Publications by authors named "Sanjay Kottapalli"

3 Publications

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Regenerative lineages and immune-mediated pruning in lung cancer metastasis.

Nat Med 2020 02 10;26(2):259-269. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Developmental processes underlying normal tissue regeneration have been implicated in cancer, but the degree of their enactment during tumor progression and under the selective pressures of immune surveillance, remain unknown. Here we show that human primary lung adenocarcinomas are characterized by the emergence of regenerative cell types, typically seen in response to lung injury, and by striking infidelity among transcription factors specifying most alveolar and bronchial epithelial lineages. In contrast, metastases are enriched for key endoderm and lung-specifying transcription factors, SOX2 and SOX9, and recapitulate more primitive transcriptional programs spanning stem-like to regenerative pulmonary epithelial progenitor states. This developmental continuum mirrors the progressive stages of spontaneous outbreak from metastatic dormancy in a mouse model and exhibits SOX9-dependent resistance to natural killer cells. Loss of developmental stage-specific constraint in macrometastases triggered by natural killer cell depletion suggests a dynamic interplay between developmental plasticity and immune-mediated pruning during metastasis.
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February 2020

Chronic Dengue Virus Panencephalitis in a Patient with Progressive Dementia with Extrapyramidal Features.

Ann Neurol 2019 11 11;86(5):695-703. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Section of Infections of the Nervous System, Translational Neuroscience Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Objective: To determine the underlying etiology in a patient with progressive dementia with extrapyramidal signs and chronic inflammation referred to the National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program.

Methods: Extensive investigations included metabolic profile, autoantibody panel, infectious etiologies, genetic screening, whole exome sequencing, and the phage-display assay, VirScan, for viral immune responses. An etiological diagnosis was established postmortem.

Results: Using VirScan, enrichment of dengue viral antibodies was detected in cerebrospinal fluid as compared to serum. No virus was detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid, but postmortem analysis confirmed dengue virus in the brain by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Dengue virus was also detectable by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing from brain biopsy tissue collected 33 months antemortem, confirming a chronic infection despite a robust immune response directed against the virus. Immunoprofiling and whole exome sequencing of the patient did not reveal any immunodeficiency, and sequencing of the virus demonstrated wild-type dengue virus in the central nervous system.

Interpretation: Dengue virus is the most common arbovirus worldwide and represents a significant public health concern. Infections with dengue virus are usually self-limiting, and chronic dengue infections have not been previously reported. Our findings suggest that dengue virus infections may persist in the central nervous system causing a panencephalitis and should be considered in patients with progressive dementia with extrapyramidal features in endemic regions or with relevant travel history. Furthermore, this work highlights the utility of comprehensive antibody profiling assays to aid in the diagnosis of encephalitis of unknown etiology. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:695-703.
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November 2019

Comprehensive Profiling of HIV Antibody Evolution.

Cell Rep 2019 04;27(5):1422-1433.e4

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

This study evaluates HIV antibody responses and their evolution during the course of HIV infection. A phage display system is used to characterize antibody binding to >3,300 HIV peptides in 57 adults with early- to late-stage infection. We find that the number of unique epitopes targeted ("antibody breadth") increases early in infection and then stabilizes or declines. A decline in antibody breadth 9 months to 2 years after infection is associated with subsequent antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and a faster decline in antibody breadth is associated with a shorter time to ART initiation. We identify 266 peptides with increasing antibody reactivity over time and 43 peptides with decreasing reactivity over time. These data are used to design a prototype four-peptide "serosignature" to predict duration of HIV infection. We also demonstrate that epitope engineering can be used to optimize peptide binding properties for applications such as cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation.
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April 2019