Publications by authors named "Sang Bok Lee"

152 Publications

Evaluation of Lidocaine and Metabolite Pharmacokinetics in Hyaluronic Acid Injection.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Feb 2;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

College of Pharmacy, CHA University, 335 Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488, Korea.

Lidocaine-incorporated hyaluronic acid injection (LHA) is considered a promising way to increase patient compliance. Various reviews and analyses have been conducted to verify that the addition of lidocaine had no effect on the product quality of hyaluronic acid injections. However, possible pharmacokinetic (PK) alterations of lidocaine and its active metabolites, monoethylglycylxylidide (MEGX) and glycylxylidide (GX), in hyaluronic acid injection have not been studied so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate lidocaine and its metabolite PK after 0.3% lidocaine solution or LHA injection and to investigate any changes in PK profiles of lidocaine and its active metabolites. To do this, a novel bio-analytical method for simultaneous determination of lidocaine, MEGX, and GX in rat plasma was developed and validated. Then, plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its active metabolites MEGX and GX following subcutaneous (SC) injection of 0.3% lidocaine solution or LHA with 0.3-1% lidocaine in male Sprague-Dawley rats were successfully determined. The obtained data were used to develop a parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic (PK) model for LHA injection. The half-life, dose-normalized C, and AUC of lidocaine after SC injection of lidocaine solution and LHA did not show statistically significant difference. The PK characteristics of lidocaine after LHA administration were best captured using a two-compartment model with combined first-order and transit absorption and its clearance described with Michaelis-Menten and first-order elimination kinetics. Two one-compartment models were consecutively added to the parent model for the metabolites. In conclusion, the incorporation of lidocaine in hyaluronic acid filler injection did not alter the chemical's pharmacokinetic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13020203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913210PMC
February 2021

Mechanical Properties and Epoxy Resin Infiltration Behavior of Carbon-Nanotube-Fiber-Based Single-Fiber Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 29;14(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Composites Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508, Korea.

Carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF), prepared by the direct-spinning method, has several nanopores, and the infiltration behavior of resins into these nanopores could influence the mechanical properties of CNTF-based composites. In this work, we investigated the infiltration behavior of resin into the nanopores of the CNTFs and mechanical properties of the CNTF-based single-fiber composites using six epoxy resins with varying viscosities. Epoxy resins can be easily infiltrated into the nanopores of the CNTF; however, pores appear when a resin with significantly high or low viscosity is used in the preparation process of the composites. All the composite fibers exhibit lower load-at-break value compared to as-densified CNTF, which is an unexpected phenomenon. It is speculated that the bundle structure of the CNTF can undergo changes due to the high affinity between the epoxy and CNTF. As composite fibers containing pores exhibit an even lower load-at-break value, the removal of pores by the defoaming process is essential to enhance the mechanical properties of the composite fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14010106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796271PMC
December 2020

Sensitivity Improvement of Stretchable Strain Sensors by the Internal and External Structural Designs for Strain Redistribution.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 2;12(45):50803-50811. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States.

Fiber strain sensors that are directly woven into smart textiles play an important role in wearable systems. These sensors require a high sensitivity to detect the subtle strain in practical applications. However, traditional fiber strain sensors with constant diameters undergo homogeneous strain distribution in the axial direction, thereby limiting the sensitivity improvement. Herein, a novel strategy of internal or external structural design is proposed to significantly improve the sensitivity of fiber strain sensors. The fibers are produced with directional increases in diameter (internal design) or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microbeads attached to surfaces (external design) by combining hollow glass tubes used as templates with PDMS drops. The structural modification of the fiber significantly impacts the sensing performance. After optimizing structural parameters, the highest gauge factor reaches 123.1 in the internal-external structure design at 25% strain. A comprehensive analysis reveals that the desirable scheme is the internal structural design, which features a high sensitivity of 110 with a 100% improvement at ∼5-20% strain. Because of the sufficiently robust interface, even at the 800th cycle, fiber sensors still possessed an excellent stable performance. The morphology evolution mechanism indicates that the resistance increase is closely related with the increased peak width and distance, and the appearance of gaps. Based on the finite element modeling simulation, the quantified effective contributions of different strategies positively correlate with the improved sensitivity. The proposed fiber strain sensors, which are woven into the two-dimensional network structure, exhibit an excellent capability for displacement monitoring and facilitate the traffic control of crossroads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c13427DOI Listing
November 2020

EMI Shielding of the Hydrophobic, Flexible, Lightweight Carbonless Nano-Plate Composites.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Oct 21;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Composite Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508, Korea.

The cost-effective spray coated composite was successfully synthesis and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The one step synthetic strategy was used for the synthesis of nanoplates that have a crystalline nature. The composites are amorphous and hydrophobic with micron thickness (<400 m). The maximum contact angle showed by composite is 132.65° and have wetting energy of -49.32 mN m, spreading coefficient -122.12 mN m, and work of adhesion 23.48 mN m. The minimum thickness of synthesized nanoplate is 3 nm while the maximum sheet resistance, resistivity, and electrical conductivity of the composites are 11.890 ohm sq, 0.4399 Ω.cm, and 8.967 S.cm, respectively. The cobalt nanoplate coated non-woven carbon fabric (CoFC) possesses excellent sheet resistance, hydrophobic nature, and EMI shielding efficiency of 99.99964%. The composite can block above 99.9913% of incident radiation (X band). Hence, the composite can be utilized in application areas such as medical clothes, mobile phones, automobiles, aerospace, and military equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10102086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589401PMC
October 2020

Fabrication of TiB-Al1050 Composites with Improved Microstructural and Mechanical Properties by a Liquid Pressing Infiltration Process.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 30;13(7). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Composites Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508, Korea.

This study was conducted on titanium diboride (TiB) reinforced Al metal matrix composites (MMCs) with improved properties using a TiB and aluminum (Al) 1050 alloy. Al composites reinforced with fine TiB at volume ratios of more than 60% were successfully fabricated via the liquid pressing infiltration (LPI) process, which can be used to apply gas pressure at a high temperature. The microstructure of the TiB-Al composite fabricated at 1000 °C with pressurization of 10 bar for 1 h showed that molten Al effectively infiltrated into the high volume-fraction TiB preform due to the improved wettability and external gas pressurization. In addition, the interface of TiB and Al not only had no cracks or pores but also had no brittle intermetallic compounds. In conclusion, TiB-Al composite, which has a sound microstructure without defects, has improved mechanical properties, such as hardness and strength, due to effective load transfer from the Al matrix to the fine TiB reinforcement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13071588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177706PMC
March 2020

Mg ion-catalyzed polymerization of 1,3-dioxolane in battery electrolytes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Apr;56(33):4583-4586

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Electrolyte salts with Mg2+ and Al3+ Lewis acidic cations demonstrate polymerization of 1,3-dioxolane. The speed and extent of the reaction depends on coordination of the anion with the Mg2+ cation catalyst. Weakly coordinating anions such as TFSI- aid faster polymerization while strongly coordinating anions such as ClO4- hinder the polymerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc01769hDOI Listing
April 2020

Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Organoarsenicals in Edible Marine Species: A Review.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Feb 7;68(7):1910-1934. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of Maryland , College Park , Maryland 20742 , United States.

Setting regulatory limits for arsenic in food is complicated, owing to the enormous diversity of arsenic metabolism in humans, lack of knowledge about the toxicity of these chemicals, and lack of accurate arsenic speciation data on foodstuffs. Identification and quantification of the toxic arsenic compounds are imperative to understanding the risk associated with exposure to arsenic from dietary intake, which, in turn, underscores the need for speciation analysis of the food. Arsenic speciation in seafood is challenging, owing to its existence in myriads of chemical forms and oxidation states. Interconversions occurring between chemical forms, matrix complexity, lack of standards and certified reference materials, and lack of widely accepted measurement protocols present additional challenges. This review covers the current analytical techniques for diverse arsenic species. The requirement for high-quality arsenic speciation data that is essential for establishing legislation and setting regulatory limits for arsenic in food is explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250003PMC
February 2020

Microstructural Evolution and Strengthening Mechanism of SiC/Al Composites Fabricated by a Liquid-Pressing Process and Heat Treatment.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Oct 16;12(20). Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 47340, Korea.

Aluminum alloy (Al7075) composites reinforced with a high volume fraction of silicon carbide (SiC) were produced by a liquid-pressing process. The characterization of their microstructure showed that SiC particles corresponding to a volume fraction greater than 60% were uniformly distributed in the composite, and MgSi precipitates were present at the interface between the matrix and the reinforcement. A superior compressive strength (1130 MPa) was obtained by an effective load transfer to the hard ceramic particles. After solution heat treatment and artificial aging, the MgSi precipitates decomposed from rod-shaped large particles to smaller spherical particles, which led to an increase of the compressive strength by more than 200 MPa. The strengthening mechanism is discussed on the basis of the observed microstructural evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12203374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6829571PMC
October 2019

Enhancing Lithium Insertion with Electrostatic Nanoconfinement in a Lithography Patterned Precision Cell.

ACS Nano 2019 Jul 5;13(7):8481-8489. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Electrical Engineering , Yale University , New Haven , Connecticut 06511 , United States.

The rapidly growing demand for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and grid storage drives the pursuit of high-performance electrical energy storage (EES). A key strategy for improving EES performance is exploiting nanostructured electrodes that present nanoconfined environments of adjacent electrolytes, with the goal to decrease ion diffusion paths and increase active surface areas. However, fundamental gaps persist in understanding the interface-governed electrochemistry in such nanoconfined geometries, in part because of the imprecise and variable dimension control. Here, we report quantification of lithium insertion under nanoconfinement of the electrolyte in a precise lithography-patterned nanofluidic cell. We show a mechanism that enhances ion insertion under nanoconfinement, namely, selective ion accumulation when the confinement length is comparable to the electrical double layer thickness. The nanofabrication approach with uniform and accurate dimensional control provides a versatile model system to explore fundamental mechanisms of nanoscale electrochemistry, which could have an impact on practical energy storage systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b04390DOI Listing
July 2019

Fabrication of Flexible, Lightweight, Magnetic Mushroom Gills and Coral-Like MXene⁻Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites for EMI Shielding Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Bio-Nanochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Wonkwang University, Iksan City 570-749, Korea.

MXenes, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles are attractive candidates for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. The composites were prepared through a filtration technique and spray coating process. The functionalization of non-woven carbon fabric is an attractive strategy. The prepared composite was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy. The MXene-oxidized carbon nanotube-sodium dodecyl sulfate composite (MXCS) exhibited 50.5 dB (99.999%), and the whole nanoparticle-based composite blocked 99.99% of the electromagnetic radiation. The functionalization increased the shielding by 15.4%. The composite possessed good thermal stability, and the maximum electric conductivity achieved was 12.5 Scm. Thus, the composite shows excellent potential applications towards the areas such as aeronautics, mobile phones, radars, and military.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9040519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523891PMC
April 2019

Highly stretchable multi-walled carbon nanotube/thermoplastic polyurethane composite fibers for ultrasensitive, wearable strain sensors.

Nanoscale 2019 Mar;11(13):5884-5890

Composites Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwon-daero, Changwon, Gyeongnam 51508, South Korea.

Here, we report a novel highly sensitive wearable strain sensor based on a highly stretchable multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) fiber obtained via a wet spinning process. The MWCNT/TPU fiber showed the highest tensile strength and ultra-high sensitivity with a gauge factor (GF) of approximately 2800 in the strain range of 5-100%. Due to its high strain sensitivity of conductivity, this CNT-reinforced composite fiber was able to be used to monitor the weight and shape of an object based on the 2D mapping of resistance changes. Moreover, the composite fiber was able to be stitched onto a highly stretchable elastic bandage using a sewing machine to produce a wearable strain sensor for the detection of diverse human motions. We also demonstrated the detection of finger motion by fabricating a smart glove at the joints. Due to its scalable production process, high stretchability and ultrasensitivity, the MWCNT/TPU fiber may open a new avenue for the fabrication of next-generation stretchable textile-based strain sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr01005jDOI Listing
March 2019

Loss of ER retention motif of AGR2 can impact mTORC signaling and promote cancer metastasis.

Oncogene 2019 04 21;38(16):3003-3018. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, which plays a role in the regulation of protein homeostasis and the unfolded protein response pathway (UPR). AGR2 has also been characterized as a proto-oncogene and a potential cancer biomarker. Cellular localization of AGR2 is emerging as a key component for understanding the role of AGR2 as a proto-oncogene. Here, we provide evidence that extracellular AGR2 (eAGR2) promotes tumor metastasis in various in vivo models. To further characterize the role of the intracellular-resident versus extracellular protein, we performed a comprehensive protein-protein interaction screen. Based on these results, we identify AGR2 as an interacting partner of the mTORC2 pathway. Importantly, our data indicates that eAGR2 promotes increased phosphorylation of RICTOR (T1135), while intracellular AGR2 (iAGR2) antagonizes its levels and phosphorylation. Localization of AGR2 also has opposing effects on the Hippo pathway, spheroid formation, and response to chemotherapy in vitro. Collectively, our results identify disparate phenotypes predicated on AGR2 localization. Our findings also provide credence for screening of eAGR2 to guide therapeutic decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-018-0638-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523706PMC
April 2019

Impact of pore size, interconnections, and dynamic conductivity on the electrochemistry of vanadium pentoxide in well defined porous structures.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec;20(47):29708-29716

Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA.

Considering the tortuous, random porous nanostructures existing in many battery electrodes, it is essential to understand electronic and ionic behaviors in such a confined nanoscale porous geometry in which electron and ion transports can change dynamically. Here, we have carefully designed three dimensional (3D) interconnected porous electrode structures and performed experiments to probe how the ion and electron transport is impacted within these controlled geometries. By using anodized aluminum oxide as a template, we were able to fabricate both 1D array electrodes and 3D electrodes with varying numbers of interconnections, utilizing vanadium oxide (V2O5) as the active material. We demonstrate that the inherent properties of the electrode material in combination with the structural properties of the electrodes can both positively and negatively impact electrochemical characteristics. Most notably, electrodes with seven interconnecting layers in their structure had 19.7% less capacity at 25C than electrodes with zero interconnecting layers, demonstrating the negative effect of interconnections combined with poor electronic conductivity of V2O5 upon lithiation beyond one Li insertion. These results indicate that a careful consideration of the material and structural properties is needed for the design of high performance battery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp04706eDOI Listing
December 2018

Cranioplasty Using Autologous Bone versus Porous Polyethylene versus Custom-Made Titanium Mesh : A Retrospective Review of 108 Patients.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2018 Nov 30;61(6):737-746. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Korea.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cosmetic outcome and complications after cranioplasty (CP) due to three different implant materials, and analyze the mean implant survival and cumulative survival rate based on these results.

Methods: We reviewed 108 patients retrospectively who underwent CP between January 2014 and November 2016. Autologous bone (AB; 45 patients) and synthetic materials with porous polyethylene (PP; 32 patients) and custom-made 3-dimensional printed titanium mesh (CT; 31 patients) were used as implants.

Results: Regardless of implanted materials, more than 89.8% of the CP patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. No statistically significant difference was observed among the three groups. The overall postoperative complication rates of each group were 31.1% in the AB group, 15.6% in the PP group and 3.2% in the CT group. The CT group showed lower complication rates compared with AB and PP groups (χ2-test : AB vs. PP, p=0.34; AB vs. CT, p=0.00; PP vs. CT, p=0.03). The AB and PP groups demonstrated a higher post-CP infection rate (11.1% and 6.3%) than the CT group (3.2%). However, no significant difference in the incidence of post-CP infection was observed among the three groups. The PP and CT groups demonstrated a higher mean implant survival time and cumulative survival rate than the AB group at the last follow-up (p<0.05).

Conclusion: In comparison with AB and PP, cranioplasty with CT shows benefits in terms of lower post-CP complication, less intraoperative bleeding loss, shorter operation time and in-hospital stay. The PP and CT groups showed higher implant survival time and cumulative survival rate compared with the AB group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2018.0047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280051PMC
November 2018

Multifunctional Epoxy-Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Solid-State Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Oct 3;10(41):35108-35117. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Polymer Engineering , Pukyong National University , Busan 48547 , Korea.

Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn attention for promising multifunctional electrolytes requiring very good mechanical properties and ionic conductivity. To develop a safe SPE for energy storage applications, mechanically robust cross-linked epoxy matrix is combined with fast ion-diffusing ionic liquid/lithium salt electrolyte (ILE) via a simple one-pot curing process. The epoxy-rich SPEs show higher Young's modulus ( E), with higher glass transition temperature ( T) but lower ionic conductivity (σ) with a higher activation energy, compared to the ILE-rich SPEs. The incorporation of inorganic robust AlO nanowire simultaneously provides excellent mechanical robustness ( E ≈ 1 GPa at 25 °C) and good conductivity (σ ≈ 2.9 × 10 S/cm at 25 °C) to the SPE. This suggests that the SPE has a bicontinuous microphase separation into ILE-rich and epoxy-rich microdomain, where ILE continuous conducting phases are intertwined with a sturdy cross-linked amorphous epoxy framework, supported by the observation of the two Ts and low tortuosity as well as the microstructural investigation. After assembling the SPE with activated carbon electrodes, we successfully demonstrate the supercapacitor performance, exhibiting high energy and power density (75 W h/kg at 382 W/kg and 9.3 kW/kg at 44 W h/kg). This facile strategy holds tremendous potential to advance multifunctional energy storage technology for next-generation electric vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b11016DOI Listing
October 2018

Enhancement of Magnetoelectric Conversion Achieved by Optimization of Interfacial Adhesion Layer in Laminate Composites.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Sep 12;10(38):32323-32330. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

School of Materials Science & Engineering , Yeungnam University , Gyeongsan , Gyeongbuk 38541 , Republic of Korea.

We report the effect of epoxy adhesion layers with different mechanical or physical property on a magnetoelectric (ME) composite laminate composed of FeBSi alloy (Metglas)/single-crystal Pb(MgNb)O-Pb(Zr,Ti)O/Metglas to achieve an improved ME conversion performance. Through theoretical simulation, it was revealed that the Young's modulus and the thickness of interfacial adhesives were major parameters that influence the conversion efficiency in ME composites. In the experimental evaluation, we utilized three epoxy materials with a distinct Young's modulus and adjusted the average thickness of the adhesion layers to optimize the ME conversion. The experimental results show that a thin epoxy layer with a high Young's modulus provided the best performance in the inorganic-based ME conversion process. By tailoring the interfacial adhesion property, the ME laminate generated a high conversion coefficient of 328.8 V/(cm Oe), with a mechanical quality factor of 132.0 at the resonance mode. Moreover, we demonstrated a highly sensitive alternating current magnetic field sensor that had a detection resolution below 10 pT. The optimization of the epoxy layers in the ME laminate composite provided significant enhancement of the ME response in a simple manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b09848DOI Listing
September 2018

Electrochemically Controlled Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layers Enable Superior Li-S Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Jul 10;10(29):24554-24563. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology , KAIST , Daejeon 305-701 , South Korea.

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries suffer from shuttle reactions during electrochemical cycling, which cause the loss of active material sulfur from sulfur-carbon cathodes, and simultaneously incur the corrosion and degradation of the lithium metal anode by forming passivation layers on its surface. These unwanted reactions therefore lead to the fast failure of batteries. The preservation of the highly reactive lithium metal anode in sulfur-containing electrolytes has been one of the main challenges for Li-S batteries. In this study, we systematically controlled and optimized the formation of a smooth and uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer through electrochemical pretreatment of the Li metal anode under controlled current densities. A distinct improvement of battery performance in terms of specific capacity and power capability was achieved in charge-discharge cycling for Li-S cells with pretreated Li anodes compared to pristine untreated ones. Importantly, at a higher power density (1 C rate, 3 mA cm), the Li-S cells with pretreated Li anodes protected by a controlled elastomer (Li-Protected-by-Elastomer, LPE)) show the suppression of the Li dendrite growth and exhibit 3-4 times higher specific capacity than the untreated ones after 100 electrochemical cycles. The formation of such a controlled uniform SEI was confirmed, and its surface chemistry, morphology, and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, focused-ion beam cross sectioning, and scanning electron microscopy. Adequate pretreatment current density and time are critical in order to form a continuous and uniform SEI, along with good Li-ion transport property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b07248DOI Listing
July 2018

Pascalammetry with operando microbattery probes: Sensing high stress in solid-state batteries.

Sci Adv 2018 06 8;4(6):eaas8927. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Energy storage science calls for techniques to elucidate ion transport over a range of conditions and scales. We introduce a new technique, pascalammetry, in which stress is applied to a solid-state electrochemical device and induced faradaic current transients are measured and analyzed. Stress-step pascalammetry measurements are performed on operando microbattery probes (LiO/Li/W) and Si cathodes, revealing stress-assisted Li diffusion. We show how non-Cottrellian lithium diffusional kinetics indicates stress, a prelude to battery degradation. An analytical solution to a diffusion/activation equation describes this stress signature, with spatiotemporal characteristics distinct from Cottrell's classic solution for unstressed systems. These findings create an unprecedented opportunity for quantitative detection of stress in solid-state batteries through the current signature. Generally, pascalammetry offers a powerful new approach to study stress-related phenomena in any solid-state electrochemical system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aas8927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993470PMC
June 2018

Three-Dimensional Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Fabricated by Conformal Vapor-Phase Chemistry.

ACS Nano 2018 05 26;12(5):4286-4294. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Materials Physics Department , Sandia National Laboratory , MS9161, 7011 East Ave , Livermore , California 94550 , United States.

Three-dimensional thin-film solid-state batteries (3D TSSB) were proposed by Long et al. in 2004 as a structure-based approach to simultaneously increase energy and power densities. Here, we report experimental realization of fully conformal 3D TSSBs, demonstrating the simultaneous power-and-energy benefits of 3D structuring. All active battery components-electrodes, solid electrolyte, and current collectors-were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto standard CMOS processable silicon wafers microfabricated to form arrays of deep pores with aspect ratios up to approximately 10. The cells utilize an electrochemically prelithiated LiVO cathode, a very thin (40-100 nm) LiPON solid electrolyte, and a SnN anode. The fabrication process occurs entirely at or below 250 °C, promising compatibility with a variety of substrates as well as integrated circuits. The multilayer battery structure enabled all-ALD solid-state cells to deliver 37 μAh/cm·μm (normalized to cathode thickness) with only 0.02% per-cycle capacity loss. Conformal fabrication of full cells over 3D substrates increased the areal discharge capacity by an order of magnitude while simulteneously improving power performance, a trend consistent with a finite element model. This work shows that the exceptional conformality of ALD, combined with conventional semiconductor fabrication methods, provides an avenue for the successful realization of long-sought 3D TSSBs which provide power performance scaling in regimes inaccessible to planar form factor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b08751DOI Listing
May 2018

Quantification of cardiac troponin I in human plasma by immunoaffinity enrichment and targeted mass spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Apr 1;410(11):2805-2813. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Biomolecular Measurement Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8314, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899, USA.

Quantification of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a protein biomarker used for diagnosing myocardial infarction, has been achieved in native patient plasma based on an immunoaffinity enrichment strategy and isotope dilution (ID) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The key steps in the workflow involved isolating cTnI from plasma using anti-cTnI antibody coupled to magnetic nanoparticles, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. Three tryptic peptides from cTnI were monitored and used for quantification by ID-LC-MS/MS via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Measurements were performed using a matrix-matched calibration system. NIST SRM 2921 Human Cardiac Troponin Complex acted as the calibrant and a full-length isotopically labeled protein analog of cTnI was used as an internal standard. The method was successfully demonstrated on five patient plasma samples, with cTnI concentrations measuring between 4.86 μg/L and 11.3 μg/L (signifying moderate myocardial infarctions). LC-MS/MS measurement precision was validated by three unique peptides from cTnI and two MRM transitions per peptide. Relative standard deviation (CV) from the five plasma samples was determined to be ≤14.3%. This study has demonstrated that quantification of cTnI in native plasma from myocardial infarction patients can be achieved based on an ID-LC-MS/MS method. The development of an ID-LC-MS/MS method for cTnI in plasma is a first step for future certification of matrix-based reference materials, which may be used to help harmonize discordant cTnI clinical assays. Graphical abstract A schematic of the workflow for measuring cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a low-abundant protein biomarker used for diagnosing myocardial infarction, in human plasma by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-0960-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478850PMC
April 2018

Investigation of the water-stimulated Mg insertion mechanism in an electrodeposited MnO cathode using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Jan;20(4):2517-2526

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Batteries based on magnesium chemistry are being widely investigated as an alternative energy storage system to replace lithium-ion batteries. Mg batteries have multiple challenges, especially on the cathode side. The divalent Mg ion has slow insertion kinetics in many metal oxide cathodes conventionally used in Li-ion batteries. One solution that has been explored is adding water molecules into an organic electrolyte, which has been shown to aid in Mg insertion and improve performance of manganese oxide (MnO) cathodes. While there have been studies on Mg insertion mechanisms into MnO in solely aqueous or organic electrolytes for some crystalline MnO polymorphs, our work is focused on water-containing organic electrolyte, where an HO to Mg ratio of 6 : 1 is present. In this study, we report results based on ex situ XPS experiments, including both angle resolved and depth profiling studies to assess the surface reactions and determine the mechanism of Mg insertion into an amorphous, electrodeposited MnO cathode. We propose that in this mixed electrolyte system, there is a combined insertion/conversion reaction mechanism whereby Mg and HO molecules co-insert into the MnO structure and a reaction between HO and Mg creates an observable Mg(OH) layer at the surface of the MnO. A more full understanding of the role of the water molecules is important to aid in the future design of cathode materials, especially when determining potential ways to integrate metal oxides in Mg batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7cp06312aDOI Listing
January 2018

Nanoscale Protection Layers To Mitigate Degradation in High-Energy Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems.

Acc Chem Res 2018 01 2;51(1):97-106. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

In the pursuit of energy storage devices with higher energy and power, new ion storage materials and high-voltage battery chemistries are of paramount importance. However, they invite-and often enhance-degradation mechanisms, which are reflected in capacity loss with charge/discharge cycling and sometimes in safety problems. Degradation mechanisms are often driven by fundamentals such as chemical and electrochemical reactions at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, volume expansion and stress associated with ion insertion and extraction, and profound inhomogeneity of electrochemical behavior. While it is important to identify and understand these mechanisms at some reasonable level, it is even more critical to design strategies to mitigate these degradation pathways and to develop means to implement and validate the strategies. A growing set of research highlights the mitigation benefits achievable by forming thin protection layers (PLs) intentionally created as artificial interphase regions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. These advances illustrate a promising-perhaps even generic-pathway for enabling higher-energy and higher-voltage battery configurations. In this Account, we summarize examples of such PLs that serve as mitigation strategies to avoid degradation in lithium metal anodes, conversion-type electrode materials, and alloy-type electrodes. Examples are chosen from a larger body of electrochemical degradation research carried out in Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES), our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center. Overall, we argue on the basis of experimental and theoretical evidence that PLs effectively stabilize the electrochemical interfaces to prevent parasitic chemical and electrochemical reactions and mitigate the structural, mechanical, and compositional degradation of the electrode materials at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The evidenced improvement in performance metrics is accomplished by (1) establishing a homogeneous interface for ion insertion and extraction, (2) providing mechanical constraints to maintain structural integrity and robust electronic and ionic conduction pathways, and (3) introducing spatial confinements on the electrode material matrix to alter the phase transformation (delaying the occurrence of the conversion reaction) upon Li insertion, which results in superior electrode performance, excellent capacity retention, and improved reversibility. Taken together, these examples portray a valuable role for thin protection layers synthesized over electrode surfaces, both for their benefit to cycle stability and for revealing insights into degradation and mitigation mechanisms. Furthermore, they underscore the impact of complex electrochemical behavior at nanoscale materials and nanostructure interfaces in modulating the behavior of energy storage devices at the mesoscale and macroscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00524DOI Listing
January 2018

A Comparison of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion versus Fusion Combined with Artificial Disc Replacement for Treating 3-Level Cervical Spondylotic Disease.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2017 Nov 25;60(6):676-683. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Uijeongbu, Korea.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 3-level hybrid surgery (HS), which combines fusion and cervical disc replacement (CDR), compared to 3-level fusionin patient with cervical spondylosis involving 3 levels.

Methods: Patients in the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) group (n=30) underwent 3-level fusion and the HS group (n=19) underwent combined surgery with fusion and CDR. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analogue scale for the arm, the neck disability index (NDI), Odom criteria and postoperative complications. The cervical range of motion (ROM), fusion rate and adjacent segments degeneration were assessed with radiographs.

Results: Significant improvements in arm pain relief and functional outcome were observed in ACDF and HS group. The NDI in the HS group showed better improvement 6 months after surgery than that of the ACDF group. The ACDF group had a lower fusion rate, higher incidence of device related complications and radiological changes in adjacent segments compared with the HS group. The better recovery of cervical ROM was observed in HS group. However, that of the ACDF group was significantly decreased and did not recover.

Conclusion: The HS group was better than the ACDF group in terms of NDI, cervical ROM, fusion rate, incidence of postoperative complications and adjacent segment degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2016.1010.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678057PMC
November 2017

Chromium carbide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structure Assisted Copper Composites with Low Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.

Sci Rep 2017 11 2;7(1):14943. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan.

In order to explore the possibility of using carbon nanotube (CNT) to introduce and control the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of metal matrix composite, relatively thick and short multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) were introduced in the metal matrix with in-situ formation of chromium carbide (CrC) at the CNT/copper (Cu) interface. We demonstrate that incompatible properties such as electrical conductivity and TCR can be achieved simultaneously by introducing MWCNTs in the Cu matrix, with control of the interfacial resistivity using the MWCNT/CrC-Cu system. High electrical conductivity of 94.66 IACS and low TCR of 1,451 10 °C are achieved in the 5 vol.% MWCNT-CuCr composite. In-situ formation of CrC nanostructures at the MWCNT/Cu interface by reaction of diffused Cr atoms and amorphous carbon of MWCNTs would assist in improving the electrical properties of the MWCNT-CuCr composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14915-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5668293PMC
November 2017

Analysis of Genes with Alternatively Spliced Transcripts in the Leaf, Root, Panicle and Seed of Rice Using a Long Oligomer Microarray and RNA-Seq.

Mol Cells 2017 Oct 19;40(10):714-730. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Division of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Myongji University, Yongin 17058, Korea.

Pre-mRNA splicing further increases protein diversity acquired through evolution. The underlying driving forces for this phenomenon are unknown, especially in terms of gene expression. A rice alternatively spliced transcript detection microarray (ASDM) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were applied to differentiate the transcriptome of 4 representative organs of L. cv. Ilmi: leaves, roots, 1-cm-stage panicles and young seeds at 21 days after pollination. Comparison of data obtained by microarray and RNA-Seq showed a bell-shaped distribution and a co-lineation for highly expressed genes. Transcripts were classified according to the degree of organ enrichment using a coefficient value (CV, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean values): highly variable (CVI), variable (CVII), and constitutive (CVIII) groups. A higher index of the portion of loci with alternatively spliced transcripts in a group (IAST) value was observed for the constitutive group. Genes of the highly variable group showed the characteristics of the examined organs, and alternatively spliced transcripts tended to exhibit the same organ specificity or less organ preferences, with avoidance of 'organ distinctness'. In addition, within a locus, a tendency of higher expression was found for transcripts with a longer coding sequence (CDS), and a spliced intron was the most commonly found type of alternative splicing for an extended CDS. Thus, pre-mRNA splicing might have evolved to retain maximum functionality in terms of organ preference and multiplicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.2297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682249PMC
October 2017

Cervical arthroplasty versus anterior cervical fusion for symptomatic adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical fusion surgery: Review of treatment in 41 patients.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Nov 4;162:59-66. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) as revision surgeries for symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) in cases with previous ACDF.

Patients And Methods: Between 2010 and 2014, 41 patients with previous cervical fusion surgery underwent ACDF or CTDR for symptomatic ASD. Twenty-two patients in the ACDF group underwent 26 ACDFs, and 19 patients in the CTDR group underwent 25 arthroplasties for symptomatic ASD. Clinical outcomes were assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) for arm pain, the neck disability index (NDI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological evaluations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively to measure changes in the range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine and adjacent segments and arthroplasty level. The radiological change of ASD was assessed in radiographs.

Results: Clinical outcomes as assessed with VAS for arm pain and Odom's criteria were significantly improved in both groups. The CTDR group showed better NDI improvement after surgery (P<0.05). The mean C2-7 ROM of the CTDR group revealed faster recovery than did that of the ACDF group and the preoperative values were recovered at the last follow-up visit. There was a significant difference in the ROM of the inferior adjacent segment between the ACDF and CTDR groups (P<0.05). The ACDF group had a higher incidence of radiological changes in the adjacent segment compared with the CTDR group (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The 2-year clinical results of CTDR for symptomatic ASD are safe and are comparable to the outcomes of ACDF in terms of arm pain relief and functional recovery. The CTDR group showed better NDI improvement, faster C2-7 ROM recovery, less of an increase in ROM in the inferior adjacent segment, and a lower incidence of adjacent segment degeneration than did the ACDF group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2017.08.001DOI Listing
November 2017

High performance asymmetric VO-SnO nanopore battery by atomic layer deposition.

Nanoscale 2017 Aug;9(32):11566-11573

Lam Research Corp, Tualatin, OR 97062, USA.

Here we report the high performance and cyclability of an asymmetric full cell nanopore battery, comprised of VO as the cathode and prelithiated SnO as the anode, with integrated nanotubular Pt current collectors underneath each nanotubular storage electrode, confined within an anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) nanopore. Enabled by atomic layer deposition (ALD), this coaxial nanotube full cell is fully confined within a high aspect ratio nanopore (150 nm in diameter, 50 μm in length), with an ultra-small volume of about 1 fL. By controlling the amount of lithium ion prelithiated into the SnO anode, we can tune the full cell output voltage in the range of 0.3 V to 3 V. When tested as a massively parallel device (∼2 billion cm), this asymmetric nanopore battery array displays exceptional rate performance and cyclability: when cycled between 1 V and 3 V, capacity retention at the 200C rate is ∼73% of that at 1C, and at 25C rate only 2% capacity loss occurs after more than 500 charge/discharge cycles. With the increased full cell output potential, the asymmetric VO-SnO nanopore battery shows significantly improved energy and power density over the previously reported symmetric cell, 4.6 times higher volumetric energy and 5.2 times higher power density - an even more promising indication that controlled nanostructure designs employing nanoconfined environments with large electrode surface areas present promising directions for future battery technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7nr02151hDOI Listing
August 2017

Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2017 Apr 30;5(1):34-36. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Uijeongbu, Korea.

Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is an opportunistic infection found in immunocompromised patients and TE related cerebral mass lesion is often reported in acquired immunodeficiency acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, incidence of TE related AIDS in Korea is still rare and is unfamiliar to neurosurgeons. Differential diagnosis is needed to rule out other brain lesions. A 39-year-old man visited the emergency room with rapid progressive left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in his right frontal lobe. Human immunodeficiency virus and immunoglobulin G were tested positive by a serologic test. We report here a rare case of patient with TE related AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14791/btrt.2017.5.1.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433949PMC
April 2017

Interconnected mesoporous VO electrode: impact on lithium ion insertion rate.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2016 Nov;18(44):30605-30611

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Here we introduce a strategy for creating nanotube array electrodes which feature periodic regions of porous interconnections providing open pathways between adjacent nanotubes within the array, utilizing a combination of anodized aluminum oxide growth modification (AAO) and atomic layer deposition. These porous interconnected structures can then be used as testbed electrodes to explore the influence of mesoscale structure on the electrochemical properties of the interconnected mesoporous electrodes. Critically, these unique structures allow the solid state lithium diffusion pathways to be held essentially constant, while the larger structure is modified. While it was anticipated that this strategy would simply provide increased mass loading, the kinetics of the Li ion insertion reaction in the porous interconnected electrodes are dramatically improved, demonstrating significantly better capacity retention at high rates than their aligned counterparts. We utilize a charge deconvolution method to explore the kinetics of the charge storage reactions. We are able to trace the origin of the structural influence on rate performance to electronic effects within the electrodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6cp05640gDOI Listing
November 2016

Electrochemical Thin Layers in Nanostructures for Energy Storage.

Acc Chem Res 2016 10 16;49(10):2336-2346. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Maryland , College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Conventional electrical energy storage (EES) electrodes, such as rechargeable batteries, are mostly based on composites of monolithic micrometer sized particles bound together with polymeric and conductive carbon additives and binders. The kinetic limitations of these monolithic chunks of material are inherently linked to their electrical properties, the kinetics of ion insertion through their interface and ion migration in and through the composite phase. Redox chemistry of nanostructured materials in EES systems offer vast gains in power and energy. Furthermore, due to their thin nature, ion and electron transport is dramatically increased, especially when thin heterogeneous conducting layers are employed synergistically. However, since the stability of the electrode material is dictated by the nature of the electrochemical reaction and the accompanying volumetric and interfacial changes from the perspective of overall system lifetime, research with nanostructured materials has shown often indefinite conclusions: in some cases, an increase in unwanted side-reactions due to the high surface area (bad). In other cases, results have shown significantly better handling of mechanical stress that results from lithiation/delithiation (good). Despite these mixed results, scientifically informed design of thin electrode materials, with carefully chosen architectures, is considered a promising route to address many limitations witnessed in EES systems by reducing and protecting electrodes from parasitic reactions, accommodating mechanical stress due to volumetric changes from electrochemical reactions, and optimizing charge carrier mobilities from both the "ionic" and "electronic" points of view. Furthermore, precise nanoscale control over the electrode structure can enable accurate measurement through advanced spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. This Account summarizes recent findings related to thin electrode materials synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electrochemical deposition (ECD), including nanowires, nanotubes, and thin films. Throughout the Account, we will show how these techniques enabled us to synthesize electrodes of interest with precise control over the structure and composition of the material. We will illustrate and discuss how the electrochemical response of thin electrodes made by these techniques can facilitate new mechanisms for ion storage, mediate the interfacial electrochemical response of the electrode, and address issues related to electrode degradation over time. The effects of nanosizing materials and their electrochemical response will be mechanistically reviewed through two categories of ion storage: (1) pseudocapacitance and (2) ion insertion. Additionally, we will show how electrochemical processes that are more complicated because of accompanying volumetric changes and electrode degradation pathways can be mediated and controlled by application of thin functional materials on the electrochemically active interface; examples include conversion electrodes, reactive lithium metal anodes, and complex reactions in a Li/O cathode system. The goal of this Account is to illustrate how careful design of thin materials either as active electrodes or as mediating layers can facilitate desirable interfacial electrochemical activity and resolve or shed light on mechanistic limitations of electrochemical processes related to micrometer size particles currently used in energy storage electrodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00315DOI Listing
October 2016