Publications by authors named "Sanjay Kumar"

1,133 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome-Wide Scanning of Potential Hotspots for Adenosine Methylation: A Potential Path to Neuronal Development.

Life (Basel) 2021 Nov 5;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of System Biology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Methylation of adenosines at N6 position (m6A) is the most frequent internal modification in mRNAs of the human genome and attributable to diverse roles in physiological development, and pathophysiological processes. However, studies on the role of m6A in neuronal development are sparse and not well-documented. The m6A detection remains challenging due to its inconsistent pattern and less sensitivity by the current detection techniques. Therefore, we applied a sliding window technique to identify the consensus site (5'-GGACT-3') ≥ 2 and annotated all m6A hotspots in the human genome. Over 6.78 × 10 hotspots were identified and 96.4% were found to be located in the non-coding regions, suggesting that methylation occurs before splicing. Several genes, , have been involved in various stages of neuron development and their functioning. However, the contribution of m6A in these genes needs further validation in the experimental model. Thus, the present study elaborates the location of m6A in the human genome and its function in neuron physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11111185DOI Listing
November 2021

Ice structuring protein extract of Hordeum vulgare var. dolma grains reduces drip loss and loss of soluble vitamin content in peas during frozen storage.

Cryobiology 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176 061, India. Electronic address:

The Himalayan plants face low temperature during their life cycle and are expected to possess antifreeze proteins. The present work describes screening of six plant species that grow in Himalayas, for their ice structuring properties with an aim to provide a vegetarian source of ice structuring proteins. The ice-structuring protein extract of barley, Hordeum vulgare; variety Dolma (HvISE) and wheat, Triticum aestivum; variety Him Pratham DH 114 (TaISE) showed inhibition of growth of ice crystals during the process of recrystallization. This property was analyzed for its application in frozen peas by pretreatment with HvISE before freezing. The drip loss was measured in frozen peas after thawing. Further, the water-soluble vitamins; thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, and ascorbic acid were quantified before and after freezing of green peas by UHPLC-PDA. The pretreatment with HvISE reduced the loss of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and pyridoxine during their frozen storage. The present study identified barley as a remarkable source of ice structuring proteins and validated its potential for frozen peas. The work has enormous implications in frozen food industry, in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2021.11.178DOI Listing
November 2021

Global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants: new foresight needed for improved vaccine efficacy.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Command Hospital (Southern Command), Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00687-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Endonuclease VIII 2 (Nei2) forms a pre-replicative BER complex with DnaN: Identification, characterization, and disruption of complex formation.

Mol Microbiol 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Molecular and Structural Biology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Janakipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226031, India.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Nei2 (Rv3297) is a BER glycosylase that removes oxidized base lesions from ssDNA and replication fork-mimicking substrates. We show that Endonuclease VIII 2 (Nei2) forms a BER complex with the β-clamp (DnaN, Rv0002) with a K of 170 nM. The Nei2-β-clamp interactions enhance Nei2's activities up to several folds. SEC analysis shows that one molecule of Nei2 binds to a single β-clamp dimer. Nei2 interacts with subsites I and II of the β-clamp via a non-canonical QGCRRCGTLIAY Clamp Interacting Protein (CIP) motif in the C-terminal zinc-finger domain, that was previously shown by us to be dispensable for intrinsic Nei2 activity. The 12-mer peptide alone exhibited a K of 10.28 nM, suggesting that the motif is a key mediator of Nei2-β-clamp interactions. Finally, we identified inhibitors of Nei2-β-clamp interactions using rational methods, in vitro disruption, and SPR assays after querying a database of natural products. We found that Tubulosine, Fumitremorgin C, Toyocamycin, and Aleuritic acid exhibit IC values of 94.47 µM, 83.49 µM, 109.7 µM, and 71.49 µM, respectively. They act by disrupting Nei2-β-clamp interactions and do not affect intrinsic Nei2 activity. Among other things, the present study gives insights into the role of Nei2 in bacterial pre-replicative BER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14848DOI Listing
November 2021

Critical review on processing technologies and economic aspect of bio-coal briquette production.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Nov 23:1-17. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi, Varanasi, India.

The world is looking for alternative energy resources because of the depletion of fossil fuel reservoirs like crude oil, coal, and natural gases in the next few decades. In this aspect, unutilized coal waste and sustainable biomass are considered major energy contributors to convert biomass blended coal fines as high-quality solid briquettes. The present study integrates different briquette processing technologies to develop, coal-biomass-binder, coal-biomass (binderless), coal-binder, and carbonized biomass-binder composites. Briquette application depends upon, availability of waste coal, selection of appropriate biomass among the countless existing biomass stock, thermal-mechanical characteristics of raw material, and progressive advancements in briquetting machines. Present review highly encourages densification of aquatic biomass (water hyacinth, microalgae), activated sludge (municipal solid waste, tannery industry) as well as agro and forest residues (wheat straw, sawdust) to integrate briquetting technology with wastewater treatment or solid waste management. Briefly, the present study covers all aspects of briquette processing and the application of multifunctional bio-binders as cow dung, which act as a desulfurizing agent besides binding to obtain clean coal combustion. Further, cost assessment and budding future research concerned with briquetting technologies are explored to find alternative and sustainable energy routes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2021.2001754DOI Listing
November 2021

Comments on "Low-Dose Naltrexone Use for Patients with Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Literature Review".

Pain Physician 2021 Dec;24(8):E1307

Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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December 2021

The 2021 Young Innovators of Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2021 Oct 20;14(5):379-380. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Engineering, University of Virginia, Thornton Hall A124, 351 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-021-00709-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8548452PMC
October 2021

The 2021 Young Innovators of Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2021 Oct 20;14(5):379-380. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Engineering, University of Virginia, Thornton Hall A124, 351 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-021-00709-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8548452PMC
October 2021

Discovery of novel, potent and orally efficacious inhibitor of neutral amino acid transporter BAT1 (SLC6A19).

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Dec 27;53:128421. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Ltd., Sarkhej-Bavla N.H. No. 8 A, Moraiya, Ahmedabad 382 210, India. Electronic address:

Amino acid restriction by inhibition of neutral amino acid transporter, BAT1 (SLC6A19) activity has been recently shown to improve glyceamic control by upregulating glucagon like peptide (GLP1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) in mice. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of BAT1 is expected to treat type-2 diabetes and related disorder. In this study, rationally designed trifluoromethyl sulfonyl derivatives were identified as novel, potent and orally bioavailable BAT1 inhibitors. Compound 39 was found to be nanomolar potent (IC: 0.035 µM) BAT1 inhibitor with excellent pharmacokinetic profile (%F: 66) in mice and efficacious in vivo in diet induced obese (DIO) mice model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128421DOI Listing
December 2021

Promising Antiviral Activities of Natural Flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 Targets: Systematic Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 14;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Education City, Qatar Foundation, Doha 24144, Qatar.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a globally leading public health concern over the past two years. Despite the development and administration of multiple vaccines, the mutation of newer strains and challenges to universal immunity has shifted the focus to the lack of efficacious drugs for therapeutic intervention for the disease. As with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other non-respiratory viruses, flavonoids present themselves as a promising therapeutic intervention given their success in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and more recently, in clinical studies. This review focuses on data from in vitro studies analyzing the effects of flavonoids on various key SARS-CoV-2 targets and presents an analysis of the structure-activity relationships for the same. From 27 primary papers, over 69 flavonoids were investigated for their activities against various SARS-CoV-2 targets, ranging from the promising 3C-like protease (3CLpro) to the less explored nucleocapsid (N) protein; the most promising were quercetin and myricetin derivatives, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG, and tannic acid. We further review promising in silico studies featuring activities of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 and list ongoing clinical studies involving the therapeutic potential of flavonoid-rich extracts in combination with synthetic drugs or other polyphenols and suggest prospects for the future of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8539743PMC
October 2021

Extracellular Vesicle-Based Therapy for COVID-19: Promises, Challenges and Future Prospects.

Biomedicines 2021 Oct 1;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida 201310, India.

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a serious concern and has negatively impacted public health and the economy. It primarily targets the lungs, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, it may also lead to multiple organ failure (MOF) and enhanced mortality rates. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop potential effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 patients. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from various types of cells that participate in intercellular communication to maintain physiological and pathological processes. EVs derived from various cellular origins have revealed suppressive effects on the cytokine storm during systemic hyper-inflammatory states of severe COVID-19, leading to enhanced alveolar fluid clearance, promoted epithelial and endothelial recovery, and cell proliferation. Being the smallest subclass of EVs, exosomes offer striking characteristics such as cell targeting, being nano-carriers for drug delivery, high biocompatibility, safety, and low-immunogenicity, thus rendering them a potential cell-free therapeutic candidate against the pathogeneses of various diseases. Due to these properties, numerous studies and clinical trials have been performed to assess their safety and therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19. Hence, in this review, we have comprehensively described current updates on progress and challenges for EVs as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533559PMC
October 2021

Approaches in the photosynthetic production of sustainable fuels by cyanobacteria using tools of synthetic biology.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Oct 19;37(12):201. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

School of Biochemical Engineering, IIT (BHU) Varanasi, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, India.

Cyanobacteria, photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms having a simple genetic composition are the prospective photoautotrophic cell factories for the production of a wide range of biofuel molecules. The simple genetic composition of cyanobacteria allows effortless genetic manipulation which leads to increased research endeavors from the synthetic biology approach. Various unicellular model cyanobacterial strains like Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have been successfully engineered for biofuels generation. Improved development of synthetic biology tools, genetic modification methods and advancement in transformation techniques to construct a strain that can contain multiple foreign genes in a single operon have vastly expanded the functions that can be used for engineering photosynthetic cyanobacteria for the generation of various biofuel molecules. In this review, recent advancements and approaches in synthetic biology tools used for cyanobacterial genome editing have been discussed. Apart from this, cyanobacterial productions of various fuel molecules like isoprene, limonene, α-farnesene, squalene, alkanes, butanol, and fatty acids, which can be a substitute for petroleum and fossil fuels in the future, have been elaborated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03157-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Mitochondrial dynamics regulators: implications for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Division of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Tirupati, Karkambadi Road, Rami Reddy Nagar, Mangalam, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, 517507, India.

Regardless of the recent advances in therapeutic developments, cancer is still among the primary causes of death globally, indicating the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Mitochondria, a dynamic organelle, continuously undergo the fusion and fission processes to meet cell requirements. The balanced fission and fusion processes, referred to as mitochondrial dynamics, coordinate mitochondrial shape, size, number, energy metabolism, cell cycle, mitophagy, and apoptosis. An imbalance between these opposing events alters mitochondWangrial dynamics, affects the overall mitochondrial shape, and deregulates mitochondrial function. Emerging evidence indicates that alteration of mitochondrial dynamics contributes to various aspects of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Therefore, targeting the mitochondrial dynamics regulator could be a potential therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. This review will address the role of imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial dysfunction during cancer progression. We will outline the clinical significance of mitochondrial dynamics regulators in various cancer types with recent updates in cancer stemness and chemoresistance and its therapeutic potential and clinical utility as a predictive biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-021-09662-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Editorial: Behavioral and Neural Bases of Object Affordance Processing and Its Clinical Implications.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 24;15:759377. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.759377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513713PMC
September 2021

Immunogenicity and safety of a heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine schedule: ChAdOx1 vaccine Covishield followed by BBV152 Covaxin.

J Travel Med 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, P.O. Box No. 4911, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

The evidence for effectiveness of heterologous priming of COVID-19 vaccine is very limited. Here, we studied eighteen participants who received heterologous vaccination regimen of AstraZeneca's ChAdOx1-nCov-19 followed by inactivated whole virion BBV152. Heterologous group participant doesn't report any adverse event following immunization and demonstrated high humoral and neutralizing antibody response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taab166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8524638PMC
October 2021

Site-directed mutagenesis (P61G) of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase enhances its kinetic properties and tolerance to inactivation by HO.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 30;168:221-229. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-IHBT, Palampur, HP, 176061, India. Electronic address:

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) protect the cells by catalyzing the dismutation of harmful superoxide radicals (O) into molecular oxygen (O) and hydrogen peroxide (HO). Here, a Cu, Zn SOD (WT) from a high altitude plant (Potentilla atrosanguinea) was engineered by substituting a conserved residue proline to glycine at position 61 (P61G). The computational analysis showed higher structural flexibility and clusters in P61G than WT. The P61G exhibited moderately higher catalytic efficiency (K = 0.029 μM, V = 1488) than WT protein (K = 0.038 μM, V = 1290.11). P61G showed higher thermostability as revealed from residual activity (72.25% for P61G than 59.31% for WT after heating at 80 °C for 60 min), differential calorimetry scanning and CD-spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, the P61G mutation also resulted in enhanced tolerance to HO inactivation than WT protein. The finding on enhancing the biophysico-chemical properties by mutating conserved residue could stand as an example to engineer other enzymes. Also, the reported mutant can be exploited in food and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.09.041DOI Listing
September 2021

Broadening the scope of nation-wide clinical registry for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Authors:
Sanjay Kumar

Indian J Med Res 2021 05;153(5&6):696-697

Department of Neurosurgery, Command Hospital (Southern Command), Armed Forces Medical College, Pune 411 040, Maharashtra, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_2170_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555619PMC
May 2021

Improving the catalytic efficiency and dimeric stability of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase by combining structure-guided consensus approach with site-directed mutagenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Oct 7;1863(1):148505. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-IHBT, Palampur, HP 176061, India. Electronic address:

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) leads the front line of defense against injuries mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS). The SOD from a high-altitude plant Potentilla atrosanguinea is a unique thermostable enzyme. In this study, we applied a structure-guided consensus approach on Cu,Zn SOD from Potentilla atrosanguinea plant, to improve its enzymatic properties. The polar uncharged amino acid (threonine) at position 97 of wild-type (WT) SOD was selected as a target residue for substitution by aspartate (T97D) through site-directed mutagenesis. The WT and T97D were examined by a combinative approach consisting of robust computational and experimental tools. The in-silico analysis indicated improved dimeric stability in T97D as compared to the WT. The strong interactions between the monomers were related to improved dimerization and enhanced catalytic efficiency of T97D. These results were validated by in-vitro assays showing improved dimer stability and catalytic efficiency in T97D than WT. Moreover, the mutation also improved the thermostability of the enzyme. The combined structural and functional data described the basis for improved specific activity and thermostability. This study could expand the scope of interface residue to be explored as targets for designing of SODs with improved kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2021.148505DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparable neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Delta AY.1 and Delta with individuals sera vaccinated with BBV152.

J Travel Med 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, P.O. Box No. 4911, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India Pin-110029.

Sera of COVID-19 naive vaccinees, COVID-19 recovered cases with vaccination and breakthrough cases demonstrated 1.3, 2.5 and 1.9-fold reduction in neutralization titers against Delta and 1.5, 3.5, 2.8-fold against Delta AY.1 compared to B.1 respectively. However, high neutralization titers would still effectively protect against Delta, Delta AY.1 and B.1.617.3 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taab154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500129PMC
September 2021

Ganga river water quality assessment using combined approaches: physico-chemical parameters and cyanobacterial toxicity detection with special reference to microcystins and molecular characterization of microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes carrying cyanobacteria.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.

Water quality assessment relies mostly on physico-chemical-based characterization; however, eutrophication and climate change advocate the abundance of toxic microcystins (MCs) producing cyanobacteria as emerging bio-indicator. In the present study, a spatial-temporal analysis was carried out at ten sampling sites of Prayagraj and Varanasi during June 2017 and March 2018 to determine the Ganga River water quality using physico-chemical parameters, cyanobacteria diversity, detection of MCs producing strains and MC-LR equivalence. Coliform bacteria, COD, NO-N, and phosphate are the significant contaminated parameters favoring the growth of putative MCs producing cyanobacteria. National Sanitation Foundation WQI (NSFWQI) indicates water quality, either bad or medium category at sampling points. The morphological analysis confirms the occurrence of diverse cyanobacterial genera such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, and Phormidium. PCR amplification affirmed the presence of toxic microcystin (mcy) genes in uncultured cyanobacteria at all the sampling sites. The concentration of MC-LR equivalence in water samples by protein phosphatase 1 inhibition assay (PPIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods was observed in the range of 23.4-172 ng/L and 13.2-97.5 ng/L respectively which is lower than the harmful exposure limit by World Health Organization (WHO). Ganga isolate 1 was identified as Microcystis based on partial 16S rDNA sequence and its toxicity was confirmed due to presence of mcy genes and MCs production potential. These findings suggest the presence of MCs producers as new emerging parameter to monitor water quality index and identification up to species level will be valuable for restoration strategies of river Ganga.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16589-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Fiber-optic-assisted endotracheal intubation complicated by iatrogenic right main bronchus obstruction.

Ann Afr Med 2021 Jul-Sep;20(3):232-234

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Several aids have been designed for helping anesthetist in managing the difficult airway. Oral carcinomas often distort the airway anatomy and present as difficult airway usually with restricted mouth opening. In these scenarios, elective nasotracheal intubation with fiberoptic is done to secure the airway as well as to provide the full surgical field to the surgeon. Vertically split nasopharyngeal airway is one of the popular aids used as a conduit to pass fiber-optic bronchoscope. Timely removal of the split nasopharyngeal airway is must and if missed, and pushed inside bronchus leading to iatrogenic complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aam.aam_15_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477275PMC
September 2021

Regenerative potential of Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in spinal cord injury (SCI).

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Centre for Stem Cell Research, a unit of inStem Bengaluru, CMC Rehab Campus Bagayam, Christian Medical College Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632002, India.

Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that is critically challenging and progressive, needing immediate medical attention due to its complex pathophysiology and affecting the social status and economic burden. Stem cell therapy has been the emerging therapeutic trend to treat various diseases for decades. Mesenchymal stem cells pose more advantages over other stem cells in immune-modulation, immune evasiveness, self-renewal, multipotency, etc. Due to various issues in the recent past related to allogenic transplants, ethical concerns in obtaining tissues and adult cells, host immune response, GMP grade production and certification, cell-derived products or cell secretome have proven to be a promising approach and have been implicated in many studies and also in many clinical trials. Utilization of these human MSC-derived exosomes/extracellular vesicles in spinal cord injury has also been demonstrated in many pre-clinical animal models. It is now proven to be therapeutically more efficient and safer than cell therapy. This review focuses on employing human MSC derived EVs for SCI and continues to elucidate the recent advances and emerging EVs trends from other cell types. We discuss biomaterial-based synergistic intervention, mention mimetics and nanovesicles and finally touch upon safety concerns in EV therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574888X16666210923113658DOI Listing
September 2021

Indian goose berry fortified, anti-oxidant rich bael () fermented beverage.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Nov 11;58(11):4437-4441. Epub 2021 May 11.

ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow, India.

Bael ( Correa), an important fruit of Indian subtropics, traditionally utilized in the preparation of preserve, candy, squash, RTS, etc. has immense therapeutic potential. An attempt was made to develop a bael based low alcoholic sweet fermented beverage ( may be called as bael cider), anti-oxidant fortified with 0.25 per cent bael leaf or 10 per cent Indian goose berry ( Gaertn.) juice in separate batches. Unfortified bael pulp based drink was kept as control. The ameliorated pulp was fermented at 30 ± 2ºC using The gooseberry blended bael fermented beverage had higher anti-oxidant content in the form of phenolics (323 mg/100 ml) than leaf extract added fermented beverage (265 mg/100 ml) and control (266 mg/100 ml). Sensory evaluation of product revealed that gooseberry blended fermented beverage scored higher (8.2/10) than bael leaf blended fermented beverage (7.9/10) and control (7.0/10). Twelve months maturation study of beverage revealed increase in reducing sugars and decrease in phenolic content in all the treatments. Bael fermented beverage with gooseberry blend retained highest phenolic content (257 mg/100 ml) and sensory score 7.8/10. The study inferred that an acceptable quality fermented drink could be prepared from bael-gooseberry blend, which could be stored for one year with higher antioxidant value and minimum deterioration in the quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-05129-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405741PMC
November 2021

Preferential expansion of human CD34+CD133+CD90+ hematopoietic stem cells enhances gene-modified cell frequency for gene therapy.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Center for Stem Cell Research, 302927, Christian Medical College Campus Bagayam,, Vellore, Tamil nadu, India, 632002;

CD34+CD133+CD90+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for long-term multi-lineage hematopoiesis and the high frequency of gene-modified HSCs is crucial for the success of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy. However, the ex vivo culture and gene manipulation steps of HSPC graft preparation significantly reduce the frequency of HSCs, thus necessitating large doses of HSPCs and reagents for the manipulation. Here, we identified a combination of small molecules, Resveratrol, UM729, and SR1 that preferentially expands CD34+CD133+CD90+ HSCs over other subpopulations of adult HSPCs in ex vivo culture. The preferential expansion enriches the HSCs in ex vivo culture, enhances the adhesion and results in a 6-fold increase in the long-term engraftment in NSG mice. Further, the culture enriched HSCs are more responsive to gene modification by lentiviral transduction and gene editing, increasing the frequency of gene-modified HSCs up to 10-fold in vivo. The yield of gene-modified HSCs obtained by the culture enrichment is similar to the sort-purification of HSCs and superior to Cyclosporin-H treatment. Our study addresses a critical challenge of low frequency of gene-modified HSCs in HSPC graft by developing and demonstrating a facile HSPC culture condition that increases the frequency of gene-modified cells in vivo. This strategy will improve the outcome of HSPC gene therapy and also simplify the gene manipulation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2021.089DOI Listing
September 2021

Response to Re: 'foveal irregularity in a patient with microtropia assessed using an adaptive optics ophthalmoscope'.

Clin Exp Optom 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Brien Holden Institute of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08164622.2021.1968759DOI Listing
August 2021

Inadequate Bowel Preparation in Pediatric Colonoscopy-Prospective Study of Potential Causes.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 09;73(3):325-328

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Indiana University School of Medicine/Riley Hospital for Children.

Objectives: Inadequate bowel preparation (IBP) for colonoscopy leads to missed diagnosis, longer anesthesia time, higher chance of complications and increased costs. Adult studies have demonstrated that patient characteristics such as male gender and obesity are associated with IBP. Little is known about factors affecting bowel preparation in children. Our aim was to determine factors associated with IBP in children.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled children undergoing outpatient colonoscopy. Quality of bowel preparation was assessed using Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) score (range 0-9). Data collected included patient demographics, indication, and type of insurance. Patients were divided into two groups based on BBPS score-adequate (BBPS score > 5) and inadequate (BBPS score < 5) and groups were compared using Student t-test and chi-square test. Possible predictors were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models.

Results: A total of 334 children were prospectively enrolled of whom 321 were studied further (age range 2-18 years; mean age 12.4 years; 60.4% female; 85.9% Caucasian). The mean BBPS score was 6.8 (standard deviation of ±2). IBP was reported in 12.8% (41/321). Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not show statistical differences between the groups in studied patient factors including age, gender, obesity, race, insurance type, and indication for colonoscopy.

Conclusion: Contrary to several adult studies, the results of our prospective study did not show any relationship between examined patient factors and IBP in children. Interestingly, IBP was less prevalent in our pediatric study compared to published adult data (12.8% vs 20-40%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000003178DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparative genome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Pullorum and Gallinarum decodes strain specific genes.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(8):e0255612. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Bacteriology Laboratory, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, Haryana, India.

Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (bvP) and biovar Gallinarum (bvG) are the etiological agents of pullorum disease (PD) and fowl typhoid (FT) respectively, which cause huge economic losses to poultry industry especially in developing countries including India. Vaccination and biosecurity measures are currently being employed to control and reduce the S. Gallinarum infections. High endemicity, poor implementation of hygiene and lack of effective vaccines pose challenges in prevention and control of disease in intensively maintained poultry flocks. Comparative genome analysis unravels similarities and dissimilarities thus facilitating identification of genomic features that aids in pathogenesis, niche adaptation and in tracing of evolutionary history. The present investigation was carried out to assess the genotypic differences amongst S.enterica serovar Gallinarum strains including Indian strain S. Gallinarum Sal40 VTCCBAA614. The comparative genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome consisting of 5091 coding sequence (CDS) with 3270 CDS belonging to core-genome, 1254 CDS to dispensable genome and strain specific genes i.e. singletons ranging from 3 to 102 amongst the analyzed strains. Moreover, the investigated strains exhibited diversity in genomic features such as virulence factors, genomic islands, prophage regions, toxin-antitoxin cassettes, and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes. Core genome identified in the study can give important leads in the direction of design of rapid and reliable diagnostics, and vaccine design for effective infection control as well as eradication. Additionally, the identified genetic differences among the S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strains could be used for bacterial typing, structure based inhibitor development by future experimental investigations on the data generated.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255612PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375982PMC
November 2021

Acid-assisted hydrogenation of CO to methanol using Ru(II) and Rh(III) RAPTA-type catalysts under mild conditions.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Centre for Nanoscience, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA.

A highly efficient homogeneous catalyst system for production of CH3OH from CO2 using single molecular defined ruthenium and rhodium RAPTA-type catalysts [Ru(η6-p-cymene)X2(PTA)] (X = I(1), Cl(2); PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) and rhodium catalysts [Rh(η5-C5Me5)X2(PTA/PTA-BH3)] (X = Cl(3), H(4) and PTA-BH3, H(5)) developed in acidic media under mild conditions. A TON of 4752 is achieved using a [Ru(η6-p-cymene)I2(PTA)] catalyst which represents the first example of CO2 hydrogenation to CH3OH using single molecular defined Ru and Rh RAPTA-type catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03049cDOI Listing
August 2021

Haralick texture features extracted from Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT to differentiate normal prostate from prostate cancer: a feasibility study.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Dec;42(12):1347-1354

Department of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences.

Objective: Role of texture parameters on the basis of Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer (Pca) is largely unexplored. Present work done is a preliminary study that aims to evaluate the role of Haralick texture features on the basis of Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in Pca in which texture features were used to differentiate between normal prostate and Pca tissue.

Methods: The study retrospectively enrolled patients in two groups: group 1 included 30 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma prostate and median age 64 years (range: 50-82 years) who underwent baseline Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT prior to therapy; group 2 included 24 patients with pathologies other than Pca and median age 53.5 years (range: 18-80 years) who underwent Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT as part of another study in our department. Patients in group 2 did not have any prostate pathology and served as controls for the study. The segmented images of prostate (3-D image) were used to calculate 11 Haralick texture features in MATLAB. SUVmax was also evaluated. All parameters were compared among the two groups using appropriate statistical analysis and P value <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: All 11 Haralick texture features, as well as SUVmax, were significantly different among Pca and controls (P < 0.05). Among the texture features, contrast was most significant (P value of Mann-Whitney U <0.001) in differentiating Pca from normal prostate with AUROC curve of 82.9% with sensitivity and specificity 83.30% and 73.30%, respectively at cut-off 0.640. SUVmax was also significant with AUROC curve 94.0% and sensitivity and specificity 62.5% and 90%, respectively at cut-off 5.7. A significant negative correlation of SUVmax was observed with contrast.

Conclusion: Haralick texture features have a significant role in differentiating Pca and normal prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001469DOI Listing
December 2021
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