Publications by authors named "Sanjay Kapil"

23 Publications

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Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

Authors:
Sanjay Kapil

J Vet Diagn Invest 2015 Nov 8;27(6):758-61. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, OK

A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638715610377DOI Listing
November 2015

Canine distemper virus antigen detection in external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs by fluorescence microscopy is a valuable prognostic indicator.

J Clin Microbiol 2015 Feb 26;53(2):687-91. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Neel Veterinary Clinic, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

Currently, there are no reliable predictors of the clinical outcomes of domesticated dogs that have been recently vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and develop respiratory disease. In this study, vaccinated dogs from Oklahoma City that were showing clinical signs of respiratory disease were evaluated for CDV antigen using a direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). Clinical outcomes after standard symptomatic therapy for respiratory disease were recorded, and a statistical analysis of the results was performed. We present our study showing that CDV FAT results were predictive of clinical recovery (prognostic indicator, prospects of clinical recovery) among vaccinated dogs showing clinical signs of respiratory disease. Negative CDV FAT results equated to 80% chances of recovery after symptomatic therapy, compared to 55% chances of recovery when the CDV FAT results were positive. Based on the results of this study, we show that veterinarians can make better informed decisions about the clinical outcomes of suspected CDV cases, with 2-h turnaround times, by using the CDV FAT. Thus, antemortem examination with the CDV FAT on external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs is a clinically useful diagnostic test and valuable prognostic indicator for veterinarians. Application of the CDV FAT to these samples avoids unnecessary euthanasia of dogs with suspected CDV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02741-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4298560PMC
February 2015

Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2011 Nov;41(6):1069-86

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Farm and Ridge Road, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132517PMC
November 2011

Bovine coronavirus associated syndromes.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2010 Mar;26(1):123-46, table of contents

Food Animal Medicine and Surgery, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Bovine coronaviruses, like other animal coronaviruses, have a predilection for intestinal and respiratory tracts. The viruses responsible for enteric and respiratory symptoms are closely related antigenically and genetically. Only 4 bovine coronavirus isolates have been completely sequenced and thus, the information about the genetics of the virus is still limited. This article reviews the clinical syndromes associated with bovine coronavirus, including pneumonia in calves and adult cattle, calf diarrhea, and winter dysentery; diagnostic methods; prevention using vaccination; and treatment, with adjunctive immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2009.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125561PMC
March 2010

Preface. The leaders in the field of bovine infectious diseases.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2010 Mar;26(1):xiii-xiv

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2009.11.001DOI Listing
March 2010

Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected cattle and BVDV subtypes in affected cattle in beef herds in south central United States.

Can J Vet Res 2009 Oct;73(4):283-91

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.

The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined using 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples were collected by ear notches and tested for BVDV antigens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). Animals with initial positives on both IHC and ACE were sampled again using both tests and serums were collected for viral propagation and sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) for viral subtyping. Samples were also collected from the dams of PI calves. There were 25 PI calves from 4530 samples (0.55%) and these PI calves were from 5 of the 30 herds (16.7%). Two herds had multiple PI calves and 3 herds had only 1 PI calf. Only 1 of the 25 dams with a PI calf was also PI (4.0%). The subtype of all the PI isolates was BVDV1b. Histories of the ranches indicated 23 out of 30 had herd additions of untested breeding females. Twenty-four of the 30 herds had adult cowherd vaccinations against BVDV, primarily using killed BVDV vaccines at pregnancy examination.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757709PMC
October 2009

Viral diseases of new world camelids.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2009 Jul;25(2):323-37

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Farm and Ridge Road, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

The increased popularity and population of New World camelids in the United States requires the development of a broader base of knowledge of the health and disease parameters for these animals by the veterinary livestock practitioner. Although our knowledge regarding infectious diseases of camelids has increased greatly over the past decade, the practice of camelid medicine is a relatively new field in North America, so it is important to seek out seasoned colleagues and diagnostic laboratories that are involved in camelid health treatment and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2009.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126330PMC
July 2009

Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

Can J Vet Res 2009 Apr;73(2):117-24

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Room 250, McElroy Hall, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.

Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666316PMC
April 2009

A suspected canine distemper epidemic as the cause of a catastrophic decline in Santa Catalina Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae).

J Wildl Dis 2009 Apr;45(2):333-43

Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, California 95518, USA.

The island fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) population on Santa Catalina Island, California, USA declined precipitously in 1999 with an approximate 95% reduction on their eastern range, an area representing 87% of the island. During this investigation, between October 1999 and April 2000, evidence of live foxes dramatically decreased. The only carcass recovered during the decline succumbed to a co-infection of canine distemper virus (CDV) and toxoplasmosis. Sequence analysis of the viral P gene, derived by polymerase chain reaction, indicated that the virus was closely related to CDV from a mainland USA raccoon (Procyon lotor). Nine of 10 foxes trapped in 1999-2000, on the eastern portion of the island after the decline, had serologic evidence of exposure to CDV, whereas only four of 19 foxes trapped in this region in 1998 had antibodies reactive against CDV. The confirmation of CDV in one deceased fox, evidence of exposure to CDV in east-end foxes in 1999-2000 compared to 1998, and documentation of raccoon introductions to the island, implicates canine distemper as the cause of the population decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-45.2.333DOI Listing
April 2009

Simple tests for rapid detection of canine parvovirus antigen and canine parvovirus-specific antibodies.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2009 Jan 5;16(1):127-31. Epub 2008 Nov 5.

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the number one viral cause of enteritis, morbidity, and mortality in 8-week-old young puppies. We have developed twin assays (slide agglutination test [SAT] for CPV antigen and slide inhibition test [SIT] for CPV antibody) that are sensitive, specific, cost-effective, generic for all genotypes of CPV, and provide instant results for CPV antigen detection in feces and antibody quantification in serum. We found these assays to be useful for routine applications in kennels with large numbers of puppies at risk. The results of these assays are available in 1 min and do not require any special instrumentation. SAT-SIT technology will find applications in rapid screening of samples for other hemagglutinating emerging viruses of animals and humans (influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00304-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2620666PMC
January 2009

Detection of an antigenic group 2 coronavirus in an adult alpaca with enteritis.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008 Oct 20;15(10):1629-32. Epub 2008 Aug 20.

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00232-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2565933PMC
October 2008

Diagnostic investigation of emerging viruses of companion animals.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008 Jul;38(4):755-74, vii

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Farm and Ridge Road, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA.

In this article, the authors are specifically concerned with the timely and accurate detection of emerging diseases of small animals that are viral in origin. Veterinarians are bound to encounter emerging viruses in their practice. The problem is unavoidable, because viruses are highly mutagenic. Even the immune response dictates the nature of virus that evolves in a host. If the clinical signs and diagnostic methods fail to correlate, the veterinarian should work with the diagnostic laboratory to solve the diagnostic puzzle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114727PMC
July 2008

Emerging and reemerging viruses of dogs and cats. Preface.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008 Jul;38(4):xiii-xiv

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Oklahoma State University for Veterinary Health Sciences, Farm and Ridge Road, Stillwater, OK 74074, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.03.007DOI Listing
July 2008

Canine distemper virus strains circulating among North American dogs.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008 Apr 6;15(4):707-12. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Farm and Ridge Road, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes multisystemic disease in dogs. We received seven samples from dogs with CD from the United States during 2007. CDV isolates from these samples formed large, multinucleated syncytia in a Vero cell line expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Based on the hemagglutinin gene sequences, the CDV isolates from three states (California, Missouri, and Oklahoma) formed two CDV genetic groups: group I (major; six of seven isolates) consisted of CDV isolates closely related to the European wildlife lineage of CDV, and group II (minor; one of seven isolates) was genetically related to the Arctic-like lineage of CDV. However, both CDV groups were genetically different from the current vaccine strains that belong to the American-1 lineage of the old (1930 to 1950) CDV isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00005-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2292659PMC
April 2008

Canine parvovirus types 2c and 2b circulating in North American dogs in 2006 and 2007.

J Clin Microbiol 2007 Dec 10;45(12):4044-7. Epub 2007 Oct 10.

Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Parvovirus is the most common viral cause of diarrhea in young puppies. Based on the analysis of a partial VP2 sequence of 54 samples, canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) (n = 26), CPV-2b (n = 25), and CPV-2 (n = 3) were detected in the United States. The American CPV-2b isolates have unique codons (494 and 572) in VP2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01300-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2168578PMC
December 2007

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus to adult goats from persistently infected cattle.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2007 Sep;19(5):545-8

Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

The transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from persistently infected (PI) heifers to adult seronegative goats was examined in this study. Ten seronegative adult goats were exposed to 4 PI heifers. None of the goats developed any clinical signs but all goats seroconverted by 42 days after exposure to the PI cattle. Results indicate that goats are susceptible to BVDV infection when housed with PI cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870701900514DOI Listing
September 2007

Role of CD151, A tetraspanin, in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

Virol J 2007 Jun 16;4:62. Epub 2007 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati. Cincinnati, OH 42229, USA.

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA virus causing respiratory and reproductive diseases in swine. The susceptibility for PRRSV varies between the different breeds of swine. In cell culture, PRRSV virus can be propagated in primary porcine alveolar macrophages and some African green monkey kidney cell lines, such as MARC-145 cells. Previous studies have shown that 3' untranslated region (UTR) RNAs of the arteriviruses play an important role in the replication of the virus through interactions with cellular proteins. To better understand the differences in the replication capability of PRRSV in different cell lines, we sought to identify the host cellular proteins interacting with PRRSV 3' UTR RNA. We constructed a cDNA library of MARC-145 cell line in lambda ZAP Express vector and screened the library with the positive sense 3' UTR RNA of PRRSV.

Results: We found that CD151, a host cellular protein, interacting with PRRSV 3' UTR RNA. The specificity of the interaction between CD151 and PRRSV 3' UTR RNA was examined by gel shift assay as well as North-Western hybridization. The transfection of CD151 expression clone into BHK-21 rendered these cells susceptible to PRRSV infection, and the transfection of siRNA against CD151 into MARC-145 significantly reduced the level of PRRSV infection. Also, anti-CD151 antibody treatment to MARC-145 completely blocked PRRSV infection.

Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that CD151 should cooperate in PRRSV infection in vitro in MARC-145 and BHK-21 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-4-62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1906853PMC
June 2007

Expressed sequence tags from feline uterine library.

DNA Seq 2006 Apr;17(2):87-93

Louise C. Averill Feline Research Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, 1800 Denison Ave, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Partial nucleotide sequences of 634 cDNAs randomly isolated from a feline uterine cDNA library (Stratagene) were determined by single pass sequencing. Homology search of the sequences to the non-redundant nucleotide databases revealed that 83% of the cDNAs matched registered feline or non-feline genes. Based on the gene identifications, these genes were predicted to be related with immunological, biochemical and regulatory functions in cats. Interestingly, the rest 17% of the cDNAs did not show homology to gene or EST sequence present in the nucleotide and protein databases, suggesting that these cDNAs include novel genes expressed only in the Felidae. This large scale sequencing of uterine cDNA will provide a useful molecular source for research not only towards health and disease conditions in cats but also in different fields of science where genetic information from cats will be of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10425170600700154DOI Listing
April 2006

Defining the cellular target(s) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus blocking monoclonal antibody 7G10.

J Virol 2006 Jan;80(2):689-96

Louise C. Averill Research Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

We produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb) (7G10) that has blocking activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, we identified the components of the 7G10 MAb-bound complex as cytoskeletal filaments: vimentin, cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18, actin, and hair type II basic keratin. Vimentin bound to PRRSV nucleocapsid protein and anti-vimentin antibodies showed PRRSV-blocking activity. Vimentin was expressed on the surface of MARC-145, a PRRSV-susceptible cell line. Simian vimentin rendered BHK-21 and CRFK, nonsusceptible cell lines, susceptible to PRRSV infection. These results suggest that vimentin is part of the PRRSV receptor complex and that it plays an important role in PRRSV binding with the other cytoskeletal filaments that mediate transportation of the virus in the cytosol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.80.2.689-696.2006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1346842PMC
January 2006

Characterization of a small plasmid (pMBCP) from bovine Pseudomonas pickettii that confers cadmium resistance.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2003 Mar;54(3):241-8

Comparative Toxicology Laboratories, Department of Diagnostic Medicine-Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, 1800 Dennision Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506-5705, USA.

This is the first report of isolation of Pseudomonas pickettii from a normal adult bovine duodenum. This organism was one of several bacteria isolated as part of a study to examine cadmium resistance genes (cad(r)) for use in generating transgenic plants to reclaim cadmium-contaminated soils in Kansas. P. pickettii containing a plasmid of 2.2kb (designated pMBCP) grew in Luria-Bertani broth and agar containing up to 800 microM of cadmium chloride and was resistant to 16 antibiotics. Curing the organism of plasmid revealed that antibiotic resistances were not plasmid-mediated. Low-level cadmium resistance was conferred by the plasmid because uncured organism grew significantly better (P<0.05) at 55 microM compared to cured organism. Both plasmid and chromosomal DNA were probed by DNA-DNA hybridization for the presence of known cadmium resistance genes (cadA, cadC, and cadD from Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), but none were detected. The plasmid had one restriction site each for BamHI, PstI, SmaI, and XhoI; two sites each for HincII, SacI, and SphI; and multiple sites for AluI and XcmI. DNA sequence analyses of the cloned and original plasmids showed a GC content of greater than 60% and no homology to any published sequences in the GenBank, European Bioinformatics Institute, or Japanese Genome Net databases. The DNA sequence is contained in GenBank accession number AF144733. Thus, pMBCP offers low-level cadmium resistance to P. picketttii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0147-6513(02)00076-3DOI Listing
March 2003

Unique epitope of bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein spans the cleavage site between p16(MA) and p2L.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002 Nov;9(6):1277-81

Department of Diagnostic Medicine-Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and Jembrana disease virus (JDV) are closely related bovine lentiviruses that are difficult to distinguish by presently available diagnostic methods. Recently, in our laboratory, a monoclonal antibody (MAb; MAb 10H1) against the BIV Gag protein identified a differential epitope, located at the 6.4-kDa N terminus of a 29-kDa Gag capsid protein, which was absent in JDV. To define the essential amino acids of the epitope, a series of primers within the 163 bp of DNA corresponding to the 6.4-kDa protein were designed. The full-length 163-bp DNA fragment and the smaller DNA fragments with deletions were amplified by PCR and then cloned into pQE32 vectors for protein expression studies. The expressed proteins were analyzed with MAb 10H1 by Western blotting. The differential epitope has been narrowed to a 26-amino-acid region (R121 to R146), which includes 6 residues of p16(MA) (where MA represents the matrix protein) and 20 residues of p2L. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the putative 26-amino-acid epitope blocked MAb 10H1 binding to the expressed peptide. These experiments revealed that the epitope spans the cleavage site between p16(MA) and p2L and presumably will be valuable in distinguishing the two viruses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130104PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/cdli.9.6.1277-1281.2002DOI Listing
November 2002

Enteric coronavirus infection in a juvenile dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).

J Vet Diagn Invest 2002 Sep;14(5):441-4

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108, USA.

A case of an enteric coronavirus infection in a 6-week-old dromedary calf is described. The animal had diarrhea for 5 days and died despite symptomatic treatment. Numerous viral particles, approximately 140 nm in diameter, with club-like projections were detected in the feces by electron microscopy. These characteristics were consistent with a coronavirus. Immunohistochemical reactivity with 2 antigenic group II coronavirus-specific antibodies confirmed the presence of viral antigen in colonic epithelial cells. The death of the animal was attributed to a neutrophilic and emphysematous colitis that likely was caused by an infection with a Clostridium sp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870201400518DOI Listing
September 2002

Development, evaluation, and application of lateral-flow immunoassay (immunochromatography) for detection of rotavirus in bovine fecal samples.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002 May;9(3):723-5

Department of Diagnostic Medicine-Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

A lateral-flow immunoassay (LFT) was developed to detect bovine rotavirus in fecal samples. Using samples (n = 74) from diarrheic calves, a comparison of the LFT with a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) and transmission electron microscopy (EM) was conducted. When EM was used as the reference method, initial studies of 29 samples indicated 70 and 80% sensitivities of the LFT and LAT, respectively, with both being 100% specific. When the LAT was the reference test, the LFT was 75% sensitive and 91% specific. Additional specimens (n = 45) were tested by the LFT and LAT alone, and results were identical for both methods.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC120004PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/cdli.9.3.723-724.2002DOI Listing
May 2002