Publications by authors named "Sandra Rusby"

3 Publications

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Hardness measured with traditional Vickers and Martens hardness methods.

Dent Mater 2007 Sep 4;23(9):1079-85. Epub 2006 Dec 4.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Objective: To determine the differences, if any, between hardness measured with traditional Vickers and Martens hardness test methods on denture teeth under 2, 10 and 50 N loads.

Method: Hardness of acrylic resin (VIV), composite resin (ORT) and porcelain (POR) denture tooth materials was measured using a traditional Vickers hardness (HV) method and Martens hardness (HM) method at 2, 10 and 50N test loads. Vickers hardness was also calculated from the force-indentation depth curves (HVfid) that were recorded during Martens hardness. Indentation creep of the three test materials was also determined during Martens hardness testing.

Results: HM values were the same irrespective of the test force used. However, HV values were different for the three test forces. ANOVA using Tukey's test of the HM data showed that the hardness of POR was significantly higher than VIV or ORT (P<0.001). Moreover, ORT had a significantly higher hardness than VIV (P<0.001). The statistical analysis of HVfid data showed similar results. ANOVA of the HV data showed the hardness of VIV to be significantly higher than ORT (P<0.001) under 2, 10 and 50 N test load. The HV values for POR under 2 and 10 N test load could not be calculated because of inability to measure the indentation diagonals. Under the 50 N load, the hardness of POR was significantly higher than VIV and ORT. POR had a significantly lower creep value than any other material tested while VIV showed a statistically significantly higher creep than ORT.

Significance: This study confirms that the visco-elastic recovery of the materials has a very significant effect on the outcome of the hardness tests of denture teeth and the Martens hardness test method has obvious advantages when testing dental materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2006.10.001DOI Listing
September 2007

Water absorption, dimensional change and radial pressure in resin matrix dental restorative materials.

Biomaterials 2004 Aug;25(18):4001-7

Dental Materials Science Unit, School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW, UK.

The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between water absorption, dimensional change (swelling) under cavity constraint and radial stress generation in resin matrix dental restorative materials. Water absorption was determined on disc specimens whilst swelling was determined on samples of materials restrained within cavities cut in cast polymethylmethacrylate and pressure generated was determined using a 'push-out' test. Four commercially available resin matrix materials were used. A giomer material gave significantly greater water absorption than two compomers and a fluoride releasing composite (p<0.05). The giomer material was the only material which produced a significant degree of swelling (p<0.05) when restrained within a cavity. The giomer product produced the greatest radial pressure (over 20 MPa in 1 month) following water storage, however a significant pressure generation was also observed for other materials despite their much lower water absorption values. The mechanism of water absorption and the amount of water absorbed determine the dimensional changes and radial pressure generated by resin matrix materials in a moist environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.10.088DOI Listing
August 2004

Determination of fluoride ions released from resin-based dental materials using ion-selective electrode and ion chromatograph.

J Dent 2004 Feb;32(2):117-22

Dental Materials Science Unit, School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Framlington Place, NE2 4BW, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quantities of total and free fluoride ions released from four resin-based composites containing fluoride (Heliomolar (HE), UniFil S (UF), Beautifil (BE) and Reactmer paste (RP)) and one glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Fil Plus Aplicap (KF)).

Methods: Five disk specimens of each material were prepared and the fluoride release was measured at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The amounts of total and free fluoride ions released from materials were measured by using an ion-selective electrode (ISE) and ion chromatography (IC). Data were statistically analyzed using a t-test at a significant level of 0.05.

Results: For HE, fluoride release is undetectable using the ISE but was detected by the IC method. There were no significant differences in the free and total fluoride ions released from UF and BE (p>0.05). For RP, the free fluoride ions were significantly lower than the total fluoride ions after 4 days (p<0.05). KF showed significant difference between total and free fluoride ions at 7 and 28 days (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The nature of the fluoride incorporated into dental materials affected the amounts of free and total fluoride ions released from materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2003.09.002DOI Listing
February 2004