Publications by authors named "Sandrine Cabut"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Living on the edge: Was demographic weakness the cause of Neanderthal demise?

PLoS One 2019 29;14(5):e0216742. Epub 2019 May 29.

Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, EFS, ADES, Marseille, France.

The causes of disappearance of the Neanderthals, the only human population living in Europe before the arrival of Homo sapiens, have been debated for decades by the scientific community. Different hypotheses have been advanced to explain this demise, such as cognitive, adaptive and cultural inferiority of Neanderthals. Here, we investigate the disappearance of Neanderthals by examining the extent of demographic changes needed over a period of 10,000 years (yrs) to lead to their extinction. In regard to such fossil populations, we inferred demographic parameters from present day and past hunter-gatherer populations, and from bio-anthropological rules. We used demographic modeling and simulations to identify the set of plausible demographic parameters of the Neanderthal population compatible with the observed dynamics, and to explore the circumstances under which they might have led to the disappearance of Neanderthals. A slight (<4%) but continuous decrease in the fertility rate of younger Neanderthal women could have had a significant impact on these dynamics, and could have precipitated their demise. Our results open the way to non-catastrophic events as plausible explanations for Neanderthal extinction.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216742PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541251PMC
January 2020

Urban and rural infant-feeding practices and health in early medieval Central Europe (9th-10th Century, Czech Republic).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2014 Dec 25;155(4):635-51. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Ministère de la culture et de la communication, LAMPEA UMR 7269, 13094, Aix-en-Provence, France; Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Václavské náměstí 68, 11579, Praha 1, Czech Republic; Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Viničná 7, 12844, Praha 2, Czech Republic.

In the Central European context, the 9th and 10th centuries are well known for rapid cultural and societal changes concerning the development of the economic and political structures of states as well as the adoption of Christianity. A bioarchaeological study based on a subadult skeletal series was conducted to tackle the impact of these changes on infant and young child feeding practices and, consequently, their health in both urban and rural populations. Data on growth and frequency of nonspecific stress indicators of a subadult group aged 0-6 years were analyzed. A subsample of 41 individuals was selected for nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses, applying an intra-individual sampling strategy (bone vs. tooth). The isotopic results attest to a mosaic of food behaviors. In the urban sample, some children may have been weaned during their second year of life, while some others may have still been consuming breast milk substantially up to 4-5 years of age. By contrast, data from the rural sample show more homogeneity, with a gradual cessation of breastfeeding starting after the age of 2 years. Several factors are suggested which may have been responsible for applied weaning strategies. There is no evidence that observed weaning strategies affected the level of biological stress which the urban subadult population had to face compared with the rural subadult population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22620DOI Listing
December 2014

Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.

Therapie 2014 Jul-Aug;69(4):355-66. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Hôpital Saint Louis, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie/2014045DOI Listing
January 2015

The burden of HIV experience and care among MSM having an HIV-positive seroconcordant steady partner: a possible research hypothesis. Results from the French VESPA ANRS EN-12 study.

Sex Transm Infect 2011 Aug 14;87(5):396-8. Epub 2011 May 14.

INSERM, U912 (SE4S), 23 rue Stanislas Torrents, 13006 Marseille, France;

Objectives: Prevention fatigue, relapse into unsafe sex practices and sexual behaviour changes have been reported in the community of men who have sex with men (MSM) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Engaging in a relationship with a seroconcordant partner is perceived by some HIV-positive MSM as an alternative prevention strategy to consistent condom use. This study addresses whether underlying clinical factors exist characterising HIV-positive MSM in seroconcordant stable partnerships, enrolled in the French national cross-sectional survey VESPA ANRS EN-12.

Methods: The study group comprised 322 HIV-positive MSM in stable relationships for more than 12 months, with a serodiscordant (n = 251) or seroconcordant (n = 71) steady partner. Clinical and psychosocial factors were analysed for HIV-positive MSM with a seroconcordant steady partner.

Results: Multiple adjustment by logistic regression showed that individuals with a seroconcordant steady partner were more likely to have a history of an AIDS-defining event (OR 95% CI 2.0 (1.1 to 3.7), p = 0.02) or be diagnosed as HIV positive before 1990 (OR 95% CI 2.2 (1.3 to 3.9), p = 0.004). Conversely, HIV-positive MSM experiencing virological success (ie, high treatment adherence and an undetectable viral load) were more likely to have a serodiscordant steady partner (OR 95% CI 0.5 (0.3 to 0.9), p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are required to understand to what extent HIV history might influence partnership choices among HIV-positive MSM. Positive prevention programmes and reinforcement of treatment adherence strategies are needed for this population and their steady sexual partners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.2010.048660DOI Listing
August 2011

Use of imaging in the follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: practices in occupational medicine and its determinants.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2011 Jan-Mar;17(1):71-9

ORS PACA, Observatoire Regional de la Santé Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, Southeastern Regional Health Observatory Marseille, France.

We studied occupational physicians' (OPs) practices of referrals for imaging of workers occupationally exposed to lung/pleural carcinogens and the factors associated with them. This cross-sectional telephone survey of 379 OPs practicing in Southeastern France showed that 81% of them referred exposed patients for chest radiographs, 33.5% for computed tomography (CT), and 16.1% for neither. Making no referral was positively associated with believing cancer risks are lower in one's own geographic sector than elsewhere and negatively associated with keeping employee risk records up-to-date. Referrals for CT were positively associated with work at in-house occupational health services (OHS), and completing employee exposure histories often/always. Both the OHS type and factors that may shape OPs' awareness of cancer risks in their sector appear to influence imaging referral practices. Occupational physicians would benefit from guidelines clarifying benefits and risks associated with imaging in such patients. An effort to harmonize regulatory provisions and guidelines also appears necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/107735211799031158DOI Listing
March 2011

Topography and crop management are key factors for the development of american leaf spot epidemics on coffee in costa rica.

Phytopathology 2007 Dec;97(12):1532-42

ABSTRACT We monitored the development of American leaf spot of coffee, a disease caused by the gemmiferous fungus Mycena citricolor, in 57 plots in Costa Rica for 1 or 2 years in order to gain a clearer understanding of conditions conducive to the disease and improve its control. During the investigation, characteristics of the coffee trees, crop management, and the environment were recorded. For the analyses, we used partial least-squares regression via the spline functions (PLSS), which is a nonlinear extension to partial least-squares regression (PLS). The fungus developed well in areas located between approximately 1,100 and 1,550 m above sea level. Slopes were conducive to its development, but eastern-facing slopes were less affected than the others, probably because they were more exposed to sunlight, especially in the rainy season. The distance between planting rows, the shade percentage, coffee tree height, the type of shade, and the pruning system explained disease intensity due to their effects on coffee tree shading and, possibly, on the humidity conditions in the plot. Forest trees and fruit trees intercropped with coffee provided particularly propitious conditions. Apparently, fertilization was unfavorable for the disease, probably due to dilution phenomena associated with faster coffee tree growth. Finally, series of wet spells interspersed with dry spells, which were frequent in the middle of the rainy season, were critical for the disease, probably because they affected the production and release of gemmae and their viability. These results could be used to draw up a map of epidemic risks taking topographical factors into account. To reduce those risks and improve chemical control, our results suggested that farmers should space planting rows further apart, maintain light shading in the plantation, and prune their coffee trees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-97-12-1532DOI Listing
December 2007

Barriers to physician reporting of workers' compensation cases in France.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2008 Jul-Sep;14(3):198-205

Southeastern Health Regional Observatory, Marseilles, France.

Studies suggest strong underreporting of occupational diseases in industrialized countries. We studied physician-related barriers to reporting of occupational sciatica (with herniated disk). We conducted a telephone survey of 391 general practitioners (GPs) and 96 rheumatologists in southeastern France with a standardized questionnaire and case-vignette of a patient with occupational sciatica. Our results show that 71% of GPs and 78% of rheumatologists would not recommend that the case-vignette patient file a workers' compensation claim, for the following reasons: possible role of nonwork-related activities (77%, 74%), should be reported as an occupational accident (67%, 42%), recommendation should be made by occupational physicians (60%, 60%), and risk of patient's losing his job (47%, 38%). Our results suggest that occupational sciatica is underreported in France. Physicians' lack of knowledge of reporting principles and procedures and their ethical dilemma regarding job loss may be barriers to reporting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/oeh.2008.14.3.198DOI Listing
December 2008