Publications by authors named "Sandrine Grava"

8 Publications

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Clustering of nuclei in multinucleated hyphae is prevented by dynein-driven bidirectional nuclear movements and microtubule growth control in Ashbya gossypii.

Eukaryot Cell 2011 Jul 3;10(7):902-15. Epub 2011 Jun 3.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, Basel, Switzerland.

During filamentous fungus development, multinucleated hyphae employ a system for long-range nuclear migration to maintain an equal nuclear density. A decade ago the microtubule motor dynein was shown to play a central role in this process. Previous studies with Ashbya gossypii revealed extensive bidirectional movements and bypassings of nuclei, an autonomous cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton emanating from each nucleus, and pulling of nuclei by sliding of cMTs along the cortex. Here, we show that dynein is the sole motor for bidirectional movements and bypassing because these movements are concomitantly decreased in mutants carrying truncations of the dynein heavy-chain DYN1 promoter. The dynactin component Jnm1, the accessory proteins Dyn2 and Ndl1, and the potential dynein cortical anchor Num1 are also involved in the dynamic distribution of nuclei. In their absence, nuclei aggregate to different degrees, whereby the mutants with dense nuclear clusters grow extremely long cMTs. As in budding yeast, we found that dynein is delivered to cMT plus ends, and its activity or processivity is probably controlled by dynactin and Num1. Together with its role in powering nuclear movements, we propose that dynein also plays (directly or indirectly) a role in the control of cMT length. Those combined dynein actions prevent nuclear clustering in A. gossypii and thus reveal a novel cellular role for dynein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.05095-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3147418PMC
July 2011

Dynamics of multiple nuclei in Ashbya gossypii hyphae depend on the control of cytoplasmic microtubules length by Bik1, Kip2, Kip3, and not on a capture/shrinkage mechanism.

Mol Biol Cell 2010 Nov 15;21(21):3680-92. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Ashbya gossypii has a budding yeast-like genome but grows exclusively as multinucleated hyphae. In contrast to budding yeast where positioning of nuclei at the bud neck is a major function of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs), A. gossypii nuclei are constantly in motion and positioning is not an issue. To investigate the role of cMTs in nuclear oscillation and bypassing, we constructed mutants potentially affecting cMT lengths. Hyphae lacking the plus (+)end marker Bik1 or the kinesin Kip2 cannot polymerize long cMTs and lose wild-type nuclear movements. Interestingly, hyphae lacking the kinesin Kip3 display longer cMTs concomitant with increased nuclear oscillation and bypassing. Polymerization and depolymerization rates of cMTs are 3 times higher in A. gossypii than in budding yeast and cMT catastrophes are rare. Growing cMTs slide along the hyphal cortex and exert pulling forces on nuclei. Surprisingly, a capture/shrinkage mechanism seems to be absent in A. gossypii. cMTs reaching a hyphal tip do not shrink, and cMT +ends accumulate in hyphal tips. Thus, differences in cMT dynamics and length control between budding yeast and A. gossypii are key elements in the adaptation of the cMT cytoskeleton to much longer cells and much higher degrees of nuclear mobilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E10-06-0527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2965685PMC
November 2010

Structural mutants of the spindle pole body cause distinct alteration of cytoplasmic microtubules and nuclear dynamics in multinucleated hyphae.

Mol Biol Cell 2010 Mar 6;21(5):753-66. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Biozentrum University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

In the multinucleate fungus Ashbya gossypii, cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) emerge from the spindle pole body outer plaque (OP) in perpendicular and tangential directions. To elucidate the role of cMTs in forward/backward movements (oscillations) and bypassing of nuclei, we constructed mutants potentially affecting cMT nucleation or stability. Hyphae lacking the OP components AgSpc72, AgNud1, AgCnm67, or the microtubule-stabilizing factor AgStu2 grew like wild- type but showed substantial alterations in the number, length, and/or nucleation sites of cMTs. These mutants differently influenced nuclear oscillation and bypassing. In Agspc72Delta, only long cMTs were observed, which emanate tangentially from reduced OPs; nuclei mainly moved with the cytoplasmic stream but some performed rapid bypassing. Agnud1Delta and Agcnm67Delta lack OPs; short and long cMTs emerged from the spindle pole body bridge/half-bridge structures, explaining nuclear oscillation and bypassing in these mutants. In Agstu2Delta only very short cMTs emanated from structurally intact OPs; all nuclei moved with the cytoplasmic stream. Therefore, long tangential cMTs promote nuclear bypassing and short cMTs are important for nuclear oscillation. Our electron microscopy ultrastructural analysis also indicated that assembly of the OP occurs in a stepwise manner, starting with AgCnm67, followed by AgNud1 and lastly AgSpc72.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e09-07-0555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2828962PMC
March 2010

Mobility, microtubule nucleation and structure of microtubule-organizing centers in multinucleated hyphae of Ashbya gossypii.

Mol Biol Cell 2010 Jan 12;21(1):18-28. Epub 2009 Nov 12.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Biozentrum University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland.

We investigated the migration of multiple nuclei in hyphae of the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. Three types of cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT)-dependent nuclear movements were characterized using live cell imaging: short-range oscillations (up to 4.5 microm/min), rotations (up to 180 degrees in 30 s), and long-range nuclear bypassing (up to 9 microm/min). These movements were superimposed on a cMT-independent mode of nuclear migration, cotransport with the cytoplasmic stream. This latter mode is sufficient to support wild-type-like hyphal growth speeds. cMT-dependent nuclear movements were led by a nuclear-associated microtubule-organizing center, the spindle pole body (SPB), which is the sole site of microtubule nucleation in A. gossypii. Analysis of A. gossypii SPBs by electron microscopy revealed an overall laminar structure similar to the budding yeast SPB but with distinct differences at the cytoplasmic side. Up to six perpendicular and tangential cMTs emanated from a more spherical outer plaque. The perpendicular and tangential cMTs most likely correspond to short, often cortex-associated cMTs and to long, hyphal growth-axis-oriented cMTs, respectively, seen by in vivo imaging. Each SPB nucleates its own array of cMTs, and the lack of overlapping cMT arrays between neighboring nuclei explains the autonomous nuclear oscillations and bypassing observed in A. gossypii hyphae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e09-01-0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2801712PMC
January 2010

Asymmetric recruitment of dynein to spindle poles and microtubules promotes proper spindle orientation in yeast.

Dev Cell 2006 Apr;10(4):425-39

Institute of Biochemistry, Biology Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a key role in determining whether a polarized cell will divide symmetrically or asymmetrically. In most cell types, cytoplasmic dynein plays a critical role in spindle orientation. However, how dynein directs opposite spindle poles toward distinct and predetermined cell ends is poorly understood. Here, we show that dynein distributes preferentially to the spindle pole bodies (SPB) and astral microtubules (MTs) proximal to the bud in metaphase yeast cells. Dynein asymmetry depended on the bud neck kinases Elm1, Hsl1, and Gin4, on the spindle pole components Cnm67 and Cdk1, and on the B-type cyclins Clb1 and Clb2. Furthermore, phenotypic and genetic studies both indicated that dynein is unable to orient the spindle when it localizes to both poles and associated microtubules. Together, our data indicate that proper orientation of the spindle requires dynein to act on a single spindle pole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2006.02.018DOI Listing
April 2006

EIN3-dependent regulation of plant ethylene hormone signaling by two arabidopsis F box proteins: EBF1 and EBF2.

Cell 2003 Dec;115(6):679-89

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Cédex, Strasbourg, France.

The plant hormone ethylene regulates a wide range of developmental processes and the response of plants to stress and pathogens. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis led to a partial elucidation of the mechanisms of ethylene action. Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at a family of ethylene receptors and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL and ERF families of plant-specific transcription factors. Here, we identify two Arabidopsis F box proteins called EBF1 and EBF2 that interact physically with EIN3/EIL transcription factors. EBF1 overexpression results in plants insensitive to ethylene. In contrast, plants carrying the ebf1 and ebf2 mutations display a constitutive ethylene response and accumulate the EIN3 protein in the absence of the hormone. Our work places EBF1 and EBF2 within the genetic framework of the ethylene-response pathway and supports a model in which ethylene action depends on EIN3 protein stabilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00968-1DOI Listing
December 2003

Asymmetric loading of Kar9 onto spindle poles and microtubules ensures proper spindle alignment.

Cell 2003 Feb;112(4):561-74

Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Hoenggerberg, HPM, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

Spindle alignment is the process in which the two spindle poles are directed toward preselected and opposite cell ends. In budding yeast, the APC-related molecule Kar9 is required for proper alignment of the spindle with the mother-bud axis. We find that Kar9 localizes to the prospective daughter cell spindle pole. Kar9 is transferred from the pole to cytoplasmic microtubules, which are then guided in a myosin-dependent manner to the bud. Clb4/Cdc28 kinase phosphorylates Kar9 and accumulates on the pole destined to the mother cell. Mutations that block phosphorylation at Cdc28 consensus sites result in localization of Kar9 to both poles and target them both to the bud. Thus, Clb4/Cdc28 prevents Kar9 loading on the mother bound pole. In turn, asymmetric distribution of Kar9 ensures that only one pole orients toward the bud. Our results indicate that Cdk1-dependent spindle asymmetry ensures proper alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell division axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00119-3DOI Listing
February 2003

The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects.

J Biol Chem 2002 Dec 14;277(51):50069-80. Epub 2002 Oct 14.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, 12, rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg Cédex, France.

Recently in yeast and animal cells, one particular class of ubiquitin ligase (E3), called the SCF, was demonstrated to regulate diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In plants SCF-dependent proteolysis is also involved in different developmental and hormonal regulations. To further investigate the function of SCF, we characterized at the molecular level the Arabidopsis RING-H2 finger protein AtRbx1. We demonstrated that the plant gene is able to functionally complement a yeast knockout mutant strain and showed that AtRbx1 protein interacts physically with at least two members of the Arabidopsis cullin family (AtCul1 and AtCul4). AtRbx1 also associates with AtCul1 and the Arabidopsis SKP1-related proteins in planta, indicating that it is part of plant SCF complexes. AtRbx1 mRNAs accumulate in various tissues of the plant, but at higher levels in tissues containing actively dividing cells. Finally to study the function of the gene in planta, we either overexpressed AtRbx1 or reduced its expression by a dsRNA strategy. Down-regulation of AtRbx1 impaired seedling growth and development, indicating that the gene is essential in plants. Furthermore, the AtRbx1-silenced plants showed a reduced level of AtCul1 protein, but accumulated higher level of cyclin D3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M204254200DOI Listing
December 2002