Publications by authors named "Sang Hoon Kim"

452 Publications

Audiologic Characteristics of Hearing and Tinnitus in Occupational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

J Int Adv Otol 2021 Jul;17(4):330-334

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: To analyze the characteristics of patients with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by comparing audiologic test findings between groups with and without tinnitus.

Methods: This study involved patients with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) who presented to the otolaryngology clinic between January 2016 and April 2019. Tests including 3 pure-tone audiometry (PTA) tests at intervals greater than 1 week, and auditory brainstem response (ABR) were evaluated and patients were screened for tinnitus. The tinnitus patients had otoacoustic emission. Comparison was done between the tinnitus group and the group without tinnitus.

Results: Of the 730 subjects with NIHL, 389 had tinnitus. PTA showed significantly higher thresholds at 2 kHz to 8 kHz in the tinnitus group. Although ABR tests tended to show more prolonged I, III, and V latency in the tinnitus group, the differences were not statistically significant. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) showed more abnormalities at 3 kHz, and 4 kHz than at 1 kHz and 2 kHz. Transient otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) showed abnormal findings in both ears.

Conclusion: In NIHL, hearing loss was more severe in patients with, than without tinnitus. DPOAE showed more abnormalities at 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz than at 1 kHz and 2 kHz, and TEOAE was abnormal at all frequencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/iao.2021.9259DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Human or Mouse IL-7 on the Homeostasis of Porcine T Lymphocytes.

Immune Netw 2021 Jun 25;21(3):e24. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Korea.

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4110/in.2021.21.e24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263216PMC
June 2021

Fates of retained hepatic segment IV and its prognostic impact in adult split liver transplantation using an extended right liver graft.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2021 Jul 30;101(1):37-48. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: When splitting a liver for adult and pediatric graft recipients, the retained left medial section (S4) will undergo ischemic necrosis and the right trisection graft becomes an extended right liver (ERL) graft. We investigated the fates of the retained S4 and its prognostic impact in adult split liver transplantation (SLT) using an ERL graft.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 25 adult SLT recipients who received split ERL grafts.

Results: The mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 27.3 ± 10.9 and graft-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) was 1.98 ± 0.44. The mean donor age was 26.5 ± 7.7 years. The split ERL graft weight was 1,181.5 ± 252.8 g, which resulted in a mean GRWR of 1.98 ± 0.44. Computed tomography of the retained S4 parenchyma revealed small ischemic necrosis in 16 patients (64.0%) and large ischemic necrosis in the remaining 9 patients (36.0%). No S4-associated biliary complications were developed. The mean GRWR was 1.87 ± 0.43 in the 9 patients with large ischemic necrosis and 2.10 ± 0.44 in the 15 cases with small ischemic necrosis (P = 0.283). The retained S4 parenchyma showed gradual atrophy on follow-up imaging studies. The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis was not associated with graft (P = 0.592) or patient (P = 0.243) survival. A MELD score of >30 and pretransplant ventilator support were associated with inferior outcomes.

Conclusion: The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis is not a prognostic factor in adult SLT recipients, probably due to a sufficiently large GRWR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2021.101.1.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255581PMC
July 2021

Novel core-shell sulfidated nano-Fe(0) particles for chromate sequestration: Promoted electron transfer and Fe(II) production.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 29;284:131379. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Nano and Information Technology, KIST School, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Sulfidated nanoscale valent iron in form of FeS/Fe (0) shell-core nanoparticle has the aptitude to be a promising remediation material toward reductive removal of metal oxyanions. However, disrupted contact between Fe (0) core and FeS shell by thick iron oxides limited its reactivity improvement, and its mechanism of electron transfer remains unveiled. In this study, a novel sulfidated nZVI core-shell particles (FeS/Fe (0)) was fabricated via a modified post sulfidation approach to achieve a more uniform coverage of FeS for aqueous Cr(VI) sequestration. SEM and STEM tests confirmed the formation of the core-shell FeS/Fe (0) structure with a more solid interaction between FeS layer and Fe (0) core. The highest Cr(VI) removal rate was offered at optimal S/Fe molar ratio of 1/25 that the most chelated Fe was also observed. The improved performance was due to that FeS shell with greater electronegativity could significantly accelerate the corrosion of Fe (0), facilitate the electron transfer form Fe (0) core to FeS shell according to the electrochemical tests. Moreover, FeS shell provided a protective layer for Fe (0) core so as to alleviate its anoxic passivation in water that FeS/Fe (0) had a better longevity for Cr(VI) removal than nFe (0). Characterizations of STEM and XPS revealed that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) and evenly coprecipitated with surface Fe(II)/Fe(III).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131379DOI Listing
June 2021

Review of Pharmacotherapy for Tinnitus.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jun 21;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Various medications are currently used in the treatment of tinnitus, including anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, calcium channel blockers, cholinergic antagonists, NMDA antagonists, muscle relaxants, vasodilators, and vitamins. To date, however, no medications have been specifically approved to treat tinnitus by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, medicines used to treat other diseases, as well as foods and other ingested materials, can result in unwanted tinnitus. These include alcohol, antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents and heavy metals, antimetabolites, antitumor agents, antibiotics, caffeine, cocaine, marijuana, nonnarcotic analgesics and antipyretics, ototoxic antibiotics and diuretics, oral contraceptives, quinine and chloroquine, and salicylates. This review, therefore, describes the medications currently used to treat tinnitus, including their mechanisms of action, therapeutic effects, dosages, and side-effects. In addition, this review describes the medications, foods, and other ingested agents that can induce unwanted tinnitus, as well as their mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235102PMC
June 2021

Objective and Measurable Biomarkers in Chronic Subjective Tinnitus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 21;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Tinnitus is associated with increased social costs and reduced quality of life through sleep disorders or psychological distress. The pathophysiology of chronic subjective tinnitus, which accounts for most tinnitus, has not been clearly elucidated. This is because chronic subjective tinnitus is difficult to evaluate objectively, and there are no objective markers that represent the diagnosis or therapeutic effect of tinnitus. Based on the results of studies on patients with chronic subjective tinnitus, objective and measurable biomarkers that help to identify the pathophysiology of tinnitus have been summarized. A total of 271 studies in PubMed, 303 in EMBASE, and 45 in Cochrane Library were found on biomarkers related to chronic subjective tinnitus published until April 2021. Duplicate articles, articles not written in English, review articles, case reports, and articles that did not match our topic were excluded. A total of 49 studies were included. Three specimens, including blood, saliva, and urine, and a total of 58 biomarkers were used as indicators for diagnosis, evaluation, prognosis, and therapeutic effectiveness of tinnitus. Biomarkers were classified into eight categories comprising metabolic, hemostatic, inflammatory, endocrine, immunological, neurologic, and oxidative parameters. Biomarkers can help in the diagnosis, measure the severity, predict prognosis, and treatment outcome of tinnitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235100PMC
June 2021

Potential Therapeutic Strategies and Substances for Facial Nerve Regeneration Based on Preclinical Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Despite advances in microsurgical technology and an improved understanding of nerve regeneration, obtaining satisfactory results after facial nerve injury remains a difficult clinical problem. Among existing peripheral nerve regeneration studies, relatively few have focused on the facial nerve, particularly how experimental studies of the facial nerve using animal models play an essential role in understanding functional outcomes and how such studies can lead to improved axon regeneration after nerve injury. The purpose of this article is to review current perspectives on strategies for applying potential therapeutic methods for facial nerve regeneration. To this end, we searched Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane library using keywords, and after applying exclusion criteria, obtained a total of 31 qualifying experimental studies. We then summarize the fundamental experimental studies on facial nerve regeneration, highlighting recent bioengineering studies employing various strategies for supporting facial nerve regeneration, including nerve conduits with stem cells, neurotrophic factors, and/or other therapeutics. Our summary of the methods and results of these previous reports reveal a common feature among studies, showing that various neurotrophic factors arising from injured nerves contribute to a microenvironment that plays an important role in functional recovery. In most cases, histological examinations showed that this microenvironmental influence increased axonal diameter as well as myelination thickness. Such an analysis of available research on facial nerve injury and regeneration represents the first step toward future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124575PMC
May 2021

Differential Gene Expression Associated with Altered Isoflavone and Fatty Acid Contents in Soybean Mutant Diversity Pool.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 56212, Korea.

Soybean seeds are consumed worldwide owing to their nutritional value and health benefits. In this study we investigated the metabolic properties of 208 soybean mutant diversity pool (MDP) lines by measuring the isoflavone and fatty acid contents of the seed. The total isoflavone content (TIC) ranged from 0.88 mg/g to 7.12 mg/g and averaged 3.08 mg/g. The proportion of oleic acid among total fatty acids (TFA) ranged from 0.38% to 24.66% and averaged 11.02%. Based on the TIC and TFA among the 208 MDP lines, we selected six lines with altered isoflavone content and six lines with altered oleic acid content compared with those of the corresponding wild-types for measuring gene expression. Each of twelve genes from the isoflavone and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were analyzed at three different seed developmental stages. Isoflavone biosynthetic genes, including , , and , showed differences in stages and expression patterns among individuals and wild-types, whereas showed consistently higher expression levels in three mutants with increased isoflavone content at stage 1. Expression patterns of the 12 fatty acid biosynthetic genes were classifiable into two groups that reflected the developmental stages of the seeds. The results will be useful for functional analysis of the regulatory genes involved in the isoflavone and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10061037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224098PMC
May 2021

Third retransplantation using a whole liver graft for late graft failure from hepatic vein stent stenosis in a pediatric patient who underwent split liver retransplantation.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 May;25(2):299-306

Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

We present a case of third retransplantation using a whole liver graft in a 13-year-old girl who suffered graft failure and hepatopulmonary syndrome following split liver retransplantation with endovascular stenting of the hepatic and portal veins as an infant. She was diagnosed with biliary atresia-polysplenia syndrome, and thus underwent living donor liver transplantation from her mother at 9 months of age. The first liver graft failed due to stenosis of the portal vein. She underwent the second liver transplantation with a split left lateral section graft. Endovascular stenting was performed to the portal vein stenosis 2 months and hepatic vein stenosis 9 months after transplantation. During the next 9 years, 11 sessions of balloon angioplasty for hepatic vein stent stenosis were performed. Ten years after the second transplantation, she underwent third transplantation using a whole liver graft recovered from a 12-year-old-girl. The double inferior vena cava technique was used for outflow vein reconstruction. The graft portal vein was anastomosed with the stent-containing portal vein stump because it was not possible to remove the stent and the inner diameter of the portal vein stent was large enough. An aorto-hepatic jump graft was used for arterial reconstruction. The patient recovered slowly and is doing well for 6 months posttransplant. In conclusion, because stenting of the hepatic vein or portal vein can induce graft failure leading to late retransplantation, we emphasize secure vascular reconstruction to prevent endovascular stenting during LT in infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.2.299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180402PMC
May 2021

Treadmill Running Improves Spatial Learning Memory Through Inactivation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway in Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer Disease Rats.

Int Neurourol J 2021 May 31;25(Suppl 1):S35-43. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Physical Education, Kunsan National University, Gunsan, Korea.

Purpose: Exercise is known to reduce proinflammatory cytokines production and apoptosis. We investigated the effect of treadmill running on spatial learning memory in terms of activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in Alzheimer disease (AD) rats. We also evaluated the effect of treadmill running on proinflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis.

Methods: Using the stereotaxic frame, amyloid-β (Aβ) was injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain. The rats belong to treadmill running groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes per a day during 4 weeks, starting 3 days after Aβ injection. Morris water maze task was done for the determination of spatial learning memory. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3, and western blot for NF-κB, inhibitory protein of NF-κB (IκB), MAPK signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β were done.

Results: Induction of AD increased proinflammatory cytokine secretion by activating the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. These changes induced apoptosis in the hippocampus and reduced spatial learning memory. In contrast, treadmill running inactivated the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production. These changes inhibited apoptosis and improved spatial learning memory.

Conclusion: Current results showed that treadmill running promoted spatial learning memory through suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis via inactivation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. Treadmill exercise can be considered an effective intervention for symptom relieve of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5213/inj.2142164.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171239PMC
May 2021

The role of microbiome in colorectal carcinogenesis and its clinical potential as a target for cancer treatment.

Intest Res 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.

The role of gut microbiome-intestinal immune complex in the development of colorectal cancer and its progression is well recognized. Accordingly, certain microbial strains tend to colonize or vanish in patients with colorectal cancer. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are expected to exhibit both anti-tumor effects and chemopreventive effects during cancer treatment through mechanisms such as xenometabolism, immune interactions, and altered eco-community. Microbial modulation can also be safely used to prevent complications during peri-operational periods of colorectal surgery. A deeper understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota as a target for colorectal cancer treatment will lead the way to a better prognosis for colorectal cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5217/ir.2021.00034DOI Listing
May 2021

Resistance exercise improves short-term memory through inactivation of NF-κB pathway in mice with Parkinson disease.

J Exerc Rehabil 2021 Apr 27;17(2):81-87. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Sport & Health Sciences, College of Art & Culture, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea.

Dysfunctions of Parkinson disease (PD) are classified into motor dysfunction, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and nonmotor dysfunction, and clinical symptoms such as muscle stiffness, tremors, speech disorders, balance disorders, and slow movements appear. Resistance exercise is a main compartment of exercise programs for PD patient. The effect of resistant exercise on short-term memory in PD mice was studied in relation to the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. PD was induced by subcutaneous injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. For resistance exercise, mice performed ladder climbing 5 days per week for 5 weeks. Step-down avoidance test for short-term memory, enzyme-linked immunoassay for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, Western bot for NF-κB, NF-κB inhibitor (IκB)-α, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), and Bcl-2, and immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3 were done. Latency time was shortened, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β concentration was increased, NF-κB expression and IκB-α phosphorylation were increased, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax expression was enhanced, and Bcl-2 expression was suppressed by PD induction. Latency time was lengthened, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β concentration was decreased, NF-κB expression and IκB-α phosphorylation were suppressed, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax expression was decreased, and Bcl-2 expression was increased in PD mice by resistance exercise or levodopa treatment. Resistance exercise improved short-term memory by inhibiting secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis through inactivation of NF-κB. These effects of resistance exercise were similar to levodopa treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.2142188.094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103184PMC
April 2021

Complete genome sequence of SK156, a candidate vehicle for mucosal vaccine delivery.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Nov 30;62(6):956-958. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Resources Science, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

SK156 was isolated from traditional Korean food. The genome of SK156 strain consists of a circular chromosome (3,231,383 bp) with guanine (G) + cytosine (C) content of 44.56%. Among the predicted 2,991 protein-coding genes, the genome included genes encoding for α-amylase, which hydrolyzes α-bonds of polysaccharides. Genomic sequencing of SK156 will give information on the mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides and its application for improving feed efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.6.956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721571PMC
November 2020

Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial for Stepping Down Asthma Controller Treatment in Patients Controlled with Low-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid and Long-Acting β-Agonist: Step-Down of Intervention and Grade in Moderate Asthma Study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Current asthma guidelines recommend stepping down controller treatment when the condition is well-controlled for a certain time. However, the optimal step-down strategy for well-controlled patients receiving a low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with a long-acting β-agonist (LABA) remains unclear.

Objective: This study was a randomized, open-label, three-arm, parallel pragmatic trial comparing two kinds of step-down approaches for maintaining treatment.

Methods: Adults with asthma who were aged 18 years or older, and who had been stable with low-dose ICS/LABA for at least 3 months, were enrolled. Subjects (n = 225) were randomly allocated into one of three groups (maintaining low-dose ICS/LABA [G1], discontinuing LABA [G2], and reducing ICS/LABA to once daily [G3]), and were observed for 6 months. The primary end point was a change in Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores between randomization and the final 6-month follow-up.

Results: The change in ACT was analyzed in the per-protocol population; noninferiority was not demonstrated in either step-down group compared with the maintenance group (95% confidence interval of the difference, G2 vs G1 = -1.40-0.55; G3 vs G1 = -1.19-0.77). Although over 90% of patients were fine, higher rates of treatment failure were observed in step-down groups (G1: 0%; G2: 9.46%; and G3: 9.09%; P = .027). There were no significant differences between step-down approaches in terms of ACT change or treatment failure.

Conclusions: Both step-down methods were not noninferior to maintenance of treatment. Step-down therapy can be attempted when patients are stable, but appropriate monitoring and supervision are necessary with precautions regarding loss of disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.04.042DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of Chronic Tinnitus in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss and Presbycusis.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 19;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The most frequent causes of tinnitus associated with hearing loss are noise-induced hearing loss and presbycusis. The mechanism of tinnitus is not yet clear, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Therefore, we aimed to analyze characteristics of chronic tinnitus between noise-induced hearing loss and presbycusis. This paper is a retrospective chart review and outpatient clinic-based study of 248 patients with chronic tinnitus from 2015 to 2020 with noise-induced or presbycusis. Pure tone audiometry (PTA), auditory brainstem response (ABR), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), and tinnitograms were conducted. PTA showed that hearing thresholds at all frequencies were higher in patients with noise-induced hearing loss than the presbycusis group. ABR tests showed that patients with presbycusis had longer wave I and III latencies ( < 0.05 each) than patients with noise-induced hearing loss. TEOAE tests showed lower values in patients with noise-induced hearing loss than presbycusis at 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz ( < 0.05 each). DPOAE tests showed that response rates in both ears at 1.5, 2, and 3 kHz were significantly higher in patients with presbycusis than noise-induced hearing loss ( < 0.05 each). This study showed that hearing thresholds were higher, the loudness of tinnitus was smaller, and the degree of damage to outer hair cells was lower in patients with presbycusis than with noise-induced hearing loss. Moreover, wave I and III latencies were more prolonged in patients with presbycusis despite their having lower hearing thresholds. These phenomena may reflect the effects of aging or degeneration of the central nervous system with age. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiologies of tinnitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074034PMC
April 2021

Effective degradation of sulfur mustard simulant using novel sulfur-doped mesoporous zinc oxide under ambient conditions.

J Hazard Mater 2021 06 14;411:125144. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Nano and Information Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Sulfur doped metal oxides were synthesized using a two-step precipitation method. When reacted against neat 2-CEES (2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas simulant) under ambient conditions, sulfur doped mesoporous zinc oxide (MS-Zn) showed higher catalytic activity than the other metal oxides with 92.7% overall conversion in 24 h for a 2.5 μL neat 2-CEES droplet added on top of 2 × 2 cm large 400 mg catalyst layer. The reaction proceeded mainly by hydrolysis and further solvolysis reaction also occurred depending on the extracting solvents. Cyclic sulfonium ion intermediate reaction was thought to be involved in this reaction, and metal oxide surfaces were thought to facilitate the formation of sulfonium ions from adsorbed 2-CEES. All other by-products were also found to form via sulfonium ions, reconfirming the well-known importance of this intermediate species for the degradation reaction to proceed. The sulfur content for MS-Zn was varied and tested for degradation of neat 2-CEES. This modification showed that there is an optimal amount of sulfur content for the peak catalytic activity of MS-Zn for 2-CEES degradation. Adsorption energy of a 2-CEES molecule was calculated on model sulfur doped and non doped zinc oxide surfaces and the different adsorption energy levels were correlated with the catalytic activity of sulfur doped zinc oxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125144DOI Listing
June 2021

NADP-Dependent Dehydrogenase SCO3486 and Cycloisomerase SCO3480: Key Enzymes for 3,6-Anhydro-L-Galactose Catabolism in A3(2).

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May;31(5):756-763

Department of Biosciences and Bioinformatics, Myongji University, Yongin 17058, Republic of Korea.

Agarose is a linear polysaccharide composed of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AHG). It is a major component of the red algal cell wall and is gaining attention as an abundant marine biomass. However, the inability to ferment AHG is considered an obstacle in the large-scale use of agarose and could be addressed by understanding AHG catabolism in agarolytic microorganisms. Since AHG catabolism was uniquely confirmed in sp. EJY3, a gram-negative marine bacterial species, we investigated AHG metabolism in A3(2), an agarolytic gram-positive soil bacterium. Based on genomic data, the SCO3486 protein (492 amino acids) and the SCO3480 protein (361 amino acids) of A3(2) showed identity with H2IFE7.1 (40% identity) encoding AHG dehydrogenase and H2IFX0.1 (42% identity) encoding 3,6-anhydro-L-galactonate cycloisomerase, respectively, which are involved in the initial catabolism of AHG in sp. EJY3. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry of the bioconversion products catalyzed by recombinant SCO3486 and SCO3480 proteins, revealed that SCO3486 is an AHG dehydrogenase that oxidizes AHG to 3,6-anhydro-L-galactonate, and SCO3480 is a 3,6-anhydro-L-galactonate cycloisomerase that converts 3,6-anhydro-L-galactonate to 2-keto-3-deoxygalactonate. SCO3486 showed maximum activity at pH 6.0 at 50°C, increased activity in the presence of iron ions, and activity against various aldehyde substrates, which is quite distinct from AHG-specific H2IFE7.1 in sp. EJY3. Therefore, the catabolic pathway of AHG seems to be similar in most agar-degrading microorganisms, but the enzymes involved appear to be very diverse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2103.03030DOI Listing
May 2021

A Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Cowpeas in Response to Two Different Ionizing Radiations.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Applied Plant Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

In this study, gene expression changes in cowpea plants irradiated by two different types of radiation: proton-beams and gamma-rays were investigated. Seeds of the Okdang cultivar were exposed to 100, 200, and 300 Gy of gamma-rays and proton-beams. In transcriptome analysis, the 32, 75, and 69 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at each dose of gamma-ray irradiation compared with that of the control were identified. A total of eight genes were commonly up-regulated for all gamma-ray doses. However, there were no down-regulated genes. In contrast, 168, 434, and 387 DEGs were identified for each dose of proton-beam irradiation compared with that of the control. A total of 61 DEGs were commonly up-regulated for all proton-beam doses. As a result of GO and KEGG analysis, the ranks of functional categories according to the number of DEGs were not the same in both treatments and were more diverse in terms of pathways in the proton-beam treatments than gamma-ray treatments. The number of genes related to defense, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), plant hormones, and transcription factors (TF) that were up-/down-regulated was higher in the proton beam treatment than that in gamma ray treatment. Proton-beam treatment had a distinct mutation spectrum and gene expression pattern compared to that of gamma-ray treatment. These results provide important information on the mechanism for gene regulation in response to two ionizing radiations in cowpeas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002818PMC
March 2021

Immunoglobulins and Transcription Factors in Otitis Media.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 21;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The causes of otitis media (OM) involve bacterial and viral infection, anatomo-physiological abnormalities of the Eustachian canal and nasopharynx, allergic rhinitis, group childcare centers, second-hand smoking, obesity, immaturity and defects of the immune system, formula feeding, sex, race, and age. OM is accompanied by complex and diverse interactions among bacteria, viruses, inflammatory cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells. The present study summarizes the antibodies that contribute to immune reactions in all types of otitis media, including acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as well as the transcription factors that induce the production of these antibodies. The types and distribution of B cells; the functions of B cells, especially in otorhinolaryngology; antibody formation in patients with otitis media; and antibodies and related transcription factors are described. B cells have important functions in host defenses, including antigen recognition, antigen presentation, antibody production, and immunomodulation. The phenotypes of B cells in the ear, nose, and throat, especially in patients with otitis media, were shown to be CD5, CD23, CD43, B220, sIgM, sIgD, Mac-1, CD80(B7.1), CD86(B7.2), and Syndecam-1. Of the five major classes of immunoglobulins produced by B cells, three (IgG, IgA, and IgM) are mainly involved in otitis media. Serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM are lower in patients with OM with effusion (OME) than in subjects without otitis media. Moreover, IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations in the middle ear cavity are increased during immune responses in patients with otitis media. B cell leukemia/lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) and paired box gene 5 (Pax-5) suppress antibody production, whereas B lymphocyte inducer of maturation program 1 (Blimp-1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) promote antibody production during immune responses in patients with otitis media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004237PMC
March 2021

Surveillance of the infection prevention and control practices of healthcare workers by an infection control surveillance-working group and a team of infection control coordinators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 30;14(4):454-460. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Infection Control Department, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 1021, Tongil-ro, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul, 03312, Republic of Korea; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 1021, Tongil-ro, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul, 03312, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: During the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, hospitals have strengthened their guidelines on infection prevention and control (IPC), and a rigorous adherence to these guidelines is crucial. An infection control surveillance-working group (ICS-WG) and infection control coordinators (ICCs) team were created to monitor the IPC practices of the healthcare workers (HCWs) in a regional hospital in Korea. This study analyzed the surveillance results and aimed to identify what IPC practices needed improvement.

Methods: During phase 1 (March to April 2020), the ICS-WG performed random audits, recorded incidences of improper IPC practices, and provided advice to the violators. During phase 2 (April to July), the ICCs inspected the hospital units and proposed practical ideas about IPC. The surveillance and proposals targeted the following practices: patient screening, usage of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand and respiratory hygiene, equipment reprocessing, environmental cleaning, management of medical waste, and social distancing.

Results: In phase 1, of the 127 violations observed, most (32.3%) corresponded to hand and respiratory hygiene. In phase 2, the highest proportion of violation per category was observed in the management of medical waste (37.8%); among these, a higher proportion of violation (71.4%) was observed in the collection of medical waste. Of the 106 proposals made by the ICCs, the most addressed practice was patient screening (28.3%). No case of nosocomial infection was reported during the study period.

Conclusion: Adherence to proper hand and respiratory hygiene was inadequate at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that more attention and further training are needed for the management of medical waste, particularly medical waste collection, and that continuous upgrading of the strategies for patient screening is essential. These results will be useful in helping other healthcare facilities to establish their IPC strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847193PMC
April 2021

Adenosine A2A receptor agonist polydeoxyribonucleotide ameliorates short-term memory impairment by suppressing cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation via MAPK pathway.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(3):e0248689. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kyung Hee Medical Center, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Cerebral ischemia causes tissue death owing to occlusion of the cerebral blood vessels, and cerebral ischemia activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), suppresses the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and exhibits anti-inflammatory effect. In the current study, the therapeutic effect of PDRN on cerebral ischemia was evaluated using gerbils. For the induction of cerebral ischemia, the common carotid arteries were exposed, and then aneurysm clips were used to occlude the common carotid arteries bilaterally for 7 minutes. In the PDRN-treated groups, the gerbils were injected intraperitoneally with 0.3 mL of saline containing 8 mg/kg PDRN, per a day for 7 days following cerebral ischemia induction. In order to confirm the participation of the adenosine A2A receptor in the effects mediated by PDRN, 8 mg/kg 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, was treated with PDRN. In the current study, induction of ischemia enhanced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased phosphorylation of MAPK signaling factors in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. However, treatment with PDRN ameliorated short-term memory impairment by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inactivation of MAPK signaling factors in cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, PDRN treatment enhanced the concentration of cyclic adenosine-3,5'-monophosphate (cAMP) as well as phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Co-treatment of DMPX and PDRN attenuated the therapeutic effect of PDRN on cerebral ischemia. Based on these findings, PDRN may be developed as the primary treatment in cerebral ischemia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248689PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971468PMC
March 2021

Nanoporous Gold for Energy Applications.

Authors:
Sang Hoon Kim

Chem Rec 2021 May 18;21(5):1199-1215. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Korea, Division of Nano & Information Technology at KIST School, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Korea.

Research activities using nanoporous gold (NPG) were reviewed in the field of energy applications in three categories: fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. First, applications to fuel cells are reviewed with the subsections of proof-of-concept studies, studies on fuel oxidations at anode, and studies on oxygen reduction reactions at cathode. Second, applications to supercapacitors are reviewed from research activities on active materials/NPG composites to demonstrations of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors using NPG electrodes. Third, research activities using NPG for battery applications are reviewed, mainly about fundamental studies on Li-air and Na-air batteries and some model studies on improving Li ion battery anodes. Although NPG based studies are the main subject of this review, some of meaningful studies using nanoporous metals are also discussed where relevant. Finally, summary and future outlook are given based on the survey on the research activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202100015DOI Listing
May 2021

Specialist Perception of Severe Asthma in Korea: A Questionnaire Survey.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2021 May;13(3):507-514

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

The Working Group on Severe Asthma of the Korean Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology recently published an expert opinion paper on the management of severe asthma in Korea. When developing a consensus, the working group encountered several diagnostic and treatment issues and decided to perform a questionnaire survey of Korean specialists with regard to severe asthma. An e-mail with a uniform resource locator link to the questionnaire was sent to 121 asthma specialists, of whom 44.6% responded. The most commonly accepted definitions of severe asthma were a history of fatal exacerbation or an asthma-triggered need for mechanical ventilation, 3-4 oral corticosteroid (OCS) bursts/year, and maintenance of OCS therapy for 3-6 months per year. Before diagnosing severe asthma, most physicians contemplate chest computed tomography, seek to control chronic rhinosinusitis, and consider poor inhaler compliance. For patients with uncontrolled severe asthma accompanied by type 2 (T2)-high inflammation, most biologics available in Korea were considered appropriate, but gaps were apparent in terms of T2-low asthma treatments. These findings about specialist perception of diagnosis and treatment of severe asthma will inform the use of emerging new drugs and facilitate personalized therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2021.13.3.507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984944PMC
May 2021

The paradoxical response to short-acting bronchodilator administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):511-520

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Kwangju, South Korea.

Background: There are a few studies about paradoxical bronchodilator response (BDR), which means a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) or forced vital capacity (FVC) after short-acting bronchodilator administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the effect of paradoxical BDR on the clinical outcomes of COPD patients in South Korea.

Methods: We analyzed the KOrea COpd Subgroup Study team (KOCOSS) cohort data in South Korea between January 2012 and December 2017. BDR was defined as at least a 12% and 200-mL reduction in FEV or FVC after bronchodilator administration.

Results: A total of 1,991 patients were included in this study. A paradoxical BDR was noted in 57 (2.9%) patients and was independently associated with worse dyspnea and poor quality of life. High C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were associated with a paradoxical BDR (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P=0.003). However, paradoxical BDR was not associated with severe acute exacerbations. Pre-bronchodilator FEV (L) showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for predicting severe acute exacerbations than the post-bronchodilator FEV (L) in the paradoxical BDR group (0.788 0.752).

Conclusion: A paradoxical reduction of FEV or FVC after bronchodilator administration may be associated with chronic inflammation in the airway and independently associated with worse respiratory symptoms and poor quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947541PMC
February 2021

Effects of Acute and Chronic Gamma Irradiation on the Cell Biology and Physiology of Rice Plants.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 56212, Korea.

The response to gamma irradiation varies among plant species and is affected by the total irradiation dose and dose rate. In this study, we examined the immediate and ensuing responses to acute and chronic gamma irradiation in rice ( L.). Rice plants at the tillering stage were exposed to gamma rays for 8 h (acute irradiation) or 10 days (chronic irradiation), with a total irradiation dose of 100, 200, or 300 Gy. Plants exposed to gamma irradiation were then analyzed for DNA damage, oxidative stress indicators including free radical content and lipid peroxidation, radical scavenging, and antioxidant activity. The results showed that all stress indices increased immediately after exposure to both acute and chronic irradiation in a dose-dependent manner, and acute irradiation had a greater effect on plants than chronic irradiation. The photosynthetic efficiency and growth of plants measured at 10, 20, and 30 days post-irradiation decreased in irradiated plants, i.e., these two parameters were more severely affected by acute irradiation than by chronic irradiation. In contrast, acutely irradiated plants produced seeds with dramatically decreased fertility rate, and chronically irradiated plants failed to produce fertile seeds, i.e., reproduction was more severely affected by chronic irradiation than by acute irradiation. Overall, our findings suggest that acute gamma irradiation causes instantaneous and greater damage to plant physiology, whereas chronic gamma irradiation causes long-term damage, leading to reproductive failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996542PMC
February 2021

Short and long term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of ischemic heart disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 3;11(1):5108. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea.

Previous studies have suggested an increased risk of ischemic heart disease related to air pollution. This study aimed to explore both the short-term and long-term effects of air pollutants on the risk of ischemic heart disease after adjusting for meteorological factors. The Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort from 2002 to 2013 was used. Overall, 2155 participants with ischemic heart disease and 8620 control participants were analyzed. The meteorological data and air pollution data, including SO (ppm), NO (ppm), O (ppm), CO (ppm), and particulate matter (PM) (μg/m), were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. One-month exposure to SO was related to 1.36-fold higher odds for ischemic heart disease (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-1.75). One-year exposure to SO, O, and PM was associated with 1.58- (95% CI 1.01-2.47), 1.53- (95% CI 1.27-1.84), and 1.14 (95% CI 1.02-1.26)-fold higher odds for ischemic heart disease. In subgroup analyses, the ≥ 60-year-old group, men, individuals with low income, and urban groups demonstrated higher odds associated with 1-month exposure to SO. Short-term exposure to SO and long-term exposure to SO O, and PM were related to ischemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84587-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930275PMC
March 2021

Patency of Hemashield grafts versus ringed Gore-Tex grafts in middle hepatic vein reconstruction for living donor liver transplantation.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Feb;25(1):46-53

Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Backgrounds/aims: Owing to the short supply of homologous vein allografts, we previously used ringed Gore-Tex vascular grafts for middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation. When ringed Gore-Tex grafts became unavailable, we used Hemashield vascular grafts. This study aimed to compare the patency and complication rates of Hemashield and ringed Gore-Tex grafts.

Methods: This retrospective two-arm study compared the study group that received Hemashield grafts (n=157) and the propensity score-matched control group that received ringed Gore-Tex grafts (n=157).

Results: In the Hemashield and Gore-Tex groups, the recipient age was 54.7±9.4 and 53.3±6.3 years; Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores were 15.9±9.2 and 16.9±8.3; and graft-recipient weight ratios were 1.07±0.24 and 1.10±0.23, respectively. In the Hemashield group, V5 reconstruction was performed using single (n=113, 72.0%), double (n=39, 24.8%), and triple (n=3, 1.9%) anastomoses. The proportion of double and triple anastomoses for V5 and V8 was higher in the Hemashield group than in the Gore-Tex group. Two (1.3%) patients required MHV conduit stenting owing to early thrombosis of the Hemashield graft. There was no difference in conduit occlusion- free patient survival rates between groups (=0.91). The incidence of accidental conduit migration in the Hemashield and Gore-Tex groups was 0 (0%) and 2 (1.3%), respectively.

Conclusions: Hemashield grafts used in MHV reconstruction demonstrated acceptably high short- and mid-term patency rates, no incidences of conduit migration, easy handling, and good flexibility for length adjustment. Therefore, we suggest that the Hemashield graft is the preferentially suitable prosthetic material for MHV reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.1.46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952673PMC
February 2021

The risk factors for prolonged hemostatic clip retention after endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasm.

Surg Endosc 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Dongguk-ro 27 Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, 10326, Republic of Korea.

Background: Endoscopic hemostatic clipping is a safe and efficient treatment used to manage bleeding or perforation during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric neoplasm. However, the natural history of applied hemoclips during ESD has not been elucidated. As prolonged clip retention limits the use of magnetic resonance imaging and may impede the ulcer healing process, we investigated the factors associated with prolonged hemoclip retention during gastric ESD.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 199 patients who underwent gastric ESD with hemoclip application from January 2006 to January 2019. The primary outcome was the prolonged hemoclip retention rate 3 months after ESD. We examined the records of subjects followed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annually after ESD to monitor clip retention.

Results: The prolonged hemoclip retention rate at 3 months was 27.1% (54/199). The risk of hemoclip retention was significantly lower at the antrum (19.6%, P = 0.03). Hemoclips at the angle tended to remain longer than other locations in the stomach (40.6%, P = 0.081) while there was no difference in the number of applied clips depending upon the location of the lesion. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, clips at the antrum detached significantly earlier than those at other locations (P = 0.011).

Conclusions: Most of the hemostatic clips attached during ESD were spontaneously removed by 3 months after gastric ESD. However, clips positioned at angle are suspected to have a high probability of prolonged retention. With this in mind, more attention is needed when using hemoclips on angle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08379-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Adenosine A Receptor Agonist Polydeoxyribonucleotide Alleviates Interstitial Cystitis-Induced Voiding Dysfunction by Suppressing Inflammation and Apoptosis in Rats.

J Inflamm Res 2021 15;14:367-378. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Urology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, 26426, Republic of Korea.

Background: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic disorder that indicates bladder-related pain or discomfort. Patients with IC often experience urination problems, such as urinary frequency and urgency, along with pain or discomfort in the bladder area. Therefore, new treatments based on IC etiology are needed. Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) is a biologic agonist of the adenosine A receptor, and PDRN has anti-inflammatory effect and inhibits apoptosis. In the current study, the effect of PDRN on cyclophosphamide-induced IC animal model was investigated using rats.

Methodology: To induce the IC animal model, 75 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide was injected intraperitoneally once every 3 days for 10 days. The rats in the PDRN-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mL physiological saline containing 8 mg/kg PDRN, once a day for 10 days after IC induction.

Results: Induction of IC by cyclophosphamide injection caused voiding dysfunction, bladder edema, and histological damage. Cyclophosphamide injection increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PDRN treatment alleviated voiding dysfunction, bladder edema, and histological damage. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expressions of apoptotic factors were suppressed by PDRN treatment. These changes indicate that treatment with PDRN improves voiding function by ultimately promoting the repair of damaged bladder tissue.

Conclusion: The conclusion of this experiment suggests the possibility that PDRN could be used as an effective therapeutic agent for IC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S287346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894910PMC
February 2021

Decomposition of the Simulant 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide Blister Agent under Ambient Conditions Using Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 18;13(3):3782-3792. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Chemistry and Nuclear & WMD Protection Research Center, Korea Military Academy, Seoul 01805, Republic of Korea.

Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been suggested as promising materials for application in the degradation of chemical warfare agents, with the majority of studies to date focusing on nerve agents. One of the most prominent MOFs used in the detoxification of nerve agents is UiO-66, which is of interest as a future nerve agent decontaminant. However, blister agents, which constitute one of the most toxic and highly reactive categories of chemical agents, are yet to be examined as gas-phase decontamination targets using MOF structures. In this study, a novel type of UiO-66 with a smaller particle size, namely, UiO-66S, was used as a decontaminant for the blister agent simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES). The gas-phase chemical adsorption and decomposition of 2-CEES were demonstrated for the first time, with an estimated of 1.34 h. This value is the highest reported value for an MOF in gas-phase reaction conditions. The obtained nontoxic degradation products were identified, and the reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, the synthesized UiO-66S catalyst also exhibits superior catalytic ability toward nerve agent simulants (diisopropyl fluorophosphate).The results of the study provide a firm basis for the use of UiO-66S as a future decontaminant for both nerve and blister agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17022DOI Listing
January 2021
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