Publications by authors named "Sanjeev Kumar"

864 Publications

SARS-Cov2: a meta-analysis of symptom distribution by continent in 7310 adult COVID-19 infected patients.

Virusdisease 2021 Jun 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Infirmary Square, University Hospital of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

There is recent evidence that suggests that there are multiple strains of coronavirus in different parts of the world. Moreover, scientist have noted multiple mutations and postulated that these changes might increase the infective rate of the virus. However literature on varying severity of disease based on these strains is absent. In this meta-analysis, we have made an attempt to correlate the symptoms in different continents with respect to various studied strains of virus. We searched three databases, PubMed, EMBASE and EMCARE to identify studies reporting symptoms of COVID-19. All articles published between December 2019 and May 2020 was included in this meta-analysis. A total of 56 studies consisted of 7310 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Mean age of patients varied from 22 to 69.8 years. The pooled proportion of male patients was 52%. Highest incidence of fever (76%) and cough (56%) was noted in Chinese population. Sore throat (29%) was most common in Asian population. Upper respiratory tract symptom like Rhinorrhoea, Anosmia and dysgeusia (32%, 47% and 39%) were well documented in European population as compared to the other continents. Nausea and diarrhoea were more common in European (17%, 19%) and Australian (12%, 16%) population. Dyspnoea and fatigue were consistently similar in all the continents. We postulate that different mutations in COVID-19 virus may vary its pathogenicity and screening symptoms across all the continents should be not be generalised but continent-specific.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13337-021-00699-y.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-021-00699-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187893PMC
June 2021

Immunogenic potential of DNA vaccine candidate, ZyCoV-D against SARS-CoV-2 in animal models.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Vaccine Technology Centre, Cadila Healthcare Ltd, Ahmedabad, India. Electronic address:

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), initially originated in China in year 2019 and spread rapidly across the globe within 5 months, causing over 96 million cases of infection and over 2 million deaths. Huge efforts were undertaken to bring the COVID-19 vaccines in clinical development, so that it can be made available at the earliest, if found to be efficacious in the trials. We developed a candidate vaccine ZyCoV-D comprising of a DNA plasmid vector carrying the gene encoding the spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The S protein of the virus includes the receptor binding domain (RBD), responsible for binding to the human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-2) receptor. The DNA plasmid construct was transformed into E. coli cells for large scale production. The immunogenicity potential of the plasmid DNA has been evaluated in mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models by intradermal route at 25, 100 and 500 µg dose. Based on the animal studies proof-of-concept has been established and preclinical toxicology (PCT) studies were conducted in rat and rabbit model. Preliminary animal study demonstrates that the candidate DNA vaccine induces antibody response including neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and also elicited Th-1 response as evidenced by elevated IFN-γ levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.05.098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166516PMC
June 2021

Stenotic lesions of aorta: Imaging evaluation using multidetector computed tomography angiography.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2021 Jun 8:2184923211024094. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aortic involvement can be secondary to various pathologic disease processes. These may result in stenotic or aneurysmal aortic lesions with a varied spectrum of imaging findings including intra-luminal, mural, and periaortic changes along with associated loco-regional or distal changes, depending on the etiology. Multidetector computer tomography with its recent advances has become the frontline imaging modality for the evaluation of aortic pathologies. Comprehensive evaluation of the aortic pathology with simultaneous evaluation of lungs, bones, and visceral organs is possible with a single multidetector computer tomography acquisition. It allows accurate primary diagnosis, identifies important anatomic landmarks and relationships, and identifies associated cardiovascular anomalies. Moreover, it serves as an adjunct in diagnosis of various complications, helps in treatment planning and detection of disease progression during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02184923211024094DOI Listing
June 2021

Relevance of cortical excitability in Alzheimer's disease.

Authors:
Sanjeev Kumar

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Adult Neurodevelopmental and Geriatric Psychiatry Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2021.05.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Aneurysmal and obstructive lesions of the left ventricular outflow: evaluation on multidetector computed tomography angiography.

Pol J Radiol 2021 9;86:e195-e203. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The left ventricular outflow is an anatomically complex region situated between the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and the left ventricular aspect of the muscular and membranous interventricular septum. It gives rise to the aorta, provides support to the aortic valvular cusps, and houses important components of the conduction system. The left ventricular outflow handles high pressures and pressure variations and is subsequently affected by a variety of aetio-pathological conditions. Diseases involving the left ventricular outflow can be intraluminal, mural, or extramural, and the consequent complications of the lesions can be local, loco-regional, or even systemic. Appropriate evaluation requires comprehensive multimodality imaging with each modality contributing to assessment of different aspects of diagnosis, lesion characterization, local extension, prognostication for systemic complications and mortality, and the decision for the approach and type of intervention and aggressive follow-up in case non-interventional management is decided. In this review, we briefly describe the relevant anatomy and the gamut of structural abnormalities pertaining to the left ventricular outflow on multidetector computed tomography angiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2021.105588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147719PMC
April 2021

Effect of Two Different Doses of Dexmedetomidine on the Hemodynamics of "Hypertensive Patients" Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

Anesth Essays Res 2020 Jul-Sep;14(3):401-405. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, KGMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Context: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, pneumoperitoneum results in tachycardia, hypertension, and increased myocardial oxygen demand. These changes are more pronounced in hypertensive patients. The intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine attenuates sympathoadrenal response and provides better hemodynamic stability intraoperatively.

Aims: To evaluate the hemodynamic stabilizing and sedation properties of two different doses of dexmedetomidine including 0.7 μg.kg.h and 0.5 μg.kg.h in hypertensive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Settings And Design: This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind controlled trial.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 60 controlled hypertensive patients of either sex, aged 30-60 years, and ASA class 2 without any other serious comorbid conditions who were undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each. Group A and B received loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg.kg over 10 min and maintenance dose at 0.7 and 0.5 μg.kg.h, respectively. Group C received normal saline infusion only. Hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure) and sedation score were compared at different time intervals among groups.

Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test, ANOVA, and Tukey Test.

Results: Fluctuations in the hemodynamics of hypertensive patients are effectively attenuated by dexmedetomidine and there is no difference in the attenuation of these hemodynamic changes by maintenance dose of 0.5 or 0.7 μg.kg.h. However, maintenance dose of 0.5 μg.kg.h causes lesser sedation.

Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine administered as infusion in a maintenance dose of 0.5 μg.kg.h serves as an ideal anesthetic adjuvant in hypertensive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aer.AER_14_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159044PMC
March 2021

Mycotic aneurysms of pulmonary artery secondary to pulmonary valve endocarditis in a child.

J Card Surg 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Radiology and Endovascular Interventions, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We present the case of a 7-year-old child with mycotic aneurysms of bilateral lower lobe pulmonary arteries secondary to pulmonary valve endocarditis. The child underwent pulmonary vegetectomy with ventricular septal defect closure and left lower lobe pulmonary lobectomy via midline sternotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15713DOI Listing
June 2021

An unusual case of Shone's complex in an adult depicted on computed tomography angiography.

J Card Surg 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We present a case of a 22-year-old male with dyspnea on exertion where computed tomography revealed complete Shone's complex. This case highlights the complementary role of computed tomography in the anatomical evaluation of patients with complex heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15635DOI Listing
June 2021

Double trouble: A hitherto undescribed association of tricuspid atresia and common arterial trunk!

J Card Surg 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15587DOI Listing
May 2021

Forensic examination of thermal papers using Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics: Non-destructive approach.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 20;260:119982. Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute of Forensic Science & Criminology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Thermal papers are replacing the conventional form of printing and are being extensively used across the globe. This study encompasses a non-destructive approach to examine thermal papers by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), where the former technique helps in characterizing and discriminating different samples and the latter helps in deciphering the faded prints on thermal paper. The qualitative analysis of the spectroscopic data based on peak to peak comparison and quantitative analysis using chemometrics has been done to obtain high discriminating power. Multivariate analysis using HCA gave a discriminating power of 83.82% and PCA showed a variance of 95.64%. The strength of the study is portrayed through the decipherment of artificially and naturally faded thermal papers using VSC and analyzing the effect of different storing conditions on their rate of fading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119982DOI Listing
November 2021

A study to assess the socio-demographic factor and knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning methods in Lohpeeta migrants tribe located in Shivpuri central India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Mar 8;10(3):1308-1312. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Background: Even though India was the first country in the whole world to introduce the national family planning policy, the acceptance rate of contraceptive methods has been unsatisfactory to date. Many women in their fertility period, who were ready to control their fertility and limit the number of unwanted children, were not aware of different methods of contraceptives available and their proper use and other benefits.

Aim And Objective: 1. To assess the socio-demographic status of the study participants. 2. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of contraceptive methods in Lohpeeta mobile tribe located in Shivpuri, central India.

Methods: The present study was an observational cross-sectional survey conducted from 1 December 2019 to 28 February 2020 in Lohpeeta mobile tribe located in Shivpuri local; nonrandom convenience sampling method was used after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, so the total sample size was 209. Data were collected by a principal investigator with a predesigned, pretested, questionnaire by conducting face-to-face interview with the participants. Firstly, the data was administered in an excel sheet then it was analyzed and presented in the form of percentage, and a Chi-square test was applied to assess the level of significance.

Result: The most common age group of participants was 18-30 year (37.3%) and most were married (97.6%); we found that the knowledge and attitude toward contraceptives of participants was very poor, most 185 (88.5%) of the participants had never used any contraceptive method and only a few participants were using it occasionally, and none of the participants were using any contraceptive methods regularly.

Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and compliance towards contraceptives were poor in this group, we need to focus on this type of migrant population to increase their awareness and change their attitude towards contraceptives, so that they can use it without any fear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2075_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140282PMC
March 2021

Association of apolipoprotein E variation with cognitive impairment across multiple neurodegenerative diagnoses.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

For many years there has been uncertainty regarding how apolipoprotein E (APOE) E2 and E4 variants may influence overlapping features of neurodegeneration, such as cognitive impairment. We aimed to identify whether the APOE variants are associated with cognitive function across various neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diagnoses (n = 513). Utilizing a comprehensive neuropsychology battery, multivariate multiple regression was used to assess the influence of APOE carrier status and disease cohort on performance across five cognitive domains. Irrespective of disease cohort, E4 carriers had significantly lower performance in verbal memory and visuospatial domains than those with E3/3, while E2 carriers' cognitive performance was not significantly different. However, E2 carriers with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) performed significantly worse than those with E3/3 in the attention/working memory, executive function, and visuospatial domains. Our results highlight that the influence of APOE variation on cognition is complex, in some cases varying based on diagnosis and possibly underlying disease pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.04.011DOI Listing
April 2021

A unique arrangement of "kissing" atrial appendages.

J Card Surg 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We report a case of a 2-month-old boy with tricuspid and pulmonary atresia with a unique configuration of "kissing" atrial appendages. The case highlights the importance of computed tomography angiography in identifying such anomalies associated with complex congenital heart defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15674DOI Listing
May 2021

Rh(III)-Catalyzed Chemodivergent Annulations between Indoles and Iodonium Carbenes: A Rapid Access to Tricyclic and Tetracyclic -Heterocylces.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 21;23(11):4233-4238. Epub 2021 May 21.

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad 500 037, Telangana India.

Herein, we report an acid-controlled highly tunable selectivity of Rh(III)-catalyzed [4 + 2] and [3 + 3] annulations of -carboxamide indoles with iodonium ylides lead to form synthetically important tricyclic and tetracyclic -heterocycles. Here, iodonium ylide serves as a carbene precursor. The protocol proceeds under operationally simple conditions and provides novel tricyclic and tetracyclic scaffolds such as 3,4-dihydroindolo[1,2-]quinazoline-1,6(2,5)-dione and 1-[1,3]oxazino[3,4-]indol-1-one derivatives with a broad range of functional group tolerance and moderate to excellent yields. Furthermore, the protocol synthetic utility was extended for various chemical transformations and was easily scaled up to a large-scale level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01167DOI Listing
June 2021

"Dual Drainage" in the mixed variety of totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

J Card Surg 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We report a case of 6-week-old boy with a mixed variety of totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection where the common channel had a dual drainage into the coronary sinus and left brachiocephalic vein respectively. The case also highlights the role of preoperative computed tomography angiography in demonstrating the exact pulmonary venous anatomy, course and identifying obstruction, when present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15634DOI Listing
May 2021

Electrified liquid-liquid interface as an electrochemical tool for the sensing of putrescine and cadaverine.

Analyst 2021 May 7;146(10):3208-3215. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi-630 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

Putrescine and cadaverine are biogenic amines that serve as potential biomarkers for several types of cancers and monitoring food quality. Electrochemical sensing of putrescine and cadaverine by non-enzymatic routes remains a challenge because of their inertness at unmodified electrode surfaces and hence a liquid-liquid interface strategy has been employed for their detection. In the present study, electrochemical sensing of cadaverine and putrescine has been demonstrated by simple and facilitated ion-transfer processes using a liquid-liquid microinterface supported by a microcapillary. A microinterface was constructed in different configurations by varying the aqueous phase composition in the absence and presence of dibenzo-18-crown-6, and the ion-transfer ability of putrescine and cadaverine was studied in these configurations. A peak shaped voltammogram was observed in the backward scan, due to the linear diffusion of putrescine and cadaverine from the organic to the aqueous phase. The detection ability in the presence of dibenzo-18-crown-6 was observed in the concentration ranges of 0.25-25 μM and 0.25-40 μM for putrescine and cadaverine with detection limits of 0.11 and 0.17 μM respectively. In the presence of dibenzo-18-crown-6, the electrochemical sensing of putrescine and cadaverine was more pronounced compared to the simple ion-transfer process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an00019eDOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of cardiovascular morphology and airway-related abnormalities in tetralogy of fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome on multidetector computed tomography angiography.

J Card Surg 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aim: To evaluate the cardiovascular, tracheobronchial and pulmonary abnormalities associated with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome (TOF-APVS) on multidetector computed tomograpgy (MDCT) angiography.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of our electronic database from January, 2014 to December, 2020 to identify pediatric patients diagnosed with TOF-APVS on MDCT angiography. Pulmonary anatomy, associated tracheobronchial and coronary compression, compression of intrapulmonary bronchi, lung parenchymal changes and other associated cardiovascular abnormalities were evaluated.

Results: Forty-seven patients with TOF-APVS were included in the study. Compression of the airways was observed at multiple levels; 4 (8.5%) patients had carinal compression while right main bronchus and left main bronchus compression was seen in 12 (25.5%) and 16 (34.0%) patients, respectively. Forty-three (91.5%) patients showed abnormal pulmonary arterial branching at the segmental level and compression at the level of intrapulmonary bronchi was seen in 24 (51.1%) patients. Some degree of air trapping was seen in 35 (74.5%) patients whereas atelectasis was observed in 15 (31.9%) patients. Mild coronary arterial compression was seen in 3 (6.4%) patients.

Conclusion: TOF-APVS is characterized by aneurysmal dilatation of pulmonary arteries leading to a varying degree of airway compression. However, even in the absence of compression of the trachea and main bronchi, there can be distal bronchial compression secondary to abnormal pulmonary arterial branching resulting in lung abnormalities in the majority of these patients. This study highlights the importance of dedicated airway assessment in addition to cardiovascular morphological assessment by MDCT angiography, before planning surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15639DOI Listing
May 2021

Antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals in the Rashba Hund's insulator on triangular lattice.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9566. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Mohali, Sector 81, S.A.S. Nagar, Manauli, P. O. 140306, India.

Motivated by the importance of antiferromagnetic skyrmions as building blocks of next-generation data storage and processing devices, we report theoretical and computational analysis of a model for a spin-orbit coupled correlated Hund's insulator magnet on a triangular lattice. We find that two distinct antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystal (AF-SkX) states can be stabilized at low temperatures in the presence of external magnetic field. The results are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations on an effective magnetic model derived from the microscopic electronic Hamiltonian consisting of Rashba spin-orbit coupling, as well as strong Hund's coupling of electrons to classical spins at half-filling. The two AF-SkX phases are understood to originate from a classical spin liquid state that exists at low but finite temperatures. These AF-SkX states can be easily distinguished from each other in experiments as they are characterized by peaks at distinct momenta in the spin structure factor which is directly measured in neutron scattering experiments. We also discuss examples of materials where the model as well as the two AF-SkX states can be realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88556-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100155PMC
May 2021

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Natural Leaf Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Polyester Composites.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Częstochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland.

In recent times, demand for light weight and high strength materials fabricated from natural fibres has increased tremendously. The use of natural fibres has rapidly increased due to their high availability, low density, and renewable capability over synthetic fibre. Natural leaf fibres are easy to extract from the plant (retting process is easy), which offers high stiffness, less energy consumption, less health risk, environment friendly, and better insulation property than the synthetic fibre-based composite. Natural leaf fibre composites have low machining wear with low cost and excellent performance in engineering applications, and hence established as superior reinforcing materials compared to other plant fibres. In this review, the physical and mechanical properties of different natural leaf fibre-based composites are addressed. The influences of fibre loading and fibre length on mechanical properties are discussed for different matrices-based composite materials. The surface modifications of natural fibre also play a crucial role in improving physical and mechanical properties regarding composite materials due to improved fibre/matrix adhesion. Additionally, the present review also deals with the effect of silane-treated leaf fibre-reinforced thermoset composite, which play an important role in enhancing the mechanical and physical properties of the composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13091369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122714PMC
April 2021

A rare pediatric case of bilateral bronchopulmonary vascular malformations and right isomerism.

J Card Surg 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We present an unusual case of an 18-day-old term neonate with coexistent bilateral bronchopulmonary vascular malformations and right isomerism. This case highlights the importance of computed tomography angiography in depicting such complex anomalies and classifying them according to components involved providing a systematic approach for evaluation of the disease process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15573DOI Listing
April 2021

Anterolateral intervertebral disc herniation presenting as visceral pain in a patient with renal keratinising desquamative squamous metaplasia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 23;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented to the clinic with back pain and presumed chronic kidney pain from renal keratinising desquamative squamous metaplasia, in which he would intermittently pass keratin plugs in urine. The pain had a visceral-sounding component that was inconsistent with renal colic. MRI of the spine revealed anterolateral disc bulges, which were likely irritating the anterolateral sympathetic nerves of the intervertebral disc, mimicking visceral pain. Transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) was performed at the levels of the disc bulges. He had no pain during passage of keratin plugs for 6.5 months after the TFESI which could be attributed to the expected duration of symptoms relief after a properly done TFESI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-240124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074540PMC
April 2021

Exploratory Assessment of K-means Clustering to Classify 18F-Flutemetamol Brain PET as Positive or Negative.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Hurvitz Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Departments of Medical Imaging, Medicine, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ Adult Neurodevelopmental and Geriatric Psychiatry Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto Krembil Brain Institute, University Health Network Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital and the University of Toronto University Health Network Memory Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto Baycrest Health Sciences Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre Department of Medicine (Neurology), Mt Sinai Hospital Azrieli Centre for Neuro-Radiochemistry, Brain Health Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Rationale: We evaluated K-means clustering to classify amyloid brain PETs as positive or negative.

Patients And Methods: Sixty-six participants (31 men, 35 women; age range, 52-81 years) were recruited through a multicenter observational study: 19 cognitively normal, 25 mild cognitive impairment, and 22 dementia (11 Alzheimer disease, 3 subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, and 8 Parkinson-Lewy Body spectrum disorder). As part of the neurocognitive and imaging evaluation, each participant had an 18F-flutemetamol (Vizamyl, GE Healthcare) brain PET. All studies were processed using Cortex ID software (General Electric Company, Boston, MA) to calculate SUV ratios in 19 regions of interest and clinically interpreted by 2 dual-certified radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians, using MIM software (MIM Software Inc, Cleveland, OH), blinded to the quantitative analysis, with final interpretation based on consensus. K-means clustering was retrospectively used to classify the studies from the quantitative data.

Results: Based on clinical interpretation, 46 brain PETs were negative and 20 were positive for amyloid deposition. Of 19 cognitively normal participants, 1 (5%) had a positive 18F-flutemetamol brain PET. Of 25 participants with mild cognitive impairment, 9 (36%) had a positive 18F-flutemetamol brain PET. Of 22 participants with dementia, 10 (45%) had a positive 18F-flutemetamol brain PET; 7 of 11 participants with Alzheimer disease (64%), 1 of 3 participants with vascular cognitive impairment (33%), and 2 of 8 participants with Parkinson-Lewy Body spectrum disorder (25%) had a positive 18F-flutemetamol brain PET. Using clinical interpretation as the criterion standard, K-means clustering (K = 2) gave sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 97%.

Conclusions: K-means clustering may be a powerful algorithm for classifying amyloid brain PET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003668DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison Between Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Diagnostic Digital Subtraction Angiography in the Vascular Assessment of Nonspecific Aorto-Arteritis Patients: A Prospective Study.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2021 Apr 22:15385744211010593. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Nonspecific aortoarteritis (NSAA) is a chronic inflammatory vasculitis involving aorta and its branches. We conducted a study prospectively to compare time resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with diagnostic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the vascular assessment in the patients of NSAA.

Materials And Methods: Seventeen patients of NSAA were recruited in the study over the period of 3 years. Contrast enhanced MRA using Time-resolved angiography With Interleaved Stochastic Trajectories (TWIST) sequence and diagnostic DSA were performed in these 17 patients.

Results: The majority of the patients were young (median age was 25 years, range 8 to 46 years) and 11 patients were females. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in 9 patients and C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 6 patients. Most commonly involved vessels in our patients were right renal artery (14 patients), abdominal aorta (12 patients) and left renal artery (11 patients). Left and right subclavian arteres were involved in 10 and 6 patients respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of time-resolved MRA using TWIST sequence is 100% as compared to DSA in the assessment of major vessels such as aorta, arch vessels, celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. However, the sensitivity and specificity of time resolved MRA in the evaluation of renal arteries and vertebral arteries were 100%, 71.4% and 85.7%, 33.3% respectively. No significant association of MRI contrast enhancement with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 1.00) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.600).

Conclusion: Time resolved MRA images obtained using TWIST sequence were as qualitative as DSA images and can noninvasively evaluate the vascular involvement in NSAA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15385744211010593DOI Listing
April 2021

Poly(methylene blue)-Based Electrochemical Platform for Label-Free Sensing of Acrylamide.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 2;6(14):9528-9536. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu 630003, India.

The present work reports the electrochemical sensing of acrylamide (AM) using a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) where PMB functions as an electrochemical reporter. PMB was prepared by electrochemical polymerization of methylene blue. Electrochemical sensing of AM was facilitated by the interaction between AM and PMB. Further the interaction between AM and PMB was investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Raman analysis. The surface morphology was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analyses. PMB/GCE was further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performance was assessed using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry analysis showed a decrease in current at the redox center of PMB upon addition of AM. The association constant and binding number of AM with PMB/GCE were calculated using differential pulse voltammetry and found to be 8.9 × 10 M and 0.64 (∼1), respectively. The results indicated a strong interaction of AM on the PMB/GCE surface. Further, chronocoulometry analysis of PMB/GCE in the presence of AM showed a decrease in charge due to the interaction of AM with PMB. Under optimized conditions, PMB/GCE exhibited a decrease in current proportional to the concentration of AM in the range of 0.025-16 μM with sensitivity and detection limit 0.252 μA nM and 0.13 nM, respectively. Real sample analysis was carried out by the standard addition method using the solution extracted from potato chips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047665PMC
April 2021

Pulmonary-to-systemic venous collateral in obstructed supracardiac totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection: Blood finds a way!

J Card Surg 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We describe a rare variant of obstructed supracardiac totally anomalous venous connection in a 7-day-old boy where the vertical vein was occluded and the entire pulmonary venous return was draining through a large tortuous pulmonary-systemic venous collateral. The case highlights the importance of computed tomography angiography in demonstrating such complex anatomies in congenital heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15568DOI Listing
April 2021

Measures of resting state EEG rhythms for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations of an expert panel.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area (EPIA) and Global Brain Consortium endorsed recommendations on candidate electroencephalography (EEG) measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. The Panel reviewed the field literature. As most consistent findings, AD patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia showed abnormalities in peak frequency, power, and "interrelatedness" at posterior alpha (8-12 Hz) and widespread delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms in relation to disease progression and interventions. The following consensus statements were subscribed: (1) Standardization of instructions to patients, resting state EEG (rsEEG) recording methods, and selection of artifact-free rsEEG periods are needed; (2) power density and "interrelatedness" rsEEG measures (e.g., directed transfer function, phase lag index, linear lagged connectivity, etc.) at delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands may be use for stratification of AD patients and monitoring of disease progression and intervention; and (3) international multisectoral initiatives are mandatory for regulatory purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12311DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationships Between a New Cultured Cell-Based Serum Anticholinergic Activity Assay and Anticholinergic Burden Scales or Cognitive Performance in Older Adults.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (SC, NA, RR, JNN, WW, SK, BHM, BGP, TKR), Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry (JNB, WW, CEF, AJF, NH, SK, KL, LM, BHM, BGP, TKR), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Toronto Dementia Research Alliance (CEF, SK, KL, BHM, BGP, TKR), University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Anticholinergic burden has been associated with deleterious effects on cognition particularly in those with an underlying brain disorder. We developed a new assay based on cultured cells to measure serum anticholinergic activity (cSAA). We report on its relationships with established anticholinergic burden rating scales and cognitive assessments in older patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission or both.

Design: The study was cross sectional in nature.

Setting: This was a five-centre study conducted in Toronto, Canada.

Participants: Serum samples were collected and cSAA levels were measured in 311 participants aged 60 years or older (154 with MCI, 57 with MDD, and 100 with MCI + MDD).

Measurements: The cSAA assay uses radio-ligand binding to cultured cells stably expressing the muscarinic M1 receptors, with an added procedure to remove potential confounds associated with serum proteins. Lists of medications were used to calculate Anticholinergic Burden and Anticholinergic Drug Scale total scores. Participants also completed a comprehensive cognitive battery.

Results: Higher cSAA levels were associated with higher anticholinergic burden and anticholinergic drug scale scores, and also with lower performance on executive function tests, after adjusting for age, gender, education, and diagnosis.

Conclusions: These results support the use of the cSAA assay as a laboratory measure of anticholinergic burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2021.03.002DOI Listing
March 2021

EEG measures for clinical research in major vascular cognitive impairment: recommendations by an expert panel.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 10;103:78-97. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA), School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Neuropsychiatric Institute, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Vascular contribution to cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia is related to etiologies that may affect the neurophysiological mechanisms regulating brain arousal and generating electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. A multidisciplinary expert panel reviewed the clinical literature and reached consensus about the EEG measures consistently found as abnormal in VCI patients with dementia. As compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals, those VCI patients showed (1) smaller amplitude of resting state alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms dominant in posterior regions; (2) widespread increases in amplitude of delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms; and (3) delayed N200/P300 peak latencies in averaged event-related potentials, especially during the detection of auditory rare target stimuli requiring participants' responses in "oddball" paradigms. The expert panel formulated the following recommendations: (1) the above EEG measures are not specific for VCI and should not be used for its diagnosis; (2) they may be considered as "neural synchronization" biomarkers to enlighten the relationships between features of the VCI-related cerebrovascular lesions and abnormalities in neurophysiological brain mechanisms; and (3) they may be tested in future clinical trials as prognostic biomarkers and endpoints of interventions aimed at normalizing background brain excitability and vigilance in wakefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.03.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Strong link between coronavirus count and bad air: a case study of India.

Environ Dev Sustain 2021 Apr 3:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Physics, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand India.

The present study aims to highlight the contrast relationship between COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) infections and air pollutants for the Indian region. The COVID-19 data (cumulative, confirmed cases and deaths), air pollutants (PM, PM, NO and SO) and meteorological data (temperature and relative humidity) were collected from January 2020 to August 2020 for all 28 states and the union territory of India during the pandemic. Now, to understand the relationship between air pollutant concentration, meteorological factor, and COVID-19 cases, the nonparametric Spearman's and Kendall's rank correlation were used. The COVID-19 shows a favourable temperature (0.55-0.79) and humidity (0.14-0.52) over the Indian region. The PM and PM gave a strong and negative correlation with COVID-19 cases in the range of 0.64-0.98. Similarly, the NO shows a strong and negative correlation in the range of 0.64-0.98. Before the lockdown, the concentration of pollution parameters is high due to the shallow boundary layer height. But after lockdown, the overall reduction was reported up to 33.67% in air quality index (AQI). The background metrological parameters showed a crucial role in the variation of pollutant parameters (SO, NO, PM and PM) and the COVID-19 infection with the economic aspects. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts derived monthly average wind speed was also plotted. It can see that January and February of 2020 show the least variation of air mass in the range of 1-2 m/s. The highest wind speed was reported during July and August 2020. India's western and southern parts experienced an air mass in the range of 4-8 m/s. The precipitation/wet deposition of atmospheric aerosols further improves the AQI over India. According to a study, the impact of relative humidity among all other metrological parameters is positively correlated with Cases and death. Outcomes of the proposed work had the aim of supporting national and state governance for healthcare policymakers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01366-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019339PMC
April 2021