

Indian Pediatr 2014 Feb 5;51(2):128-30. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Departments of Pediatrics and *Biochemistry, MAMC and Associated Lok Nayak hospital, New Delhi, India. Correspondence to: Dr Seema Kapoor, M 439, Ground Floor, Guruharkishan Nagar, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi, India.

Background: Serum heparin cofactor II-thrombin complex (HCII-T) is an emerging biomarker for mucopolysaccharidosis disease (MPS I and MPS II).

Methods: Seventeen cases (6 MPS I and 11 MPS II) and sixty healthy controls were enrolled in study, conducted from September 2008 to December 2012. The mean ± SD age of MPS1 (n=6, 5 males) and MPS II was 7.02 ± 3.25 and 5.2 ± 2.15 years, respectively. Disease status was confirmed by clinical features and enzyme assay. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were measured in spot urine samples and expressed in relation to creatinine content. HCIIT measurement was done using sandwich ELISA at enrolment and after 12 and 24 months of recruitment.

Results: Urinary glycosaminoglycans and HCIIT were elevated in all patients compared to their healthy controls. Both markers could not discriminate between the type of mucopolysaccharidosis.

Conclusions: Heparin Cofactor II Thrombin Complex is a good biomarker for mucopolysaccharidosis I and II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13312-014-0344-9DOI Listing
February 2014

Intellectual disability in Indian children: experience with a stratified approach for etiological diagnosis.

Indian Pediatr 2013 Dec 5;50(12):1125-30. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Departments of Pediatrics and *Radio diagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, and #Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences; New Delhi, India. Correspondence to: Dr Seema Kapoor, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110 002, India.

Objective: To study the clinico-etiological profile of children with intellectual disability using an algorithmic approach.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Tertiary care centre in Northern India.

Participants: Consecutive children aged 3 months to 12 years, presenting with intellectual disability, confirmed by Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants, Binet Kulshreshtha Test and Vineland Social Maturity Scale.

Methods: All children were assessed on an internally validated structured proforma. A targeted approach included thyroid function tests, Brainstem evoked response audiometry, electroencephalogram, neuroimaging and metabolic screen done as a pre-decided schema. Genetic tests included karyotyping, molecular studies for Fragile X, Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation.

Results: Data of 101 children (median age 22 months) was analyzed. The etiological yield was 82.1% with genetic causes being the most common (61.4%) followed by perinatal acquired (20.4%), CNS malformations (12%), external prenatal (3.6%), and postnatal acquired (2.4%). Mild delay was seen in 11.7%, moderate in 21.7%, severe in 30.6% and profound in 35.6%

Conclusions: It is possible to ascertain the diagnosis in most of the cases of intellectual disability using a judicious and sequential battery of tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13312-013-0306-7DOI Listing
December 2013

Evaluation of C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase gene and its association with levels of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome.

Indian J Hum Genet 2012 Sep;18(3):285-9

Department of Pediatrics, LNJP, MAMC, New Delhi, India.

Aims And Objective: Evaluation of C677T polymorphisms of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and its association with level of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as possible maternal risk factors for Down syndrome.

Design: This was a case-control study.

Material And Methods: Fifty-two mothers (mean age 27.6 years) with babies having free trisomy 21 of North Indian ethnicity and 52 control nonlactating mothers (mean age 24.9 years) of same ethnicity attending services of genetic lab for bloodletting for other causes were enrolled after informed written consent. Fasting blood was collected and was used for determination of plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate (serum and RBC), and for PCR amplification of the MTHFR gene.

Results: The prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in north Indian mothers of babies with trisomy 21 Down syndrome was 15.38% compared to 5.88 % in controls. The difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.124). Low serum folate was demonstrated in 34.62% of cases vs. 11.54% in controls, which was significant (P = 0.005). Low RBC folate was found in 30.7% of cases versus 11.53% in controls, which was not significant (P = 0.059), when analyzed independently. But on multiple regression analysis the difference was statistically significant. Low serum vitamin B12 was found in 42.31% of cases versus 34.62% in controls, which was not significant (P = 0.118). The mean serum homocysteine in cases was 10.35 ± 0.68 while controls were 9.02 ± 0.535.

Conclusion: Serum levels of folate were low in cases. The RBC folate levels were comparable in both groups. However the combined serum folate and RBC folate were low in cases compared to control groups. Homocysteine levels in our study were higher in Down syndrome mothers compared to controls; however high-serum level of Homocysteine had no association with MTHFR polymorphism. No association of serum vitamin B12 with MTHFR polymorphism in occurrence of Down syndrome births was found. Peri- or preconceptional folate supplementation may therefore lead to a decline in DS births, if supported by larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6866.107977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3656515PMC
September 2012

Role of heavy metal resistant Ochrobactrum sp. and Bacillus spp. strains in bioremediation of a rice cultivar and their PGPR like activities.

J Microbiol 2013 Feb 2;51(1):11-7. Epub 2013 Mar 2.

Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Burdwan University, West Bengal 713104, India.

The present study demonstrates the metal toxicity ameliorating and growth promoting abilities of three different bacterial isolates when applied to rice as host plant. The three bacterial strains included a cadmium resistant Ochrobactrum sp., a lead resistant Bacillus sp. and an arsenic resistant Bacillus sp. designated as CdSP9, PbSP6, and AsSP9, respectively. When these isolates were used as inocula applied to metal-treated rice plants of variety Satabdi, the germination percentage, relative root elongation (RRE), amylase and protease activities were increased. The toxic effect of metal was reduced in presence of these bacteria. The overall biomass and root/shoot ratio were also enhanced by bacterial inoculation. Hydroponic studies showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, which had been increased in the presence of metal stress in rice roots, were lowered by the bacterial inoculation. In addition, all three strains were 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and catalase positive, whereas siderophore producing ability was lacking in PbSP6. However, both PbSP6 and AsSP9 were protease positive and could hydrolyse starch. The data indicate that these bacteria have promise for bioremediation as well as for plant growth promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-013-2330-7DOI Listing
February 2013

Characterization of two metal resistant Bacillus strains isolated from slag disposal site at Burnpur, India.

J Environ Biol 2011 Nov;32(6):773-9

Banwarilal Bhalotia College, Asansol, West Bengal, 713 303, India.

Two strains of Bacillus sp. resistant to arsenate and lead designated as AsSP9 and PbSP6, respectively were isolated from the slag disposal site. They were identified to be related to Bacillus cereus cluster on the basis of 16S rDNA based sequence analysis and phenotypic characteristics. Both were rod-shaped (AsSP9, 2-5 microm and PbSP6, 2-4 microm), aerobic, salt tolerant (2-8% NaCI), endospore forming bacteria with minor differences like the AsSP9 showed sporangial bulging and PbSP6 had positive lipase activity. The temperature range for their growth was 20-40 degrees C and pH range 6.0-9.0 with an optimum temperature of 37 degrees C and pH of 7 for both strains. The principal nitrogen sources forAsSP9 and PbSP6 were DL-Tryptophan and L-Phenylalanine, respectively. The suitable carbon source forAsSP9 was lactose and for PbSP6 sucrose. The heavy metal accumulation efficiency was found to be 0.0047 mg g(-1) of dry mass forAsSP9 and 0.686 mg g(-1) of dry mass for PbSP6.
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November 2011

Characterization of a Cd(2+)-resistant strain of Ochrobactrum sp. isolated from slag disposal site of an iron and steel factory.

Curr Microbiol 2010 Aug 22;61(2):106-11. Epub 2010 Jan 22.

Banwarilal Bhalotia College, Asansol, West Bengal, India.

A cadmium-resistant bacterium designated as CdSP9 was isolated from the slag disposal site of IISCO, Burnpur, West Bengal, India. The isolate was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence-based molecular phylogenetic approach and phenotypic characteristics. It is a Gram negative, short rod (0.5-1.0 micro), aerobic bacterium, growing well in LB medium between temperatures 10-42 degrees C, pH 6.0-9.0, and between 2 and 6% NaCl. The most preferred nitrogen and carbon sources for the strain are L: -proline, L: -lysine and fructose, maltose, respectively. Superoxide toxicity minimization by increased level of SOD activity also occurs in this bacterium. The heavy metal accumulation efficiency as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy was found to be 0.214 mg/g of the dry weight at late log phase. The accumulation efficiency was directly proportional to the optimum growth conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-010-9583-8DOI Listing
August 2010

Involvement of Leishmania donovani major surface glycoprotein gp63 in promastigote multiplication.

J Biosci 2004 Mar;29(1):15-22

Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India.

The major surface glycoprotein gp63 of the kinetoplastid protozoal parasite Leishmania is implicated as a ligand mediating uptake of the parasite into, and survival within, the host macrophage. By expressing gp63 antisense RNA from an episomal vector in L. donovani promastigotes, gp63-deficient transfectants were obtained. Reduction of the gp63 level resulted in increased generation times, altered cell morphology, accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased numbers of binucleate cells with one or two kinetoplasts. Growth was stimulated, and the number of binucleate cells reduced, by addition to the culture of a bacterially expressed fusion protein containing the fibronectin-like SRYD motif and the zinc-binding (metalloprotease) domain of gp63. These observations support an additional role of gp63 in promastigote multiplication; the fibronectin-like properties of gp63 may be important in this process
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02702557DOI Listing
March 2004