Publications by authors named "Sanjay Kumar Singh"

94 Publications

Comparative Study on Knowledge and Awareness of Common Ocular Diseases Among Rural and Urban Community in Siraha District of Nepal: The Lahan Study.

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan;13(25):13-21

Consultant Ophthalmologist, Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Nepal.

Introduction: Awareness and knowledge about the common ocular conditions can help people to seek early eye care services. The understanding and acceptance of the importance of routine eye examinations can help in timely detection and treatment of the eye diseases and thus help to reduce the burden of avoidable ocular blindness from the general population.

Objective: This study aims to assess and analyze the information related to knowledge and awareness of common ocular diseases and eye health among the rural and urban communities of the Siraha district, Nepal.

Materials And Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2018 in Lahan Municipality ward number 6 (urban) and Sakhuwa Nankarkatti Rural Municipality ward number 4 (rural) in Siraha district. The sample size of 975 was calculated from study population of 3247. A systematic random sampling technique was used to interview adults above 18 years of age, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed.

Results: Out of total 975 participants, 514 (52.7%) were from rural community in Sakhuwa Rural Municipality and 461 (47.3%) were from urban community in Lahan Municipality. The mean age was 38.38 ± 15 years. Female participants were more (63.2%) compared to male (36.8%). Overall, 58.3% were literate and 41.7% were illiterate. Rural community had more uneducated participants (48%) compared to urban community (34%). In rural community, 69% were aware about cataract, 83% had knowledge about its treatment; while in urban community 81% were aware about cataract and 86% had knowledge about its treatment. The awareness of glaucoma among the participants was poor, more so in rural cohort (15%) than the urban cohort (25%). The knowledge of glaucoma was 14% in rural and 62% in urban cohort. Awareness that diabetes can affect the eye was found to be significantly lower (p = 0.01) in rural population (25%) compared to that in urban population (41%) in this study. The knowledge about diabetic retinopathy was lower in rural community (38%) compared to urban community (49%). Awareness about Night Blindness was lesser in rural (62%) compared to urban (70%) community (p = 0.17). Awareness about refractive errors were 37% in rural compared to 60% in urban community. The major sources of information were society and eye hospital in both community.

Conclusion: The knowledge and awareness level regarding common ocular diseases was high among the community people of urban community (Lahan) in comparison to rural community (Sakhuwa Nankarkatti). Awareness and knowledge level mainly regarding glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy was very poor in both urban and rural community. There is need to conduct comprehensive awareness programs on common ocular diseases like cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, night blindness, congenital eye disease, ocular trauma, eye donations and others in both rural and urban areas to raise the awareness level and improve attitudes and right practices reducing the burden of avoidable blindness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nepjoph.v13i1.28010DOI Listing
January 2021

Canalicular Curettage to the Rescue: a report of three cases.

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2020 Jul;12(24):333-338

Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Siraha, Nepal.

Introduction: Canalicular curettage is a surgical procedure used to remove canalicular contents and debris from canaliculi. It is usually indicated for chronic, persistent or recalcitrant canalicular diseases with no resolution of symptoms after conservative management. We describe 3 different cases of persistent canalicular diseases which needed canalicular curettage to rescue from the conditions leading to successful outcomes. Cases and observations: • Case 1: A 45-year-old male presented with recurrent punctal granuloma 3 months after DCR surgery. Canalicular exploration and curettage with one-snip punctoplasty following excision of the mass revealed a segment of remnant silicone stent. There was no recurrence of mass in subsequent follow up visits. • Case 2: A 35-year-old female presented with recurrent canaliculitis for last 6 months. Canalicular curettage revealed multiple small calcified masses of varying size and shape. The patient had good postoperative recovery and showed no recurrence of symptoms. • Case 3: A 32-year-old female presented with gradually increasing pedunculated mass arising out of punctum for last one month. Excision of mass with canalicular curettage was done. Biopsy proved it to be squamous papilloma of the canaliculi. There was no recurrence of mass.

Conclusion: Canalicular curettage is a simple, safe and effective surgical intervention to rescue from the recalcitrant canalicular conditions like canaliculitits, retained foreign bodies, canalicular neoplasms leading to successful outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org//10.3126/nepjoph.v12i2.28188DOI Listing
July 2020

Deep-ABPpred: identifying antibacterial peptides in protein sequences using bidirectional LSTM with word2vec.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar.

The overuse of antibiotics has led to emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and as a result, antibacterial peptides (ABPs) are receiving significant attention as an alternative. Identification of effective ABPs in lab from natural sources is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process. Therefore, there is a need for the development of in silico models, which can identify novel ABPs in protein sequences for chemical synthesis and testing. In this study, we propose a deep learning classifier named Deep-ABPpred that can identify ABPs in protein sequences. We developed Deep-ABPpred using bidirectional long short-term memory algorithm with amino acid level features from word2vec. The results show that Deep-ABPpred outperforms other state-of-the-art ABP classifiers on both test and independent datasets. Our proposed model achieved the precision of approximately 97 and 94% on test dataset and independent dataset, respectively. The high precision suggests applicability of Deep-ABPpred in proposing novel ABPs for synthesis and experimentation. By utilizing Deep-ABPpred, we identified ABPs in the tail protein sequences of Streptococcus bacteriophages, chemically synthesized identified peptides in lab and tested their activity in vitro. These ABPs showed potent antibacterial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which confirms the capability of Deep-ABPpred in identifying novel ABPs in protein sequences. Based on the proposed approach, an online prediction server is also developed, which is freely accessible at https://abppred.anvil.app/. This web server takes the protein sequence as input and provides ABPs with high probability (>0.95) as output.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab065DOI Listing
March 2021

Computational prediction of the effects of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms on the GPI-anchor transamidase subunit GPI8p of Plasmodium falciparum.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Feb 17;92:107461. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, 147004, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Drug resistance is increasingly evolving in malaria parasites; hence, it is important to discover and establish alternative drug targets. In this context, GPI-anchor transamidase (GPI-T) is a potential drug target primarily of its crucial role in the development and survival of the parasite in the GPI anchor biosynthesis pathway. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the plausible effects of nsSNP on the structure and functions of GPI-T subunit GPI8p of Plasmodium falciparum. The GPI8p (PF3D7_1128700) was analyzed using various sequence-based and structure-based computational tools such as SIFT, PROVEAN, PredictSNP, SNAP2, I-Mutant, MuPro, ConSurf, NetSurfP, MUSTER, COACH server and STRING server. Of the 34 nsSNPs submitted for functional analysis, 18 nsSNPs (R124 L, N143 K, Y145 F, V157I, T195S, K379E, I392 K, I437 T, Y438H, N439D, Y441H, N442D, N448D, N451D, D457A, D457Y, I458 L and N460 K) were predicted to have deleterious effects on the protein GPI8p. Additionally, I-Mutant 2.0 and MuPro both showed a decrease in stability after mutation as a result of these nsSNPs, suggesting the destabilization of protein. ConSurf findings suggest that most of the regions were highly conserved. In addition, COACH server was used to predict the ligand binding sites. It was found that no mutation was present at the predicted ligand binding site. The results of the STRING database showed that the protein GPI8p interacts with those proteins which either involve the biosynthetic process of attaching GPI anchor to protein or GPI anchor. The present study suggested that the GPI8p could be a novel target for anti-malarial drugs, which provides significant details for further experimentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107461DOI Listing
February 2021

Integrated genomic selection for rapid improvement of crops.

Genomics 2021 Feb 18;113(3):1070-1086. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, India.

An increase in the rate of crop improvement is essential for achieving sustained food production and other needs of ever-increasing population. Genomic selection (GS) is a potential breeding tool that has been successfully employed in animal breeding and is being incorporated into plant breeding. GS promises accelerated breeding cycles through a rapid selection of superior genotypes. Numerous empirical and simulation studies on GS and realized impacts on improvement in the crop yields are recently being reported. For a holistic understanding of the technology, we briefly discuss the concept of genetic gain, GS methodology, its current status, advantages of GS over other breeding methods, prediction models, and the factors controlling prediction accuracy in GS. Also, integration of speed breeding and other novel technologies viz. high throughput genotyping and phenotyping technologies for enhancing the efficiency and pace of GS, followed by its prospective applications in varietal development programs is reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.02.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Multi-class Breast Cancer Classification using Ensemble of Pretrained models and Transfer Learning.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of ICT, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka. Bangladesh.

Aims: Early detection of breast cancer has reduced many deaths. Earlier CAD systems used to be the second opinion for radiologists and clinicians. Machine learning and deep learning has brought tremendous changes in medical diagnosis and imagining.

Background: Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in the women and it is the second most common cancer overall. According to the 2018 statistics, there were over 2million cases all over the world. Belgium and Luxembourg have the highest rate of cancer.

Objective: Proposed a method for breast cancer detection using Ensemble learning. 2-class and 8-class classification is performed.

Method: To deal with imbalance classification the authors have proposed an ensemble of pretrained models.

Result: 98.5% training accuracy and 89% of test accuracy are achieved on 8-class classification. And 99.1% and 98% train and test accuracy are achieved on 2 class classification.

Conclusion: it is found that there are high misclassifications in class DC when compared to the other classes, this is due to the imbalance in the dataset. In future, one can increase the size of the datasets or use different methods. In implement this research work, authors have used 2 Nvidia Tesla V100 GPU's in google cloud platform.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210218101418DOI Listing
February 2021

is a member of a bHLH gene cluster regulating terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in .

Plant Direct 2021 Jan 25;5(1):e00305. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Kentucky Tobacco Research & Development Center University of Kentucky Lexington KY USA.

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of plant specialized metabolites, including terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in . Two previously characterized subgroup-IVa bHLH TFs, BIS1 (bHLH Iridoid Synthesis 1) and BIS2 regulate iridoid biosynthesis in the TIA pathway. We reanalyzed the recently updated genome sequence and discovered that and are clustered on the same genomic scaffold with a previously uncharacterized bHLH gene, designated as . Only a few bHLH gene clusters have been studied to date. Comparative analysis of 49 genome sequences from different plant lineages revealed the presence of analogous bHLH clusters in core angiosperms, including the medicinal plants (giant milkweed) and (yellow jessamine), but not in the analyzed basal angiosperm and lower plants. Similar to the iridoid pathway genes, is highly expressed in roots and induced by methyl jasmonate. BIS3 activates the promoters of iridoid branch genes, (), (), (), (), (), and (), but not (). Transactivation of the promoters was abolished when BIS3 is converted to a dominant repressor by fusing with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) sequence. In addition, BIS3 acts synergistically with BIS1 and BIS2 to activate the promoter in tobacco cells. Mutation of the known bHLH TF binding motif, G-box (CACGTG) in the promoter significantly reduced but did not abolish the transactivation by BIS3. Promoter deletion analysis of suggests that the sequences adjacent to the G-box are also involved in the regulation by BIS3. Overexpression of in flower petals significantly upregulated the expression of iridoid biosynthetic genes and increased loganic acid accumulation. expression was significantly induced by BIS3 although BIS3 did not directly activate the promoter. Our results advance our understanding of the regulation of plant specialized metabolites by bHLH TF clusters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pld3.305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833464PMC
January 2021

Screening of potent drug inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase: an in silico approach.

3 Biotech 2021 Feb 24;11(2):93. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab 147004 India.

COVID-19 has emerged as a rapidly escalating serious global health issue, affecting every section of population in a detrimental way. Present situation invigorated researchers to look for potent targets, development as well as repurposing of conventional therapeutic drugs. NSP12, a RNA polymerase, is key player in viral RNA replication and, hence, viral multiplication. In our study, we have screened a battery of FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase using molecular docking approach Identification of potent inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 (RNA polymerase) were screeened from FDA approved drugs by virtual screening for therapeutic applications in treatment of COVID-19. In this study, virtual screening of 1749 antiviral drugs was executed using AutoDock Vina in PyRx software. Binding affinities between NSP12 and drug molecules were determined using Ligplot and PyMOL was used for visualization of docking between interacting residues. Screening of 1749 compounds resulted in 14 compounds that rendered high binding affinity for NSP12 target molecule. Out of 14 compounds, 5 compounds which include 3a (Paritaprevir), 3d (Glecaprevir), 3h (Velpatasvir), 3j (Remdesivir) and 3l (Ribavirin) had a binding affinity of - 10.2 kcal/mol, -9.6 kcal/mol, - 8.5 kcal/mol, - 8.0 kcal/mol and - 6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, a number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding between these 5 compounds and NSP12 active site were observed. Further, 3l (Ribavirin) was docked with 6M71 and molecular dynamic simulation of the complex was also performed to check the stability of the conformation. analysis postulated the potential of conventional antiviral drugs in treatment of COVID-19. However, these finding may be further supported by experimental data for its possible clinical application in present scenario.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02610-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826501PMC
February 2021

Development and validation of heat-responsive candidate gene and miRNA gene based SSR markers to analysis genetic diversity in wheat for heat tolerance breeding.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jan 3;48(1):381-393. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, India.

Being a major staple food crop of the world, wheat provides nutritional food security to the global populations. Heat stress is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects wheat production throughout the world including Indo-Gangatic Plains (IGP) where four wheat growing countries viz., India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan produce 42% of the total wheat production. Therefore, identification of heat stress responsive molecular markers is imperative to marker assisted breeding programs. Information about trait specific gene based SSRs is available but there is lack of information on SSRs from non-coding regions. In the present study, we developed 177 heat-responsive gene-based SSRs (cg-SSR) and MIR gene-based SSR (miRNA-SSR) markers from wheat genome for assessing genetic diversity analysis of thirty- six contrasting wheat genotypes for heat tolerance. Of the 177 SSR loci, 144 yielded unambiguous and repeatable amplicons, however, thirty-seven were found polymorphic among the 36 wheat genotypes. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of primers used in this study ranged from 0.03-0.73, with a mean of 0.35. Number of alleles produced per primer varied from 2 to 6, with a mean of 2.58. The UPGMA dendrogram analysis grouped all wheat genotypes into four clusters. The markers developed in this study has potential application in the MAS based breeding programs for developing heat tolerant wheat cultivars and genetic diversity analysis of wheat germplasm. Identification of noncoding region based SSRs will be fruitful for identification of trait specific wheat germplasm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06059-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Protein phosphatase NtPP2C2b and MAP kinase NtMPK4 act in concert to modulate nicotine biosynthesis.

J Exp Bot 2021 Feb;72(5):1661-1676

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, and the Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, University Drive, Lexington, KY USA.

Protein phosphatases (PPs) and protein kinases (PKs) regulate numerous developmental, defense, and phytohormone signaling processes in plants. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism governing biosynthesis of specialized metabolites, such as alkaloids, by the combined effects of PPs and PKs, is insufficiently understood. Here, we report the characterization of a group B protein phosphatase type 2C, NtPP2C2b, that likely acts upstream of the NICOTINE2 locus APETALA 2/Ethylene Response Factors (AP2/ERFs), to regulate nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. Similar to the nicotine pathway genes, NtPP2C2b is highly expressed in roots and induced by jasmonic acid (JA). Overexpression of NtPP2C2b in transgenic hairy roots or stable transgenic tobacco plants repressed nicotine pathway gene expression and reduced nicotine accumulation. Additionally, transient overexpression of NtPP2C2b, together with the NtERF221, repressed transactivation of the quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase promoter in tobacco cells. We further demonstrate that the JA-responsive tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 4 interacts with NtPP2C2b in yeast and plant cells. Conditional overexpression of NtMPK4 in tobacco hairy roots up-regulated nicotine pathway gene expression and increased nicotine accumulation. Our findings suggest that a previously uncharacterized PP-PK module acts to modulate alkaloid biosynthesis, highlighting the importance of post-translational control in the biosynthesis of specialized plant metabolites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921305PMC
February 2021

In situ casting of rice husk ash in metal organic frameworks induces enhanced CO capture performance.

Sci Rep 2020 11 19;10(1):20219. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Discipline of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, 453552, India.

Incorporation of rice-husk-ash (RHA), an agricultural waste, in situ during the synthesis of MIL-101(Cr) resulted in a significant improvement in the CO adsorption properties over the synthesized RHA-MIL-101(Cr). The newly synthesized RHA-MIL-101(Cr) composite exhibited an enhancement of 14-27% in CO adsorption capacity as compared to MIL-101(Cr) at 25 °C and 1 bar. The content of RHA incorporated in RHA-MIL-101(Cr) fine tuned the CO capture performance to achieve high working capacity (0.54 mmol g), high purity (78%), superior CO/N selectivity (18) and low isosteric heat of adsorption (20-30 kJ mol). The observed superior CO adsorption performance of RHA-MIL-101(Cr) is attributed to the fine tuning of textural characteristics-enhancement of 12-27% in BET surface area, 12-33% in total pore volume and 18-30% in micropore volume-upon incorporation of RHA in MIL-101(Cr).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77213-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678836PMC
November 2020

Curcumin inhibits lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and production of PGE in the primary bubaline endometrial stromal cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Dec 10;47(12):10015-10021. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Hebbal Campus, Bengaluru, 560024, India.

Infection of the uterus with Gram-positive Trueperella pyogenes and Gram-negative Escherichia coli is a common cause of postpartum endometritis in the cattle and buffalo and the condition is treated with antimicrobial drugs. The presence of drug residues in the milk and development of resistant bacteria necessitate the evaluation of alternate therapies for endometritis. Accordingly, we tested the immunomodulatory effect of curcumin in the bubaline endometrial stromal cells after treatment with the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative E. coli that activate toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4, respectively). Confluent primary culture of endometrial stromal cells was treated with LTA (1 µg/mL) and/or LPS (0.1 µg/mL), in the presence or absence of curcumin (30 µM for 24 h). PGE was assayed in the supernatant and the relative expression of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) (IL1B, IL6, IL8 and TNFA) transcripts were quantified using real-time PCR. LTA was not effective in stimulating PGE production or upregulating the PIC expression except IL8. LTA+LPS increased PGE production and upregulated IL6 and IL8 genes. Curcumin inhibited the basal and LTA+LPS induced production of PGE and upregulation of PIC production. It was apparent that LPS, but not LTA, is a potent stimulator of PGE from the bubaline endometrial stromal cells. Curcumin downregulated the expression of LPS and/or LTA induced PICs and PGE and may be an alternate to antimicrobial drugs for the therapeutic management of endometritis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05961-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Growth and proliferation of caprine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on different culture media.

Tissue Cell 2020 Dec 12;67:101446. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, U.P., 243122, India.

The growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells are very sensitive in in vitro and a number of factors like media play a significant role in that context. In this study we assessed effect of different media on growth and proliferation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). The BMMSCs were isolated from caprine bone marrow and were subjected to magnetic activated cell sorting against CD90, CD105, CD271and CD34 along with FC blocker. After characterisation, 2 × 10 cells were seeded in 12 well culture plates in four different media viz. MesenCult, MesenPRO, StemPro and complete DMEM (15 % FBS) to study their growth kinetic for 6 days from passage 0 (P0) to passage 3 (P3). The population doubling time (PDT) was derived from growth curve using logarithmic formula. The results showed that the BMMSCs growth and proliferation was highest in MesenCult media in P0 which varied significantly (p < 0.05) from rest of media and from P1 to P3, it was MesenPRO which yielded maximum cells (p < 0.05). The PDT was also in line with growth curve findings. In conclusion, the MesenPRO media had higher growth and proliferation rate from P1 to P3 although MesenCult had higher cell numbers in P0. In conclusion, the use of MesenPRO media could be a better option than conventional media when mesenchymal stem cells are used in clinical applications and other therapeutic purposes taking consideration to its higher growth and proliferation rate. And MesenCult would be a great option to harvest MSCs from P0.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2020.101446DOI Listing
December 2020

Topical chlorhexidine 0.2% versus topical natamycin 5% for fungal keratitis in Nepal: rationale and design of a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

BMJ Open 2020 09 30;10(9):e038066. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Introduction: Fungal infections of the cornea, fungal keratitis (FK), are challenging to treat. Current topical antifungals are not always effective and are often unavailable, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries where most cases occur. Topical natamycin 5% is usually first-line treatment, however, even when treated intensively, infections may progress to perforation of the eye in around a quarter of cases. Alternative antifungal medications are needed to treat this blinding disease.Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Previous pilot studies suggest that topical chlorhexidine 0.2% compares favourably with topical natamycin. Full-scale randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical chlorhexidine 0.2% are warranted to answer this question definitively.

Methods And Analysis: We will test the hypothesis that topical chlorhexidine 0.2% is non-inferior to topical natamycin 5% in a two-arm, single-masked RCT. Participants are adults with FK presenting to a tertiary ophthalmic hospital in Nepal. Baseline assessment includes history, examination, photography, in vivo confocal microscopy and cornea scrapes for microbiology. Participants will be randomised to alternative topical antifungal treatments (topical chlorhexidine 0.2% and topical natamycin 5%; 1:1 ratio, 2-6 random block size). Patients are reviewed at day 2, day 7 (with reculture), day 14, day 21, month 2 and month 3. The primary outcome is the best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months. Primary analysis (intention to treat) will be by linear regression, with treatment arm and baseline BSCVA prespecified covariates. Secondary outcomes include epithelial healing time, scar/infiltrate size, ulcer depth, hypopyon size, perforation and/or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (corneal transplant), positive reculture rate (day 7) and quality of life (EuroQol-5 dimensions, WHO/PBD-VF20, WHOQOL-BREF).

Ethics And Dissemination: The Nepal Health Research Council, the Nepal Department of Drug Administration and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine ethics committee have approved the trial. The results will be presented at local and international meetings and submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN14332621; pre-results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528427PMC
September 2020

Development of novel g-SSR markers in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Allahabad Safeda and their application in genetic diversity, population structure and cross species transferability studies.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(8):e0237538. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Division of Genomic Resources, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India.

Dearth of genomic resources particularly, microsatellite markers in nutritionally and commercially important fruit crop, guava necessitate the development of the novel genomic SSR markers through the library enrichment techniques. Three types of 3' -biotinylated oligonucleotide probes [(CT)14, (GT)12, and (AAC)8] were used to develop microsatellite enriched libraries. A total of 153 transformed colonies were screened of which 111 positive colonies were subjected for Sanger sequencing. The clones having more than five motif repeats were selected for primer designing and a total of 38 novel genomic simple sequence repeats could be identified. The g-SSRs had the motif groups ranging from monomer to pentamer out of which dimer group occurred the most (89.47%). Out of 38 g-SSRs markers developed, 26 were found polymorphic, which showed substantial genetic diversity among the guava genotypes including wild species. The average number of alleles per locus, major allele frequency, gene diversity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content of 26 SSRs were 3.46, 0.56, 0.53, 0.29 and 0.46, respectively. The rate of cross-species transferability of the developed g-SSR loci varied from 38.46 to 80.77% among the studied wild Psidium species. Generation of N-J tree based on 26 SSRs grouped the 40 guava genotypes into six clades with two out-groups, the wild guava species showed genetic distinctness from cultivated genotypes. Furthermore, population structure analysis grouped the guava genotypes into three genetic groups, which were partly supported by PCoA and N-J tree. Further, AMOVA and PCoA deciphered high genetic diversity among the present set of guava genotypes including wild species. Thus, the developed novel g-SSRs were found efficient and informative for diversity and population structure analyses of the guava genotypes. These developed novel g-SSR loci would add to the new genomic resource in guava, which may be utilized in genomic-assisted guava breeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237538PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431106PMC
October 2020

A Zika virus envelope mutation preceding the 2015 epidemic enhances virulence and fitness for transmission.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 08 3;117(33):20190-20197. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555;

Arboviruses maintain high mutation rates due to lack of proofreading ability of their viral polymerases, in some cases facilitating adaptive evolution and emergence. Here we show that, just before its 2013 spread to the Americas, Zika virus (ZIKV) underwent an envelope protein V473M substitution (E-V473M) that increased neurovirulence, maternal-to-fetal transmission, and viremia to facilitate urban transmission. A preepidemic Asian ZIKV strain (FSS13025 isolated in Cambodia in 2010) engineered with the V473M substitution significantly increased neurovirulence in neonatal mice and produced higher viral loads in the placenta and fetal heads in pregnant mice. Conversely, an epidemic ZIKV strain (PRVABC59 isolated in Puerto Rico in 2015) engineered with the inverse M473V substitution reversed the pathogenic phenotypes. Although E-V473M did not affect oral infection of mosquitoes, competition experiments in cynomolgus macaques showed that this mutation increased its fitness for viremia generation, suggesting adaptive evolution for human viremia and hence transmission. Mechanistically, the V473M mutation, located at the second transmembrane helix of the E protein, enhances virion morphogenesis. Overall, our study revealed E-V473M as a critical determinant for enhanced ZIKV virulence, intrauterine transmission during pregnancy, and viremia to facilitate urban transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005722117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443865PMC
August 2020

Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on the expression of genes involved in progesterone biosynthesis in the corpus luteum of goat (Capra hircus).

Reprod Domest Anim 2020 Sep 28;55(9):1263-1266. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Hebbal Campus, Bengaluru, India.

Emerging evidence indicates that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alter the fatty acid composition of corpus luteum (CL) and directly affect the luteal function in the cow, which is independent of the inhibitory effect on the endometrial PGF production. The present study, thus, investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the transcriptional modulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of progesterone (P ) in the CL collected during the luteolytic phase of oestrous cycle in the goat. On the day of synchronized oestrus, goats (n = 6/group) were fed an isocaloric diet supplemented with either FO or palm oil (PO). The dose of oil supplementation was 0.6 mlkg body weight, and the duration was 55-57 days. The FO provided 156 mgkg body weight of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The CL was collected by laparotomy on day 16 post-oestrus, and the relative abundance of P450 side-chain cleaving enzyme, steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) genes was quantitated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that the dietary FO significantly upregulated the expression of 3β-HSD by 1.13-fold and downregulated StAR by ~2-fold as compared to PO group (p < .05). It is concluded that dietary FO differently affected the expression of genes involved in P synthesis in the CL during the luteolytic window of the oestrous cycle in the goat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13757DOI Listing
September 2020

Factors influencing the decision-making of carers of children with bilateral cataract in Nepal.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2020 6;5(1):e000422. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, International Centre for Eye Health, London, UK.

Objectives: Two hundred thousand children worldwide are blind from cataract. Late presentation for surgery resulting in poor visual outcomes is a problem globally. We aimed to explore the reasons why children are not brought earlier for surgery in Nepal.

Methods And Analysis: Mixed-method study of carers of children with bilateral cataract attending a large non-government eye hospital were administered a proforma. A random sample took part in semistructured interviews and focus group discussions.

Results: Carers of 102 children completed proformas; 10 interviews and 2 focus group discussions were held. 80.4% were Indian, 35.3% of children were female, and their mean age was 58 months (range 4 months to 10 years). Median delay in time between the carer first noticing a problem to presentation was 182 days IQR (60.8-364.8). This was significantly longer for girls (median 304 IQR (91.2-1094.4)) than boys (median 121.6 IQR (30.4-364.8); p=0.02). Cost to access care was a problem for 42 (41.2%) carers. 13 (12.8%) participants were not aware of treatment and 12 (11.8%) were aware but did not seek treatment. The community influenced carer's health-seeking behaviour. Cataract was sometimes described as 'phula', meaning something white seen on the eye.

Conclusion: Fewer girls presented for surgery, and they also had a significantly longer delay to presentation than boys. Carers are influenced by factors at family, community and socio-organisational levels. Approaches to increase timely access, particularly by girls, are required, such as health education using the term phula, which is widely understood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2019-000422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254144PMC
April 2020

Genome-wide analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase gene family and functional characterization of two cutin group GPATs in Brassica napus.

Planta 2020 Apr 3;251(4):93. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

School of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Main Conclusion: Genome-wide identification, spatio-temporal expression analysis and functional characterization of selected Brassica napus GPATs highlight their roles in cuticular wax biosynthesis and defense against fungal pathogens. Glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase (GPAT) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycerolipids, a major component of cellular membranes and extracellular protective layers, such as cuticles in plants. Brassica napus is an economically important crop and cultivated worldwide mostly for its edible oil. The B. napus GPATs (BnGPATs) are insufficiently characterized. Here, we performed genome-wide analysis to identify putative GPATs in B. napus and its diploid progenitors B. rapa and B oleracea. The 32 B. napus BnGPATs are phylogenetically divided into three major groups, cutin, suberin, and diverse ancient groups. Analysis of transcriptomes of different tissues and seeds at different developmental stages revealed the spatial and temporal expression profiles of BnGPATs. The yield and oil quality of B. napus are adversely affected by the necrotrophic fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We showed that several BnGPATs, including cutin-related BnGPAT19 and 21, were upregulated in the S. sclerotiorum resistant line. RNAi-mediated suppression of BnGPAT19 and 21 in B. napus resulted in thinner cuticle, leading to rapid water and chlorophyll loss in toluidine blue staining and leaf bleaching assays. In addition, the RNAi plants also developed severe necrotic lesions following fungal inoculation compared to the wild-type plants, indicating that BnGPAT19 and 21 are likely involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis that is critical for initial pathogen defense. Taken together, we provided a comprehensive account of GPATs B. napus and characterized BnGPAT19 and 21 for their potential roles in cuticular wax biosynthesis and defense against fungal pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-020-03384-4DOI Listing
April 2020

Comparative RNA sequencing based transcriptome profiling of regular bearing and alternate bearing mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties reveals novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying alternate bearing.

Biotechnol Lett 2020 Jun 19;42(6):1035-1050. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

ICAR-National Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Pusa campus, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Objective: This study is to understand a comprehensive perspective on the molecular mechanisms underlying alternate bearing in mango (Mangifera indica L.) via transcriptome wide gene expression profiling of both regular and irregular mango varieties.

Results: Transcriptome data of regular (Neelam) and irregular (Dashehari) mango varieties revealed a total of 42,397 genes. Out of that 12,557 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 6453 were found to be up-regulated and 6104 were found to be down-regulated genes. Further, many of the common unigenes which were involved in hormonal regulation, metabolic processes, oxidative stress, ion homeostasis, alternate bearing etc. showed significant differences between these two different bearing habit varieties. Pathway analysis showed the highest numbers of differentially expressed genes were related with the metabolic processes (523). A total of 26 alternate bearing genes were identified and principally three genes viz; SPL-like gene (GBVX01015803.1), Rumani GA-20-oxidase-like gene (GBVX01019650.1) and LOC103420644 (GBVX01016070.1) were significantly differentially expressed (at log2FC and pval less than 0.05) while, only single gene (gbGBVW01004309.1) related with flowering was found to be differentially expressed. A total of 15 differentially expressed genes from three important pathways viz; alternate bearing, carbohydrate metabolism and hormone synthesis were validated using Real time PCR and results were at par with in silico analysis.

Conclusions: Deciphering the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and potential candidate genes associated with alternate bearing, hormone and carbohydrate metabolism pathways will help for illustrating the molecular mechanisms underlying the bearing tendencies in mango.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-020-02863-8DOI Listing
June 2020

Imbalanced Breast Cancer Classification Using Transfer Learning.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Jan-Feb;18(1):83-93. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Accurate breast cancer detection using automated algorithms remains a problem within the literature. Although a plethora of work has tried to address this issue, an exact solution is yet to be found. This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that most of the existing datasets are imbalanced, i.e., the number of instances of a particular class far exceeds that of the others. In this paper, we propose a framework based on the notion of transfer learning to address this issue and focus our efforts on histopathological and imbalanced image classification. We use the popular VGG-19 as the base model and complement it with several state-of-the-art techniques to improve the overall performance of the system. With the ImageNet dataset taken as the source domain, we apply the learned knowledge in the target domain consisting of histopathological images. With experimentation performed on a large-scale dataset consisting of 277,524 images, we show that the framework proposed in this paper gives superior performance than those available in the existing literature. Through numerical simulations conducted on a supercomputer, we also present guidelines for work in transfer learning and imbalanced image classification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2020.2980831DOI Listing
February 2021

Revisiting the ORCA gene cluster that regulates terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

Plant Sci 2020 Apr 9;293:110408. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and the Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, 1401 University Drive, Lexington, KY 40546 USA; South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Transcription factor (TF) gene clusters in plants, such as tomato, potato, petunia, tobacco, and almond, have been characterized for their roles in the biosynthesis of diverse array of specialized metabolites. In Catharanthus roseus, three AP2/ERF TFs, ORCA3, ORCA4, and ORCA5, have been shown to be present on the same genomic scaffold, forming a cluster that regulates the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Our analysis of the recently updated C. roseus genome sequence revealed that the ORCA cluster comprises two additional AP2/ERFs, the previously characterized ORCA2 and a newly identified member designated as ORCA6. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the ORCAs are highly expressed in stems, followed by leaves, roots and flowers. Expression of ORCAs was differentially induced in response to methyl-jasmonate and ethylene treatment. In addition, ORCA6 activated the strictosidine synthase (STR) promoter in tobacco cells. Activation of the STR promoter was significantly higher when ORCA2 or ORCA6 was coexpressed with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, CrMPKK1. Furthermore, transient overexpression of ORCA6 in C. roseus flower petals activated TIA pathway gene expression and TIA accumulation. The results described here advance our understanding of regulation of TIA pathway by the ORCA gene cluster and the evolution for plant ERF gene clusters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110408DOI Listing
April 2020

Investigation of hub genes and their nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in for designing therapeutic methodologies using next-generation sequencing approach.

Indian J Pharmacol 2019 Nov-Dec;51(6):389-399. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab, India.

Background: Incidences of resistance to current drugs by is increasing, hence, it is necessary to investigate and explore new drug targets to combat malarial disease.

Objective: Analysis of the transcriptome sequence information to characterize hub genes and their nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) to derive therapeutic objectives for .

Materials And Methods: Differentially expressed genes between Ring and other stages of were identified using Cufflinks tool. Using DAVID and KAAS programs, the gene ontology and pathway analysis were performed. The networks of protein-protein interaction (PPI) were developed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins and Cytoscape, and the node degree in the network was calculated by using Network Analyzer, and MCODE plugins of Cytoscape. SIFT, PROVEAN, and PredictSNP programs were used to study the genetic variations, which affect protein functions.

Results: A list of 4196 nonredundant genes was used for functional annotation cluster analysis, and 8 significant hub genes have been picked from the PPI network using MCODE plugins of Cytoscape. Various nsSNPs were identified in these 8 hub genes and were investigated both for its native and mutant stage for solvent accessibility and alteration in secondary structure protein residues.

Conclusion: Hub genes identified in this study serve as potential targets to develop therapy to suppress the pathogenic action of through experimental techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijp.IJP_535_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984025PMC
June 2020

Synthesis, structure and catalytic activity of manganese(ii) complexes derived from bis(imidazole)methane-based ligands.

Dalton Trans 2020 Jan;49(3):757-763

Catalysis Group, Discipline of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol, Indore 453552, M.P., India.

New mononuclear manganese(ii) complexes [Mn(κ2-L1)(OAc)2] ([Mn]-1), [Mn(κ2-L2)(OAc)2] ([Mn]-2) and [Mn(κ2-L3)(OAc)2] ([Mn]-3) with imidazole based ligands {4,4'-(phenylmethylene)bis(2-ethyl-5-methyl-1H-imidazole)} (L1), {(4,4'-((2-methoxy phenyl)methylene)bis(2-ethyl-5-methyl-1H-imidazole)} (L2) and {4,4'-((2-chlorophenyl) methylene)bis(2-ethyl-5-methyl-1H-imidazole)} (L3) are synthesized and fully characterized by a variety of techniques. Furthermore, the molecular structures of complexes [Mn]-1 and [Mn]-2 are established by single crystal X-ray structure analysis. The synthesized manganese(ii) complexes exhibited efficient catalytic oxidative coupling of primary amines in air under solvent-free conditions to the corresponding imines in moderate to good yields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt03886hDOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated rich fish oil supplementation on ovarian function and interferon stimulated genes in the repeat breeding cow.

Anim Reprod Sci 2019 Dec 7;211:106230. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Hebbal Campus, Bengaluru, India.

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) improve utero-ovarian functions and embryonic survival in postpartum dairy cows. Because early embryonic mortality is the major cause of repeat breeding (RB) in cows, there was investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] rich fish oil (FO) from -2 to +2 weeks of artificial insemination on the size of preovulatory follicle (POF), serum progesterone (P) and relative abundance of the mRNA of interferon stimulated genes (ISG) that encode for these proteins in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in the RB cow (n = 12). The diet of control group was supplemented with palm oil (PO). The results indicated serum concentrations of EPA and DHA were greater by 4.6- and 3.5-fold, respectively at the end of feeding study in the RB cows of the FO group. The diameter of POF was larger by 2.2 mm in FO group; however, serum P did not vary from day 14-20 post-artificial insemination. Greater abundance of ISG mRNA transcripts such as ISG15, RTP4, Mx2 and OAS1 in the PBL of pregnant cows of FO group indicates day 20 conceptuses produced more IFN-τ. It is concluded that supplementation of FO during the breeding period increased the size of POF and enhanced the abundance of ISG mRNA transcripts in RB cows that became pregnant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2019.106230DOI Listing
December 2019

A study on the geotechnical characterization and water retention characteristic curve of pond ash.

Water Sci Technol 2019 Sep;80(5):929-938

Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, 160012, India E-mail:

The understanding of the engineering behaviour of unsaturated soil is totally dependent on the water retention characteristic curve (WRCC). In this paper, a comprehensive study of the WRCCs of pond ash along with the ash's geotechnical behaviour has been made. The WRCC has been drawn experimentally using a Fredlund device based upon the pressure plate technique for both wetting and drying cycles. Further, an investigation was carried out to study WRCC hysteresis of pond ash. There exists a considerable hysteresis in drying and wetting curves of pond ash sample. The different WRCC models were used to fit the experimental WRCC data. The effect of compaction on WRCC was also studied. The air entry value in the case of a loose sample is low and the sample gets nearly desaturated at low soil suction as compared to a dense sample. Also, the wetting WRCC is predicted using the Feng and Fredlund model as it is difficult and time consuming to measure the whole hysteresis. The predicted results are compared with the measured wetting WRCC. Since the direct measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is difficult to obtain in engineering practices, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function is predicted using the measured WRCC as the input parameter using SEEP/W software.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2019.334DOI Listing
September 2019

Mutually Regulated AP2/ERF Gene Clusters Modulate Biosynthesis of Specialized Metabolites in Plants.

Plant Physiol 2020 02 14;182(2):840-856. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546

APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) gene clusters regulate the biosynthesis of diverse specialized metabolites, including steroidal glycoalkaloids in tomato () and potato (), nicotine in tobacco (), and pharmaceutically valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids in Madagascar periwinkle (). However, the regulatory relationships between individual AP2/ERF genes within the cluster remain unexplored. We uncovered intracluster regulation of the AP2/ERF regulatory circuit, which consists of , , and ORCA3 and ORCA5 activate by directly binding to a GC-rich motif in the promoter. ORCA5 regulates its own expression through a positive autoregulatory loop and indirectly activates In determining the functional conservation of AP2/ERF clusters in other plant species, we found that GC-rich motifs are present in the promoters of analogous AP2/ERF clusters in tobacco, tomato, and potato. Intracluster regulation is evident within the tobacco () cluster. Moreover, overexpression of in tobacco and of in hairy roots activates nicotine and terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway genes, respectively, suggesting that the AP2/ERFs are functionally equivalent and are likely to be interchangeable. Elucidation of the intracluster and mutual regulation of transcription factor gene clusters advances our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism governing regulatory gene clusters in plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.19.00772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997685PMC
February 2020

Effect of n-3 PUFA-rich fish oil supplementation during late gestation on kidding, uterine involution and resumption of follicular activity in goat.

Reprod Domest Anim 2019 Dec 28;54(12):1651-1659. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Division of Animal Reproduction, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, India.

We have shown that dietary supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-rich fish oil (FO) around the breeding time improved the utero-ovarian functions in the goat. Here, we investigated the effect of FO supplementation during the periparturient period on serum n-3 PUFA, prostaglandin F metabolite (PGFM), placental expulsion, uterine involution, resumption of oestrus and neonatal vigour. Rohilkhandi goat in advanced gestation (n = 16) was divided into two equal groups. One group was supplemented with FO containing 26% n-3 long-chain PUFA at the rate of 156 mg per kg body weight, while the control group was fed isocaloric palm oil (PO) from -3 to +3 week of kidding. Dietary FO increased serum concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by 7.3- and 6.6-fold, respectively, after 6 weeks of supplementation. Goats in FO group expelled the foetal membranes 99.1 min earlier (p < .01) than those of PO group. Further, dietary FO significantly decreased the serum PGFM on day 7 post-partum. However, no difference was found on uterine involution, which was complete by day 20 post-partum in either group. Resumption of follicular activity by day 5 post-partum was 87.5% in the FO as compared to 25% in the PO group (p < .05). Similarly, occurrence of behavioural oestrus by day 90 post-partum was 57.1% in goats of the FO group while none of does was in the PO group (p < .01) expressed oestrus. It was concluded that feeding FO-rich diet during -3 to +3 weeks of kidding decreased the PGFM till day 7 post-partum, hastened the expulsion of foetal membranes and reduced the time from kidding to first post-partum oestrus in Rohilkhandi does.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13575DOI Listing
December 2019

Differential expression of endometrial toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with endometritis.

Vet Res Commun 2019 Nov 12;43(4):261-269. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Division of Animal Reproduction, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, India.

Toll like receptors (TLRs) and β-defensins expressed in the endometrium are part of the innate uterine defense mechanism (UDM). In the present study, transcriptional profile of TLRs (1-3, 6-8, 10, and) and β-defensins such as lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil beta-defensin 4 (BNBD4) were studied. Bubaline genitalia were collected from abattoir and the endometrium was categorized into one of the following seven groups (n = 7/group) based on cyclicity and endometritis: follicular non-endometritis (FNE), luteal non-endometritis (LNE), follicular cytological endometritis (FCE), luteal cytological endometritis (LCE), follicular purulent endometritis (FPE), luteal purulent endometritis (LPE) and acyclic non-endometritis (ANE). Cytological endometritis (CE) was diagnosed by uterine cytology while purulent endometritis (PE) was diagnosed by the presence of purulent or mucopurulent exudate in the uterine lumen. Real time PCR was performed and the relative fold change was analysed. TLR1 and BNBD4 transcripts were not found in the buffalo endometrium. Of all the innate immune genes studied, upregulation of TLR and β-defensins was mostly contributed by the inflammatory status of endometrium. Further, there was a prominent upregulation of TAP in buffaloes with endometritis. However, no association could be found between the inflammatory status of the endometrium and phase of estrous cycle with respect to the expression of TLRs and β-defensins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-019-09761-zDOI Listing
November 2019

Large choroidal melanoma presenting as neovascular glaucoma.

GMS Ophthalmol Cases 2019 31;9:Doc19. Epub 2019 May 31.

Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Siraha, Nepal.

Choroidal melanoma is a relatively rare tumour with a poor prognosis, though it is the most common primary malignancy of the eye among adults. Choroidal melanoma has been reported to present as acute angle closure glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, chronic uveitis, cataract, and staphyloma. We report a case of a28-year-old male presenting with features of neovascular glaucoma in the right eye and having initially been treated with anti-glaucoma medications. However, ultrasonography revealed a mushroom-shaped, elevated, solid lesion with low to moderate internal reflectivity and regular internal structure suggestive of choroidal melanoma. Histopathological examination along with the immunohistochemistry studies of the lesion following enucleation of the eye confirmed the diagnosis of malignant choroidal melanoma. We highlight with this case that large choroidal melanoma may rarely present with features of neovascular glaucoma. The etiology of neovascular glaucoma should be investigated carefully and a potentially life-threatening intraocular tumour should be excluded, although it is a rare presentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/oc000108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6607447PMC
May 2019