Publications by authors named "Sang Hoon Lee"

918 Publications

Microstructure-Controlled Polyacrylonitrile/Graphene Fibers over 1 Gigapascal Strength.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.

Controlling the microstructures in fibers, such as crystalline structures and microvoids, is a crucial challenge for the development of mechanically strong graphene fibers (GFs). To date, although GFs graphitized at high temperatures have exhibited high tensile strength, GFs still have limited the ultimate mechanical strength owing to the presence due to the structural defects, including the imperfect alignment of graphitic crystallites and the presence of microsized voids. In this study, we significantly enhanced the mechanical strength of GF by controlling microstructures of fibers. GF was hybridized by incorporating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the graphene oxide (GO) dope solution. In addition, we controlled the orientation of the inner structure by applying a tensile force at 800 °C. The results suggest that PAN can act as a binder for graphene sheets and can facilitate the rearrangement of the fiber's microstructure. PAN was directionally carbonized between graphene sheets due to the catalytic effect of graphene. The resulting hybrid GFs successfully displayed a high strength of 1.10 GPa without undergoing graphitization at extremely high temperatures. We believe that controlling the alignment of nanoassembled structure is an efficient strategy for achieving the inherent performance characteristics of graphene at the level of multidimensional structures including films and fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c02155DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of the Relationship Between Bioactive Components in Seaweeds and Advanced Glycation End-Products Inhibitory Activities Using Principal Component Analysis.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Functional Food Research, Korea Food Research Institute, 245 nongsaengmyeong-ro, Iseo-myeon, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, 55365, Republic of Korea.

This study comprehensively presents the relationship between the bioactive substance of 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol extract of 38 species of seaweeds (SWEs), and anti-glycation activities. The contents of bioactive substance of SWEs, such as total phenolic, total flavonoid and condensed tannins, were determined through a colorimetric analysis. Among the tested species, Ecklonia bicyclis, Ishige foliacea, and Cladophora urightiana var. minor had the highest amount of total phenolic (255.75 mg GAE/g DW), total condensed tannins (63.36 mg CE/g DW), and total flavonoid content (85.26 mg CE/g DW), respectively. Anti-glycation properties of SWEs were evaluated through advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation, AGEs-collagen cross-link formation, and AGEs-collagen cross-link breaking assay. Brown algae species exhibited a more prominent inhibitory activity on AGEs formation and AGEs-collagen cross-links, and the breaking of AGEs-collagen cross-links compared to that exhibited by aminoguanidine and ALT-711 (positive controls). Using principal component analysis, we confirmed that the AGEs formation inhibitory property and AGEs-collagen cross-links breaking activity were closely correlated with total phenolic and the condensed tannin contents contained in SWEs. Therefore, the bioactive substances such as phenolics and condensed tannins in seaweeds can be used as predictive indices in selecting compounds for the development of a therapeutic agent that prevents diabetic complications related to the AGEs. In addition, our results suggest that brown algae species, which contains more bioactive substances than green and red algae species, can be utilized as a promising natural resource for the prevention and alleviation of AGEs-related diabetic complications as AGE inhibitor and cross-links breaker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-021-00908-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Sequential treatment of afatinib and osimertinib or other regimens in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations: Results from a real-world study in South Korea.

Cancer Med 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.

Objectives: The optimal sequence for the administration of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sequential afatinib and osimertinib treatment in patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations.

Materials And Methods: Electronic records of patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC, who were administered afatinib and osimertinib (group A) or other chemotherapy (group B) between October 2014 and 2019, across 16 hospitals in South Korea were reviewed. The primary outcome, time on treatment (TOT), secondary outcome, and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: Of the 737 patients who received frontline afatinib treatment, 324 with complete records were selected (group A: 126, group B: 198). All patients in group A were T790M positive after afatinib, while patients in group B were all negative or unknown. The median TOT was 35.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.7-45.6) in group A and 20.8 months (95% CI: 19.4-24.0) in group B. The median TOT with afatinib was 13.0 months (95% CI: 12.0-13.9) overall and 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.9-17.3) in group A. The 2- and 3-year survival rates were 86.0 and 69.3% in group A and 75.9 and 55.3% in group B, respectively.

Conclusion: Sequential afatinib and osimertinib treatment resulted in better survival rates than treatment with afatinib followed by other chemotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4127DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical characteristics of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: Results of the Korean Nonradiographic Axial SPondyloArthritis (KONASPA) data.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Aim: To evaluate clinical characteristics and natural history of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) using KOrean Nonradiographic Axial SPondyloArthritis (KONASPA) data.

Methods: Data were collected from 11 centers in South Korea. A total of 278 patients with nr-axSpA from January 2018 to July 2020 were included. Demographic data, clinical features, comorbidities, disease activity, medications, and laboratory results were collected.

Results: Mean age at symptom onset was 28.2 ± 14.2 years. Of 278 patients, 152 (54.7%) were male. Mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index at diagnosis was 3.5 ± 2.1. Dyslipidemia was the most common comorbidity (8.4%), followed by hypertension (6.1%). Mean age at diagnosis of nr-axSpA was older in female patients than in male patients (31.8 ± 15.8 years vs 24.9 ± 12.0 years, P < 0.001). Enthesitis and uveitis were more frequently found in female patients than in male patients. Thirty-one (11.1%) participants with nr-axSpA progressed to ankylosing spondylitis. The median follow-up duration was 48 months. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, age at symptom onset (hazard ratio [HR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.97, P = 0.006), body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.44, P = 0.005) and sacroiliitis grade (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, P = 0.006) were associated with progression to ankylosing spondylitis.

Conclusions: Results of nationwide data revealed that women with nr-axSpA showed a late disease onset and more extra-articular manifestations than men. Young age at symptom onset, high BMI, and presence of radiographic sacroiliitis at diagnosis were risk factors for progression to AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.14175DOI Listing
July 2021

Infliximab Biosimilar CT-P13 Observational Studies for Rheumatoid Arthritis, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Ankylosing Spondylitis: Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness.

Adv Ther 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-Gu, Seoul, 137-701, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Long-term, real-world safety and effectiveness data are required to support biosimilar use. This analysis pooled 5-year findings from observational studies of infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

Methods: Patients enrolled in the CT-P13 4.2, 4.3, or 4.4 Korea/European Union registries were analysed if they had initiated infliximab treatment with CT-P13 (CT-P13 group) or had switched from reference infliximab to CT-P13 (switched to CT-P13 group). The primary objective was to investigate long-term safety by evaluating adverse events of special interest (AESIs) per the CT-P13 risk-management plan. Incidence rates per 100 patient-years (PYs) were calculated. Additional long-term safety endpoints, immunogenicity (assessments optional), and effectiveness were evaluated.

Results: Overall, 736 patients (642 CT-P13; 94 switched to CT-P13) were analysed. Median (range) exposure to CT-P13 was 19.433 (0.03-63.11) months overall. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 69.0% (CT-P13 group) and 60.6% (switched to CT-P13 group). Infusion-related reaction/hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent AESI overall, with an incidence of 4.3828 per 100 PY (95% confidence interval: 3.3603-5.6185). For most AESIs, incidence rates per 100 PY were broadly comparable between treatment groups, considering overlapping 95% confidence intervals. At baseline, 42/445 (9.4%) and 21/59 (35.6%) evaluable patients in the CT-P13 and switched to CT-P13 groups, respectively, were antidrug antibody (ADA)-positive. After CT-P13 treatment during the study, 188/425 (44.2%) evaluable patients had ≥ 1 ADA-positive result, including 147/425 (34.6%) patients with negative or no ADA results reported at baseline. Effectiveness tended to increase over time for all indications.

Conclusion: The analysis did not identify any new safety findings for patients with RA, IBD, and AS treated with CT-P13 for up to 5 years in those who were infliximab-naïve at CT-P13 initiation, or those who had switched from reference infliximab to CT-P13.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02557295 (CT-P13 4.2; retrospectively registered on 23 September 2015); NCT02326155 (CT-P13 4.3; retrospectively registered on 25 December 2014); NCT02557308 (CT-P13 4.4; retrospectively registered on 23 September 2015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01834-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Methionyl-tRNA synthetase and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases interacting multi-functional protein-lacking exon 2 as potential diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(6):3135-3144. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine Seoul 06229, Korea.

Cytological specimens from computed tomography (CT)-guided needle aspiration biopsy (CT-NAB) have relatively low sensitivity for lung cancer diagnosis. This study evaluated the usefulness of the dual immunofluorescence (IF) staining method using methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases interacting multi-functional protein-lacking exon 2 (AIMP2-DX2), and pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) obtained from clinical specimens. One-hundred forty-five cytology specimens were prospectively collected from patients who underwent CT-NAB under the suspicion of lung cancer. The results of two combinations of MARS, AIMP2-DX2, and pan-CK dual IF staining were compared with those of conventional cytology by calculating the area under the curve (AUC). The results of combining dual IF with conventional cytology showed higher AUC than conventional cytology alone: cytology/MARS/AIMP2-DX2 (0.891 vs. 0.829, = 0.003), cytology/MARS/pan-CK (0.916 vs. 0.829, < 0.001), and cytology/AIMP2-DX2/pan-CK (0.877 vs. 0.829, = 0.005). In specimens with non-diagnostic results in conventional cytology, MARS/AIMP2-DX2 dual IF staining showed sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 60.0%, 86.4%, and 0.79, respectively. The dual IF staining method using two combinations of MARS, AIMP2-DX2, and pan-CK is an effective diagnostic tool that can improve the lung cancer diagnostic yield by complementing conventional cytology.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263685PMC
June 2021

Association between Skin Cancer and Systemic and Ocular Comorbidities in South Korea.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 1;10(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Bucheon, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, 170 Jomaru-ro, Bucheon 14584, Korea.

Background: In this study, we investigated the associations between various systemic and ocular comorbidities and skin cancer, in a nationwide cohort of South Koreans.

Method: We reviewed the data of 1,103,302 individuals in the South Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database from 2002 to 2015. Of these, 1202 individuals diagnosed with skin cancer from 2004 were included in the study group. The control group was matched in a 1:5 ratio based on propensity scores.

Results: The prevalence rates of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer increased from 2004 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, among the various systemic conditions, hypertension was significantly associated with skin cancer, while among ocular comorbidities, macular degeneration showed a significant association with skin cancer.

Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate associations between skin cancer and various systemic and ocular comorbidities. The results suggest that hypertension and macular degeneration may increase the risk of skin cancer development, or vice versa. Further studies are needed to evaluate the causal relationships between these conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198495PMC
June 2021

The effects of inclusion of minimal-dose corticosteroid in autologous whole blood and dextrose injection for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea.

Backgound: Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders that causes pain.

Objectives: We evaluated the effect of the inclusion of a minimal dose of corticosteroid in a solution comprising autologous whole blood (AWB), 20% dextrose, and 2% lidocaine for treating LE.

Methods: In this randomized prospective trial LE patients were allocated to the CS+ group (n= 70; solution comprising 1 mL AWB, 1 mL 20% dextrose, 0.4 mL 2% lidocaine, and 0.1 mL (0.4 mg) dexamethasone palmitate; injected into the common wrist extensor tendon) or the CS- group (n= 70; same solution as above but without dexamethasone palmitate). Five injections were administered at monthly intervals. At each visit, pain intensity was evaluated using the numeric rating scale (NRS), and grip strength was measured using a hand-grip dynamometer.

Results: In the CS+ and CS- groups, 1 and 10 patients dropped out, respectively. In both groups, the NRS scores at each evaluation were significantly lower than the pretreatment scores. The NRS scores from pretreatment to the second and third visits were significantly lower in the CS+ group than those in the CS- group. However, at the fourth and fifth visits, and 6 months after the last injection (the sixth visit), the degree of pain reduction between the groups was not significantly different. Grip strength increased significantly over time in both groups. At each evaluation, grip strength was significantly higher than that at the pretreatment stage. However, the degree of increase was not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions: The inclusion of a minimal dose of corticosteroid in the AWB and 20% dextrose injection can reduce pain, especially during early treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-200261DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Networked neural spheroid by neuro-bundle mimicking nervous system created by topology effect.

Mol Brain 2021 Jun 17;14(1):93. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul, 136-100, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-021-00797-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212480PMC
June 2021

Consistency landscape of network communities.

Phys Rev E 2021 May;103(5-1):052306

Department of Energy Technology, Korea Institute of Energy Technology, Naju 58322, Korea.

The concept of community detection has long been used as a key device for handling the mesoscale structures in networks. Suitably conducted community detection reveals various embedded informative substructures of network topology. However, regarding the practical usage of community detection, it has always been a tricky problem to assign a reasonable community resolution for networks of interest. Because of the absence of the unanimously accepted criterion, most of the previous studies utilized rather ad hoc heuristics to decide the community resolution. In this work, we harness the concept of consistency in community structures of networks to provide the overall community resolution landscape of networks, which we eventually take to quantify the reliability of detected communities for a given resolution parameter. More precisely, we exploit the ambiguity in the results of stochastic detection algorithms and suggest a method that denotes the relative validity of community structures in regard to their stability of global and local inconsistency measures using multiple detection processes. Applying our framework to synthetic and real networks, we confirm that it effectively displays insightful fundamental aspects of community structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.052306DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of mice fed a diet supplemented with raw and cooked beef loin powder.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11489. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Applied Animal Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Korea.

We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to evaluate changes in the gut microbiota of mice fed a diet supplemented with either raw or cooked beef loin powder for 9 weeks. Male BALB/c mice (n = 60) were randomly allocated to five groups: mice fed AIN-93G chow (CON), chow containing 5% (5RB) and 10% (10RB) raw beef loin powder, and chow containing 5% (5CB) and 10% (10CB) cooked beef loin powder. Dietary supplementation with both RB and CB increased the relative abundance of Clostridiales compared to the CON diet (p < 0.05). Mice fed 10RB showed a significantly higher relative abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.018) and Lactobacillus (p = 0.001) than CON mice, and the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes showed an increasing trend in the 10RB mice (p > 0.05). Mice fed 10CB showed a higher abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae and a lower abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae compared with the CON mice (p < 0.05). Genes for glycan biosynthesis, which result in short-chain fatty acid synthesis, were enriched in the CB mice compared to the RB mice, which was correlated to a high abundance of Bacteroides. Overall, dietary RB and CB changed the gut microbiota of mice (p < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90461-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169908PMC
June 2021

Determination of Maintenance Energy Requirements for Fattening Castrated Korean Black Goats ().

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Food Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea.

Twelve adult (10 months old) castrated Korean black goats, with an average initial body weight of 24.98 ± 3.7 kg, were used in this experiment to determine their maintenance energy requirements. Dry matter intakes (g/d, = 0.945) were not affected by energy levels, but metabolic energy intake (kcal/d, < 0.002) and average daily gain (g/d, < 0.001) were significantly increased at higher energy levels. Nutrient digestibility was similar in the treatments, but crude fat digestibility increased with the addition of protective fat powder ( = 0.001). The energy required for fattening the castrated Korean black goats was estimated using the correlation between metabolic energy intake per dietary body weight and average daily gain per dietary body weight. The Y-axis intercept value was calculated to be 108.76 kcal/kg BW ( < 0.05, r = 0.6036), which was the metabolic energy requirement for maintaining the lives of the fattening Korean black goats. The estimated energy requirements of the black goat can improve specification techniques, such as the energy level and the amount of feed supply required for domestic black goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227050PMC
May 2021

Genetic Analysis and Operative Outcomes in Patients with Oncogene-Driven Advanced NSCLC Treated with Cytoreductive Surgery as a Component of Local Consolidative Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 22;13(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Most patients with oncogene-driven advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrate recurrence because of the developing targeted therapy resistance. In this retrospective study, we assessed the efficacy of surgical local consolidative treatment by analyzing the operative outcomes and genetic data in 44 patients who underwent pulmonary resection for stage IIIB/C-IV NSCLC after targeted therapy. The initial mutations were in the ( = 32), ( = 11), and ( = 1) genes. The median interval from the initiation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy immediately before the surgery to the actual operation was 9.8 months. Operative mortality was absent. Four patients showed complete remission. The median follow-up period after TKI therapy initiation was 23.1 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 2-year failure-free survival and overall survival rates from the initiation of TKI were 70.8% and 95.0%, respectively. During the follow-up period, two patients died and 15 suffered from disease progression. Among the 32 patients with mutations, 12 showed additional mutations, and targeted agents were replaced in nine patients after the operation. We conclude that pulmonary resection for advanced NSCLC after targeted therapy is feasible, and the surgical specimens could be used for planning further targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197012PMC
May 2021

Small bowel ulcer bleeding due to suspected clopidogrel use in a patient with clopidogrel resistance: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(15):3689-3695

Department of Hospital Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital , Chuncheon-si 24289, South Korea.

Background: Clopidogrel is a platelet aggregation inhibitor used for the management of cardiovascular disease. While antiplatelet therapy decreases cardiovascular events after successful coronary drug-eluting stenting, it increases the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. About 20% of the patients who take clopidogrel exhibit resistance to the drug.

Case Summary: We report the first case of a small bowel bleeding ulcer in an 86-year-old man with clopidogrel resistance. He had a history of taking clopidogrel due to unstable angina. There was no evidence of bleeding in the stomach, duodenum, or colon through upper and lower GI endoscopies. The abdominal computed tomography showed the extravasation of radiocontrast media at the ileum. Because of unstable vital signs, emergency surgery was performed. Multiple ulcers with inflammation were found in the ileum. The pathologic findings revealed simple inflammation. The VerifyNow P2Y12 test showed clopidogrel resistance. One year after changing to aspirin, capsule endoscopy was performed and the small bowel ulcers were improved.

Conclusion: Small bowel ulcers and bleeding due to clopidogrel are not very common, but the prevalence is expected to increase in older age patients with risk factors despite clopidogrel resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i15.3689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130066PMC
May 2021

Investigation of niclosamide as a repurposing agent for skeletal muscle atrophy.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0252135. Epub 2021 May 26.

New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea.

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a feature of aging (termed sarcopenia) and various diseases, such as cancer and kidney failure. Effective drug treatment options for muscle atrophy are lacking. The tapeworm medication, niclosamide is being assessed for repurposing to treat numerous diseases, including end-stage cancer metastasis and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated the potential of niclosamide as a repurposing drug for muscle atrophy. In a myotube atrophy model using the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, niclosamide did not prevent the reduction in myotube diameter or the decreased expression of phosphorylated FOXO3a, which upregulates the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of muscle catabolism. Treatment of normal myotubes with niclosamide did not activate mTOR, a major regulator of muscle protein synthesis, and increased the expression of atrogin-1, which is induced in catabolic states. Niclosamide treatment also inhibited myogenesis in muscle precursor cells, enhanced the expression of myoblast markers Pax7 and Myf5, and downregulated the expression of differentiation markers MyoD, MyoG and Myh2. In an animal model of muscle atrophy, niclosamide did not improve muscle mass, grip strength or muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Muscle atrophy is also feature of cancer cachexia. IC50 analyses indicated that niclosamide was more cytotoxic for myoblasts than cancer cells. In addition, niclosamide did not suppress the induction of iNOS, a key mediator of atrophy, in an in vitro model of cancer cachexia and did not rescue myotube diameter. Overall, these results suggest that niclosamide may not be a suitable repurposing drug for glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy or cancer cachexia. Nevertheless, niclosamide may be employed as a compound to study mechanisms regulating myogenesis and catabolic pathways in skeletal muscle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252135PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153455PMC
May 2021

Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in Korean black goat () using frozen-thawed semen.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Jan 31;63(1):36-45. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Animal Genetic Resources Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Hamyang 50000, Korea.

Presently, there is an increased demand for livestock products all over the world which has led to more devotion on improving livestock population. Although goats have been bred for a long time in Korea, but there is not much research conducted on traditional Korean black goat () compared to other livestock populations. Mutton consumption has been dramatically changing from medicinal use to edible meat and this trend directs the black goat populations declining and also mutton import quantities are increasing consistently. The present study introduced a new estrus synchronizing technique with subsequent artificial insemination (AI) for Korean black goats to enable crossbreeding with non-native breeds for the small or subsistent farmers. Our data highlighted that, the percentage of motile sperm from the electro-ejaculated samples declined significantly after freezing and melting. In addition, the sperm motility significantly declined with regard to sperm incubation period (0, 5, 60, and 120 min at 37°C) and was negatively correlated (64.2 ± 7.9%, 63.3 ± 5.8%, 49.9 ± 6.3%, and 35.9 ± 7.6%, respectively) in frozen-thawed sperm samples. Moreover, the E2 levels were unchanged even 24 h after controlled internal drug releas (CIDR) withdrawal. But, 48 h and 72 h after CIDR removal, E2 levels increased significantly. These data helps us to consider the two time points for AI; CIDR removal after 24 h, at which E2 decreases, and after 48 h, as the time at which progesterone increases. Additionally, the AI after 48 h of CIDR removal group exhibited significantly higher pregnancy and parturition rates (42.9%) compared to AI after 24 h after CIDR removal 28.6% group. In conclusion, these studies will propose an optimal estrus synchronisation process with subsequent timing of AI and also will promote the Korean black goat breeding industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2021.e10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882844PMC
January 2021

Effectiveness of pirfenidone in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis according to the autoantibody status: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 May 3;21(1):145. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent shown to slow the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, its effectiveness in association with serological autoimmune features in IPF remains unclear.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with IPF treated at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. The autoantibody status was defined as positive if we detected autoantibodies meeting the serological domain criteria for interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

Results: We included 142 patients with IPF treated with pirfenidone for over six months (93 were autoantibody-positive and 49 were autoantibody-negative). The mean age was 69.5 ± 7.3 years, and 77.5% of the patients were male. The adjusted mean changes over one year were - 34.4 and - 112.2 mL (p = 0.168) in forced vital capacity (FVC), and - 0.53 and - 0.72 mL/mmHg/min (p = 0.356) in the lungs diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DL) in the autoantibody-negative and autoantibody-positive groups, respectively.

Conclusions: Reductions in FVC and DL were similar in autoantibody-positive and autoantibody-negative patients with IPF treated with pirfenidone. Pirfenidone is effective in attenuating the progression of IPF, irrespective of the autoantibody status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01516-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091553PMC
May 2021

N-terminal selective conjugation method widens the therapeutic window of antibody-drug conjugates by improving tolerability and stability.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1914885

ABL Bio Inc., Seongnam-si, Republic of Korea.

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are targeted therapeutic agents that treat cancers by selective delivery of highly potent cytotoxic drugs to tumor cells via cancer-specific antibodies. However, their clinical benefit is limited by off-target toxicity and narrow therapeutic windows. To overcome these limitations, we have applied reductive alkylation to develop a new type of ADC that has cytotoxic drugs conjugated to the N-terminal of an antibody through amine bonds introduced via reductive alkylation reactions (NTERM). To test whether the NTERM-conjugated ADCs can widen therapeutic windows, we synthesized three different ADCs by conjugating trastuzumab and monomethyl auristatin-F using three different methods, and compared their stability, efficacy, and toxicity. The NTERM-conjugated ADC was more stable and than the thiol-conjugated and the lysine-conjugated ADCs. The NTERM-conjugated ADC showed lower toxicity compared to other ADCs, whereas its efficacy was comparable to that of the thiol-conjugated ADC and better than that of the lysine-conjugated ADC. These results suggest that the NTERM conjugation method could widen the therapeutic window of ADCs by enhancing its stability and reducing toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2021.1914885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081041PMC
April 2021

Long-term Outcomes of Clopidogrel Monotherapy versus Prolonged Dual Antiplatelet Therapy beyond 12 Months after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in High-risk Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Apr 26;36(16):e106. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: There are no data on comparison between clopidogrel monotherapy and prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients at high-risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Of 2,082 consecutive patients undergoing PCI using second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES), we studied 637 patients at high-risk either angiographically or clinically who received clopidogrel longer than 24 months and were event-free at 12 months after index PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), definite or probable stent thrombosis, or stroke between 12 months and 36 months after the index PCI.

Results: In propensity score-matched population (246 pairs), the cumulative rate of primary outcome was 4.5% in the clopidogrel monotherapy group and 4.9% in the prolonged DAPT group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-2.75; = 0.643). There was no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, stent thrombosis, stroke between the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group.

Conclusion: Compared with prolonged DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy showed similar long-term outcomes in patients at high-risk after second-generation DES implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076847PMC
April 2021

The bone bridge significantly affects the decrease in bone mineral density measured with quantitative computed tomography in ankylosing spondylitis.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0249578. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Rheumatology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Introduction And Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has characteristics of spinal bone bridge and fusion. Although BMD reduction in AS may be presumed to be due to spinal inflammation, this study was designed to confirm whether immobilization of the spine due to syndesmophytes is related to BMD reduction, as immobilization itself is a risk factor for BMD reduction.

Methods: Among male patients diagnosed with AS according to the modified New York criteria, those who underwent bone density tests with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were retrospectively analyzed through a chart review. The correlation between the presence or absence of bone bridges for each vertebral body level of the L spine confirmed with radiography and BMD confirmed with QCT was analyzed.

Results: A total of 47 male patients with AS were enrolled. The mean patient age was 46.8 ± 8.2 years, and the mean disease duration was 7.9 ± 6.4 years. The trabecular BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) ranged from 23.1 to 158.45 mg/cm3 (mean 102.2 ± 37 mg/cm3), as measured with QCT. The lumbar BMD measurements showed that 30 patients (63.8%) had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Bone bridge formation showed a negative correlation with BMD. Low BMD was significantly correlated with bone bridge in the vertebral body (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed between bone bridge score and BASMI flexion score, whereas significant negative correlations were found between BMD and BASMI flexion score (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Decreased mobility of the vertebrae due to bone bridge formation affects the decrease in BMD in patients with AS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249578PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051772PMC
April 2021

The relationship between the severity of pulmonary fibrosis and the lung cancer stage.

J Cancer 2021 14;12(10):2807-2814. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 82 Gumi-ro, 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707, Republic of Korea.

The incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and mortality related to the disease have steadily increased in recent years. The risk of cancer is approximately eight times higher in IPF patients than in the general population. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the severity of IPF is related to the time interval between IPF diagnosis and lung cancer diagnosis and to the stage of lung cancer at diagnosis. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of patients with lung cancer after IPF diagnosis from two tertiary hospitals in South Korea between 2003 and 2018. We identified 61 patients diagnosed with lung cancer at least 3 months after being diagnosed with IPF. The included patients had a mean age of 71.0 years, and all but one were men (98.4%). The interval between IPF diagnosis and lung cancer diagnosis was not related to the gender-age-physiology (GAP) stage (p=0.662). However, in cox proportional hazard models, a higher GAP stage was significantly correlated with an advanced lung cancer stage (odds ratio 11.1, p=0.003). The lung cancer stage at diagnosis was higher in patients with a higher GAP stage than in those with a lower GAP stage. Physicians should consider implementing more frequent surveillance with computed tomography scans for patients with advanced IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.51445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040885PMC
March 2021

Effect of microbial community structure in inoculum on the stimulation of direct interspecies electron transfer for methanogenesis.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 5;332:125100. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

To investigate how the seed microbial community structure affects the improvement of methanogenesis efficiency through direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), a biomethane potential (BMP) test was conducted using sludge collected from a total of six anaerobic digesters. DIET-stimulating microbial populations were investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Correlations between microbial community composition and methane production performance by DIET were analyzed. The methane production rate increased under all conditions when granular activated carbon (GAC) was injected regardless of the inoculum type. However, redundancy analysis indicated a significant correlation between the inoculum microbial community and lag time. In a network analysis, Methanolinea species distributed in the inocula formed a single modularity with lag time, suggesting that the methanogens in the inocula might reduce the lag time of methanogenesis through DIET. Overall, this study revealed that the inoculum microbial community composition is an important factor affecting methane production efficiency by DIET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125100DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimization of Nano-encapsulation on Neonatal Porcine Islet-like Cell Clusters Using Polymersomes.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Mar 31;16(1):53. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

MGENPLUS Biotechnology Research Institute, Mgenplus Co., Ltd, Seoul, 06688, Republic of Korea.

Researches proving methods for nano-encapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCCs) using polymersomes (PSomes) formed using polymers of polyethylene glycol-block-poly lactide. Herein, our studies present efficient nano-encapsulation procedure with minimal damage and loss of NPCCs.We used N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) on the N-terminal of PSomes to induce binding of amine groups in the extracellular matrix surrounding NPCCs. F-10 culture medium with bovine serum albumin was used in the nano-encapsulation procedure to minimize damage and loss of NPCCs. Finally, we induced cross-linking between bifunctional PSomes (NHS-/NH-PSomes). F-10 culture medium containing 0.25% BSA with pH of 7.3 minimized the damage and loss of NPCCs after nano-encapsulation as compared with using basic HBSS buffer (pH 8.0). Also, we induced the efficient nano-encapsulation through conjugation of PSomes using bifunctional PSomes (NHS-/NH-PSomes).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03512-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012476PMC
March 2021

P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after coronary stenting according to type of P2Y12 inhibitor.

Heart 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of).

Objective: To compare P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with 12-month DAPT according to the type of P2Y12 inhibitor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: The Smart Angioplasty Research Team: Comparison Between P2Y12 Antagonist Monotherapy vs Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (SMART-CHOICE) randomised trial compared 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with 12-month DAPT. In this trial, 2993 patients undergoing successful PCI with drug-eluting stent were enrolled in Korea. As a prespecified analysis, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT versus 12-month DAPT were compared among patients receiving clopidogrel and those receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitor (ticagrelor or prasugrel), respectively. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke at 12 months after the index procedure.

Results: Among 2993 patients (mean age 64 years), 58.2% presented with acute coronary syndrome. Clopidogrel was prescribed in 2312 patients (77.2%) and a potent P2Y12 inhibitor in 681 (22.8%). There were no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and the DAPT group among patients receiving clopidogrel (3.0% vs 3.0%; HR: 1.02; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.65; p=0.93) as well as among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors (2.4% vs 0.7%; HR: 3.37; 95% CI 0.77 to 14.78; p=0.11; interaction p=0.1). Among patients receiving clopidogrel, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with DAPT showed consistent treatment effects across various subgroups for the primary endpoint. Among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors, the rate of bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 2- 5) was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (1.5% vs 5.0%; HR: 0.33; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.87; p=0.03).

Conclusions: Compared with 12-month DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy after 3-month DAPT showed comparable cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing PCI.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02079194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318821DOI Listing
March 2021

Corticosteroid responsiveness in patients with acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease admitted to the emergency department.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5762. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Interstitial lung disease (ILD), particularly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), has a poor prognosis. Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ILD (AE-ILD). This study aimed to clarify the causes of AE-ILD, determine the efficacy of corticosteroids for treating AE-ILD, and detect differences in the mortality rate among subgroups of ILD. This was an observational retrospective single-center study. Patients with ILD who presented to the emergency department with acute respiratory symptoms from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, were included. Patients with AE-ILD were classified into two groups depending on the prednisolone dose: low dose (0 to 1.0 mg/kg) or high dose (> 1.0 mg/kg). Mortality rates between patients with and without IPF were compared. This study included 182 patients with AE-ILD, including IPF (n = 117) and non-IPF (n = 65). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that corticosteroid dose (HR: 0.221, CI: 0.102-0.408, P < 0.001), initial P/F ratio (HR:0.995, CI:0.992-0.999, P = 0.006), and mechanical ventilation within 3 days of hospitalization (HR:4.205, CI:2.059-8.589, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for mortality in patients with AE-ILD. This study showed that outcomes improve with higher doses of corticosteroids (> 1 mg/kg prednisolone) in patients with AE-non-IPF-ILD. However, this was not the case in patients with AE-IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85539-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952556PMC
March 2021

Late Survival Benefit of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Compared With Medical Therapy in Patients With Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Mar 4;10(6):e019022. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine Heart Vascular and Stroke Institute Samsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Seoul Republic of Korea.

Background As an initial treatment strategy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) did not show midterm survival benefits compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT). We sought to evaluate the benefit of PCI compared with OMT in patients with CTO over extended long-term follow-up. Methods and Results Between March 2003 and February 2012, 2024 patients with CTO were enrolled in a single-center registry and followed for ≈10 years. We excluded patients with CTO who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (n=477) and classified patients into the CTO-PCI group (n=883) or OMT group (n=664) according to initial treatment strategy. Patients with multivessel disease received PCI for obstructive non-CTO lesions in both groups. In the CTO-PCI group, 699 patients (79.2%) underwent successful revascularization. The CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (10.4% versus 22.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.32-0.59]; <0.001) than the OMT group. After propensity score matching analyses, the CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (13.6% versus 20.8%; HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.45-0.91]; =0.01) than the OMT group. The relative reduction in cardiac death at 10 years was mainly driven by a relative reduction between 3 and 10 years (8.3% versus 16.6%; HR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.27-0.71]; <0.001) but not at 3 years (5.7% versus 5.0%; HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.63-2.00]; =0.71). The beneficial effects of CTO-PCI were consistent among subgroups. Conclusions As an initial treatment strategy, CTO-PCI might reduce late cardiac death compared with OMT in patients with CTO. Extended follow-up of randomized trials may confirm the findings of the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174228PMC
March 2021

Chitin Nanofiber-Reinforced Waterborne Polyurethane Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Performance.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 30;258:117728. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Applied Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To attain eco-friendly polyurethane composites with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties, in this study, a series of cationic waterborne polyurethane (cWPU) nanocomposite films reinforced with 1-50 wt% chitin nanofiber (ChNF) loadings was fabricated by a facile aqueous dispersion casting. The microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were investigated by considering the loading content and the interfacial interaction of ChNF in the cWPU matrix. For the purpose, a hard/soft segmented cWPU with an average particle size of ∼151 nm in aqueous dispersion was synthesized by using poly(tetramethylene glycol), isophorone diisocyanate, N-methyldiethanolamine, and 1,4-butanediol. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the existence of specific hydrogen-bonding interactions between hydroxyl/acetyl amine/ammonium groups of ChNFs and urethane/protonated amine groups of cWPU hard segments. Accordingly, the thermal decomposition temperatures of cWPU/ChNF nanocomposite films increased with increasing the ChNF content. In addition, the storage moduli of cWPU/ChNF nanocomposite films increased significantly with the increment of ChNF content up to ∼7 wt%, which stems from the restricted chain mobility of cWPU backbones composed of semicrystalline soft segments and hard segments interacting with ChNFs via multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117728DOI Listing
April 2021

Transient-rare Bacterial Taxa Are Assembled Neutrally across Temporal Scales.

Microbes Environ 2021 ;36(1)

School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University.

Despite the importance of microbial communities in ecosystem functions, the mechanisms underlying the assembly of rare taxa over time are poorly understood. It remains largely unknown whether rare taxa exhibit similar assembly processes to common taxa in local communities. We herein retrieved the 16S rRNA sequences of bacteria collected bimonthly for 2 years from the Pohang wastewater treatment plant. The transient-rare taxa showed different abundance distributions from the common taxa. Transient-rare taxon assemblages also exhibited higher temporal variations than common taxon assemblages, suggesting the distinct ecological patterns of the two assemblages. A multivariate analysis revealed that environmental parameters accounted for 25.3 and 61.6% of temporal variations in the transient-rare and common taxon assemblages, respectively. The fitting of all observed taxa to a neutral community model revealed that 96.4% of the transient-rare taxa (relative abundance, 71.4%) and 73.3% of the common taxa (relative abundance, 45.6%) followed the model, suggesting that stochastic mechanisms were more important than deterministic ones in the assembly of the transient-rare taxa. Collectively, the present results indicate that the transient-rare bacterial taxa at the Pohang wastewater treatment plant differed from the common taxa in ecological patterns, suggesting that dispersal is a key process in their assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.ME20110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966942PMC
July 2021

Characterization, prebiotic and immune-enhancing activities of rhamnogalacturonan-I-rich polysaccharide fraction from molokhia leaves.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 5;175:443-450. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Research Division of Food Functionality, Korea Food Research Institute, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Plant-derived polysaccharides possess potential health benefits that improve intestinal health and the immune system. Molokhia leaves have a large amount of mucilage polysaccharide; in the present study, crude polysaccharide extract was prepared from molokhia leaves. The molecular weight of molokhia leaf polysaccharide fraction (MPF) was estimated to be 51.2 × 10 Da. Polysaccharide was methylated and the structure of MPF was mainly composed of rhamnogalacturonan-I structure with side chains, such as galactans and linear glucan (starch), as shown by GC-MS analysis. To study the biofunctional effects of MPF, its prebiotic and intestinal immune-enhancing activities were assayed in vitro. MPF exhibited good prebiotic activity, as shown by its high prebiotic scores, and increased contents of total short-chain fatty acids on five probiotic strains. In addition, MPF showed immune-enhancing activity on Peyer's patches, as revealed by the high bone marrow cell proliferating activity and production of immunoglobulin A and cytokines. These results demonstrate that MPF may be a potential beneficial prebiotic and intestinal immune-enhancer, which may have wide implications in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.019DOI Listing
April 2021

Sex difference in long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: A propensity-matched analysis of National Health Insurance data in Republic of Korea.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Medical Device Management and Research, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences & Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We investigated the gender difference in the 5-year outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using an unselected population data.

Background: Sex-specific outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not consistent among studies.

Methods: A total of 48,783 patients were enrolled from a Korean nationwide cohort of PCI in year 2011. Outcomes adjusted with age and propensity for clinical characteristics were compared. Primary outcome was 5-year cumulative incidence of all-cause death. Nonfatal major adverse clinical event (MACE) consisting of revascularization, shock, or stroke was also assessed.

Results: In unadjusted analysis, women were older and had higher frequency of comorbidities including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes compared to men (p < .001, all). Women had higher 5-year death risk than men (21.8 vs. 17.3%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.23-1.34). In propensity score-matched analysis (N = 28,924), women had lower 5-year death risk (20.2 vs. 26.1%, HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.71-0.78). This lower death risk in women was consistent in subgroup analyses of age, risk factors, and clinical diagnosis including angina or acute myocardial infarction (p < .05, all).

Conclusions: Older age and more common comorbidities in women contributed to the apparent worse outcome after PCI in women. After adjusting these disadvantages, women had better outcome after PCI than men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29511DOI Listing
February 2021
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