Publications by authors named "Sandrine François-Souquiere"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CD4 receptor diversity represents an ancient protection mechanism against primate lentiviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project, BP 2012, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Infection with human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV) requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the host protein CD4 on the surface of immune cells. Although invariant in humans, the Env binding domain of the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants circulating in wild populations. Here, we show that within-species CD4 diversity is not unique to chimpanzees but found in many African primate species. Characterizing the outermost (D1) domain of the CD4 protein in over 500 monkeys and apes, we found polymorphic residues in 24 of 29 primate species, with as many as 11 different coding variants identified within a single species. D1 domain amino acid replacements affected SIV Env-mediated cell entry in a single-round infection assay, restricting infection in a strain- and allele-specific fashion. Several identical CD4 polymorphisms, including the addition of -linked glycosylation sites, were found in primate species from different genera, providing striking examples of parallel evolution. Moreover, seven different guenons ( spp.) shared multiple distinct D1 domain variants, pointing to long-term trans-specific polymorphism. These data indicate that the HIV/SIV Env binding region of the primate CD4 protein is highly variable, both within and between species, and suggest that this diversity has been maintained by balancing selection for millions of years, at least in part to confer protection against primate lentiviruses. Although long-term SIV-infected species have evolved specific mechanisms to avoid disease progression, primate lentiviruses are intrinsically pathogenic and have left their mark on the host genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025914118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020793PMC
March 2021

Low prevalence of HCV infection with predominance of genotype 4 among HIV patients living in Libreville, Gabon.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(1):e0190529. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Laboratoire National de Référence IST/Sida, Département de Bactériologie-Virologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université des Sciences de la Santé, Owendo, Gabon.

Background: Gabon is an endemic area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the risk of co-infection is high.

Method: Between November 2015 and April 2016, we conducted retrospective study on HCV infection among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). A total of 491 PLHA were included in this study and tested for the presence of HCV infection. HIV viral loads were obtained using the Generic HIV viral Load® assay and the CD4+ T cells count was performed using BD FACSCount™ CD4 reagents. HCV screening was performed using the MP Diagnostics HCV ELISA 4.0 kit. HCV genotypes were determined by sequence analysis of NS5B and Core regions. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups. Chi-2 test and Fisher's Exact Test were used to compare prevalence.

Results: HCV seroprevalence was 2.9% (14/491), (95% confidence interval (CI):1.4-4.3%). The percentage of HCV viremic patients, defined by the detection of HCV RNA in plasma, was 57% (8/14), representing 1.6% of the total population. HCV seroprevalence and replicative infection were not statistically differ with gender. The percentage of co-infection increased with age. No correlation with CD4+ T cells count and HIV viral load level was registered in this study. Identified HCV strains were predominantly of genotype 4 (87.5%) including 4k, 4e, 4g, 4p, 4f and 4c subtypes. Only one strain belonged to genotype 2 (subtype 2q). Analysis of the NS5B region did not reveal the presence of resistance-associated substitutions for sofosbuvir.

Conclusion: A systematic screening of hepatitis C is therefore strongly recommended as well as genotyping of HCV strains in order to adapt treatments for the specific case of people living with HIV/AIDS in Central Africa.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190529PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791959PMC
February 2018

Hepatitis B infection among HIV infected individuals in Gabon: Occult hepatitis B enhances HBV DNA prevalence.

PLoS One 2018 9;13(1):e0190592. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Unité Mixte de Recherches VIH et Maladies Infectieuses Associées (UMR VIH-MIA), Centre International de Recherches Médicales (CIRMF), Libreville, Gabon.

In Gabon, a central African country, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are endemic. In a recent study, conducted in a semi-urban area (Franceville, Gabon), HBV infection was found to be more prevalent among HIV infected individuals. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus infection among HIV infected individuals, predominantly under antiretroviral therapy, living in fully urbanized area: Libreville, capital of Gabon. Serological and molecular tests were performed to detect HBV infection among patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). We used Monolisa HBsAg ULTRA, Anti-HBc Plus and Anti-HBs Plus EIA kits for serological analyses. HBV DNA viral load (HBV DNA VL) was determined by real time PCR and molecular characterization of HBV strains was performed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial HBV surface and core genes. At all, 70.2% of patients were under antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of HBsAg was 8.8% (43/487). Detectable HBV DNA was found in 69.7% (30/43) of HBsAg positive patients and in 17.5% (24/137) HBsAg negative patients. HBV DNA VL was significantly higher among patient with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 than those with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3 (p = 0.008). We confirmed the presence of HBV sub-genotypes QS-A3 (40%), and A4 (20%) and HBV-E genotype (40%). The percentage of resistance to Lamivudine was high (40%) and varied according to the M204V/I motif. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) was found in patients with isolated HBcAb and among patients who had completed their HBsAg seroconversion. We detected HBV DNA for one patient without any HBV serological marker. This study provides a new landmark for the comprehension of HBV infection in PLHA in urban areas. OBI enhances HBV DNA prevalence and should be investigated in all HBsAg negative individuals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190592PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5760027PMC
February 2018

Broad Range of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patterns, Dual Circulation of Quasi-Subgenotype A3 and HBV/E and Heterogeneous HBV Mutations in HIV-Positive Patients in Gabon.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(1):e0143869. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Laboratoire de Rétrovirologie, Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville, Gabon.

Integrated data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) patterns, HBV genotypes and mutations are lacking in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients from Africa. This survey was conducted in 2010-2013 among 762 HIV-1-positive adults from Gabon who were predominantly treated with 3TC-based antiretroviral treatment. HBV patterns were identified using immunoassays detecting total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM HBcAb, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBsAg (HBsAb) and an in-house real-time PCR test for HBV DNA quantification. Occult hepatitis B (OBI) was defined by the presence of isolated anti-HBc with detectable serum HBV DNA. HBV genotypes and HBV mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. Seventy-one (9.3%) patients tested positive for HBsAg, including one with acute hepatitis B (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%), nine with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.6%-2.2%), 16 with HBeAg-negative CHB (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-3.3%) and 45 inactive HBV carriers (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.4%-7.8%). Sixty-one (8.0%; 95% CI, 6.2%-10.1%) patients showed OBI. Treated patients showed similar HBV DNA levels to those obtained in untreated patients, regardless of HBV patterns. Around 15.0% of OBI patients showed high (>1,000 UI/mL) viremia. The mutation M204V/I conferring resistance to 3TC was more common in HBV/A (47.4%) than in HBV/E isolates (0%) (P = .04). Our findings encouraged clinicians to promote HBV vaccination in patients with no exposure to HBV and to switch 3TC to universal TDF in those with CHB.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143869PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4713159PMC
July 2016

Epidemiological and molecular features of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virus transmission in a remote rural community in central Africa.

Infect Genet Evol 2016 Apr 30;39:12-21. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, BP 769, Franceville, Gabon; Réseau International des Instituts Pasteur, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, French Guiana, France. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) occur worldwide and are prevalent in both urban and remote rural communities. In a remote village in Gabon, central Africa, we observed a high prevalence of HBsAg carriage and HDV infection, particularly in children and adolescents. The prevalence of HBsAg differed significantly by gender and age, females being more likely than males to carry the HBsAg during the first 10 years of life, while the prevalence was higher among males than females aged 11-20 years. We also characterised HBV and HDV strains circulating in the village. The principal HBV strains belonged to genotype HBV-E and subgenotype QS-A3. Complete genome analysis revealed for the first time the presence of the HBV-D genotype in Gabon, in the form of an HBV-D/E recombinant. Molecular analysis of HDV strains and their complete genomic characterisation revealed two distinct groups within the dominant HDV clade 8. Molecular analysis of HBV and HDV strains did not reveal vertical transmission within the families studied but rather horizontal, intrafamilial transmission among children aged 0-10 years. Our findings indicate that HBV is transmitted in early childhood by body fluids rather than by sexual contact. Health education adapted to the different age groups might therefore help to reduce HBV transmission. Young children should be vaccinated to control HBV infection in areas of extremely high prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.12.021DOI Listing
April 2016