Publications by authors named "Sandrine Livet"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ricin Antibodies' Neutralizing Capacity against Different Ricin Isoforms and Cultivars.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Paris-Saclay University, CEA, INRAE, Medicines and Healthcare Technologies Department (DMTS), SPI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Ricin, a highly toxic protein from , is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Despite the many data available, no specific treatment has yet been approved. Due to their ability to provide immediate protection, antibodies (Abs) are an approach of choice. However, their high specificity might compromise their capacity to protect against the different ricin isoforms (D and E) found in the different cultivars. In previous work, we have shown the neutralizing potential of different Abs (43RCA-G1 (anti ricin A-chain) and RB34 and RB37 (anti ricin B-chain)) against ricin D. In this study, we evaluated their protective capacity against both ricin isoforms. We show that: (i) RB34 and RB37 recognize exclusively ricin D, whereas 43RCA-G1 recognizes both isoforms, (ii) their neutralizing capacity in vitro varies depending on the cultivar, and (iii) there is a synergistic effect when combining RB34 and 43RCA-G1. This effect is also demonstrated in vivo in a mouse model of intranasal intoxication with ricin D/E (1:1), where approximately 60% and 40% of mice treated 0 and 6 h after intoxication, respectively, are protected. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of the Abs against different ricin isoforms to identify the treatment with the broadest spectrum neutralizing effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911099PMC
January 2021

Development and Evaluation of an Immuno-MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Approach for Quantification of the Abrin Toxin in Complex Food Matrices.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 13;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

CEA, INRAE, Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), Université Paris Saclay, SPI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

The toxin abrin found in the seeds of has attracted much attention regarding criminal and terroristic misuse over the past decade. Progress in analytical methods for a rapid and unambiguous identification of low abrin concentrations in complex matrices is essential. Here, we report on the development and evaluation of a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry approach for the fast, sensitive and robust abrin isolectin identification, differentiation and quantification in complex food matrices. The method combines immunoaffinity-enrichment with specific abrin antibodies, accelerated trypsin digestion and the subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis of abrin peptides using labeled peptides for quantification purposes. Following the optimization of the workflow, common and isoform-specific peptides were detected resulting in a ~38% sequence coverage of abrin when testing ng-amounts of the toxin. The lower limit of detection was established at 40 ng/mL in milk and apple juice. Isotope-labeled versions of abundant peptides with high ionization efficiency were added. The quantitative evaluation demonstrated an assay variability at or below 22% with a linear range up to 800 ng/mL. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allows for a simple and fast (<5 min) analysis of abrin peptides, without a time-consuming peptide chromatographic separation, thus constituting a relevant alternative to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828309PMC
January 2021

Native Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry: When Gas-Phase Ion Structures Depend on the Electrospray Charging Process.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2019 Jun 28;30(6):1069-1081. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Laboratoire Acides Nucléiques: Régulations Naturelle et Artificielle, Université de Bordeaux, Inserm & CNRS (ARNA, U1212, UMR5320), IECB, 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607, Pessac, France.

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has become popular to characterize biomolecule folding. Numerous studies have shown that proteins that are folded in solution remain folded in the gas phase, whereas proteins that are unfolded in solution adopt more extended conformations in the gas phase. Here, we discuss how general this tenet is. We studied single-stranded DNAs (human telomeric cytosine-rich sequences with CCCTAA repeats), which fold into an intercalated motif (i-motif) structure in a pH-dependent manner, thanks to the formation of C-H-C base pairs. As i-motif formation is favored at low ionic strength, we could investigate the ESI-IMS-MS behavior of i-motif structures at pH ~ 5.5 over a wide range of ammonium acetate concentrations (15 to 100 mM). The control experiments consisted of either the same sequence at pH ~ 7.5, wherein the sequence is unfolded, or sequence variants that cannot form i-motifs (CTCTAA repeats). The surprising results came from the control experiments. We found that the ionic strength of the solution had a greater effect on the compactness of the gas-phase structures than the solution folding state. This means that electrosprayed ions keep a memory of the charging process, which is influenced by the electrolyte concentration. We discuss these results in light of the analyte partitioning between the droplet interior and the droplet surface, which in turn influences the probability of being ionized via a charged residue-type pathway or a chain extrusion-type pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-019-02152-3DOI Listing
June 2019

Optimizing Native Ion Mobility Q-TOF in Helium and Nitrogen for Very Fragile Noncovalent Structures.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2018 Nov 25;29(11):2189-2198. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Inserm, Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie (IECB, UMS3033, US001), 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33600, Pessac, France.

The amount of internal energy imparted to the ions prior to the ion mobility cell influences the ion structure and thus the collision cross section. Non-covalent complexes with few internal degrees of freedom and/or high charge densities are particularly sensitive to collisional activation. Here, we investigated the effects of virtually all tuning parameters of the Agilent 6560 IM-Q-TOF on the arrival time distributions of ubiquitin and found conditions in which the native state prevails. We discuss the effects of solvent evaporation conditions in the source, of the entire pre-IM DC voltage gradient, of the funnel RF amplitudes. We also report on ubiquitin conformations in different solvents, including native supercharging conditions. Collision-induced unfolding (CIU) can be conveniently provoked either behind the source capillary or in the trapping funnel. The softness of the instrumental conditions behind the mobility cell was further optimized with the DNA G-quadruplex [(dGTG)·(NH)-8H], for which ion activation results in ammonia loss. To reduce the ion internal energy and obtain the intact 3-NH complex, we reduce the post-IM voltage gradient, but this results in a lower IM resolving power due to increased diffusion behind the drift tube. The article describes the various trade-offs between ion activation, ion transmission, and ion mobility performance for native MS of very fragile structures. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-018-2029-4DOI Listing
November 2018

Drift Tube Ion Mobility: How to Reconstruct Collision Cross Section Distributions from Arrival Time Distributions?

Anal Chem 2017 Dec 21;89(23):12674-12681. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

INSERM, CNRS, Université Bordeaux, Laboratoire Acides Nucléiques Régulations Naturelle et Artificielle (ARNA, U1212, UMR5320), IECB, 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac, France.

Ion mobility spectrometry allows one to determine ion collision cross sections, which are related to ion size and shape. Collision cross sections (CCS) are usually discussed based on the peak center, yet the width of each peak contains further information on the distribution of collision cross sections of each conformational ensemble. Here, we analyze how to convert arrival time distributions (ATD) to CCS distributions (CCSD). With a calibration curve taking into account the CCS dependence of the time spent outside the mobility region, one can reconstruct CCS distributions with correct peak center values. However, the peak widths are incorrectly rendered because ion diffusion, which affects the peak width in the time domain, is irrelevant to collision cross sections. For drift tube ion mobility, we describe a new method, coined "FWHMstep", using a step-field experiment and processing the peak's full width at half-maximum to reconstruct CCSDs. The width of the CCS distribution helps to characterize the analyte's structural heterogeneity, and/or its flexibility (i.e., the variety of ways the analyte ions can rearrange following electrospray into kinetically stable gas-phase conformations).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01736DOI Listing
December 2017

Partial purification and characterization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis (Poppe).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2002 May;132(1):85-92

Laboratoire d'Ecotoxicologie (LEMA), UPRES-EA3222, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, Le Havre, France.

Oligohaline copepods such as Eurytemora affinis are widespread in estuaries of northwestern Europe. These minute crustaceans are highly sensitive to contamination and thus serve as useful bioindicators for the monitoring of pollutant effects. The use of decreased cholinesterase (ChE) activity as a sublethal biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds supposes that ChE has been defined in copepods. This study reports the partial purification and characterization of ChE extracted from E. affinis. Analysis by non-denaturing PAGE and by isoelectric focusing indicated that the enzyme is probably a single dimeric form of 140 KDa, with a pI of 6.2. This enzyme is likely an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) since it hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine iodide at a higher rate than other substrates, such as butyrylthiocholine and propionylthiocholine, at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C, and is inhibited by eserine but not by iso-OMPA. The enzyme exhibited high sensitivity to some of the various pollutants tested. The kinetic properties of this ChE were compared with those of other invertebrate ChEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1532-0456(02)00050-9DOI Listing
May 2002