Publications by authors named "Sandra R Chaplan"

33 Publications

The effects of FAAH inhibition on the neural basis of anxiety-related processing in healthy male subjects: a randomized clinical trial.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 04 17;46(5):1011-1019. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, CA, USA.

Acute pharmacological inhibition of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), prolongs the regulatory effects of endocannabinoids and reverses the stress-induced anxiety state in a cannabinoid receptor-dependent manner. However, the neural systems underlying this modulation are poorly understood. A single site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted with 43 subjects assigned to receive once daily dosing of either placebo (n = 21) or JNJ-42165279 (100 mg) (n = 22) for 4 consecutive days. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed on the last day of dosing and included evaluation of brain activation patterns using BOLD fMRI during an (1) emotion face-processing task, (2) inspiratory breathing load task, and (3) fear conditioning and extinction task. JNJ-42165279 attenuated activation in the amygdala, bilateral anterior cingulate, and bilateral insula during the emotion face-processing task consistent with effects previously observed with anxiolytic agents. Higher levels of anandamide were associated with greater attenuation in bilateral anterior cingulate and left insula. JNJ-42165279 increased the activation during anticipation of an aversive interoceptive event in the anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula and right inferior frontal cortex. JNJ-42165279 did not affect fear conditioning or within-session extinction learning as evidenced by a lack of differences on a subjective and neural circuit level. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that JNJ-42165279 at this dose shares some effects with existing anxiolytic agents in dampening response to emotional stimuli but not responses to conditioned fear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-00936-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Selective inhibition of peripheral cathepsin S reverses tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury in mouse.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Aug 11;880:173171. Epub 2020 May 11.

Janssen Research & Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.

Cathepsin S (CatS) is a cysteine protease found in lysosomes of hematopoietic and microglial cells and in secreted form in the extracellular space. While CatS has been shown to contribute significantly to neuropathic pain, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this report, we describe JNJ-39641160, a novel non-covalent, potent, selective and orally-available CatS inhibitor that is peripherally restricted (non-CNS penetrant) and may represent an innovative class of immunosuppressive and analgesic compounds and tools useful toward investigating peripheral mechanisms of CatS in neuropathic pain. In C57BL/6 mice, JNJ-39641160 dose-dependently blocked the proteolysis of the invariant chain, and inhibited both T-cell activation and antibody production to a vaccine antigen. In the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of chronic neuropathic pain, in which T-cell activation has previously been demonstrated to be a prerequisite for the development of pain hypersensitivity, JNJ-39641160 fully reversed tactile allodynia in wild-type mice but was completely ineffective in the same model in CatS knockout mice (which exhibited a delayed onset in allodynia). By contrast, in the acute mild thermal injury (MTI) model, JNJ-39641160 only weakly attenuated allodynia at the highest dose tested. These findings support the hypothesis that blockade of peripheral CatS alone is sufficient to fully reverse allodynia following peripheral nerve injury and suggest that the mechanism of action likely involves interruption of T-cell activation and peripheral cytokine release. In addition, they provide important insights toward the development of selective CatS inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173171DOI Listing
August 2020

The discovery and preclinical characterization of 6-chloro-N-(2-(4,4-difluoropiperidin-1-yl)-2-(2-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)quinoline-5-carboxamide based P2X7 antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 10 20;26(19):4781-4784. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

The synthesis, SAR and preclinical characterization of a series of 6-chloro-N-(2-(4,4-difluoropiperidin-1-yl)-2-(2-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)quinoline-5-carboxamide based P2X7 antagonists is described herein. The lead compounds are potent inhibitors in Ca(2+) flux and whole blood IL-1β P2X7 release assays at both human and mouse isoforms. Compound 1e showed a robust reduction of IL-1β release in a mouse ex vivo model with a 50mg/kg oral dose. Evaluation of compound 1e in the mouse SNI tactile allodynia, carrageenan-induced paw edema or CIA models resulted in no analgesic or anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.08.029DOI Listing
October 2016

The SAR of brain penetration for a series of heteroaryl urea FAAH inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 07 5;26(13):3109-3114. Epub 2016 May 5.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, L.L.C. 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

The SAR of brain penetration for a series of heteroaryl piperazinyl- and piperadinyl-urea fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors is described. Brain/plasma (B/P) ratios ranging from >4:1 to as low as 0.02:1 were obtained through relatively simple structural changes to various regions of the heteroaryl urea scaffold. It was not possible to predict the degree of central nervous system (CNS) penetration from the volumes of distribution (Vd) obtained from pharmacokinetic (PK) experiments as very high Vds did not correlate with high B/P ratios. Similarly, calculated topological polar surface areas (TPSAs) did not consistently correlate with the degree of brain penetration. The lowest B/P ratios were observed for those compounds that were significantly ionized at physiological pH. However, as this class of compounds inhibits the FAAH enzyme through covalent modification, low B/P ratios did not preclude effective central target engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.05.001DOI Listing
July 2016

Preclinical Characterization of the FAAH Inhibitor JNJ-42165279.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2015 Dec 2;6(12):1204-8. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, L.L.C. , 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

The pre-clinical characterization of the aryl piperazinyl urea inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) JNJ-42165279 is described. JNJ-42165279 covalently inactivates the FAAH enzyme, but is highly selective with regard to other enzymes, ion channels, transporters, and receptors. JNJ-42165279 exhibited excellent ADME and pharmacodynamic properties as evidenced by its ability to block FAAH in the brain and periphery of rats and thereby cause an elevation of the concentrations of anandamide (AEA), oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), and palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA). The compound was also efficacious in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain. The combination of good physical, ADME, and PD properties of JNJ-42165279 supported it entering the clinical portfolio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4677372PMC
December 2015

Characterization of JNJ-42847922, a Selective Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, as a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Insomnia.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015 Sep 15;354(3):471-82. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California

Dual orexin receptor antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in various species, including humans. Emerging research indicates that selective orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonists may offer specificity and a more adequate sleep profile by preserving normal sleep architecture. Here, we characterized JNJ-42847922 ([5-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-hexahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-2-yl]-(2-fluoro-6-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-phenyl)-methanone), a high-affinity/potent OX2R antagonist. JNJ-42847922 had an approximate 2-log selectivity ratio versus the human orexin-1 receptor. Ex vivo receptor binding studies demonstrated that JNJ-42847922 quickly occupied OX2R binding sites in the rat brain after oral administration and rapidly cleared from the brain. In rats, single oral administration of JNJ-42847922 (3-30 mg/kg) during the light phase dose dependently reduced the latency to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and prolonged NREM sleep time in the first 2 hours, whereas REM sleep was minimally affected. The reduced sleep onset and increased sleep duration were maintained upon 7-day repeated dosing (30 mg/kg) with JNJ-42847922, then all sleep parameters returned to baseline levels following discontinuation. Although the compound promoted sleep in wild-type mice, it had no effect in OX2R knockout mice, consistent with a specific OX2R-mediated sleep response. JNJ-42847922 did not increase dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens or produce place preference in mice after subchronic conditioning, indicating that the compound lacks intrinsic motivational properties in contrast to zolpidem. In a single ascending dose study conducted in healthy subjects, JNJ-42847922 increased somnolence and displayed a favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profile for a sedative/hypnotic, thus emerging as a promising candidate for further clinical development for the treatment of insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.115.225466DOI Listing
September 2015

Two TRPV1 receptor antagonists are effective in two different experimental models of migraine.

J Headache Pain 2015 24;16:57. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Department of Physiology, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074, Aachen, Germany,

Background: The capsaicin and heat responsive ion channel TRPV1 is expressed on trigeminal nociceptive neurons and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine attacks. Here we investigate the efficacy of two TRPV1 channel antagonists in blocking trigeminal activation using two in vivo models of migraine.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to study the effects of the TRPV1 antagonists JNJ-38893777 and JNJ-17203212 on trigeminal activation. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos was measured following intracisternal application of inflammatory soup. In a second model, CGRP release into the external jugular vein was determined following injection of capsaicin into the carotid artery.

Results: Inflammatory up-regulation of c-fos in the trigeminal brain stem complex was dose-dependently and significantly reduced by both TRPV1 antagonists. Capsaicin-induced CGRP release was attenuated by JNJ-38893777 only in higher dosage. JNJ-17203212 was effective in all doses and fully abolished CGRP release in a time and dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Our results describe two TRPV1 antagonists that are effective in two in vivo models of migraine. These results suggest that TRPV1 may play a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms, which are relevant to migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-015-0539-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491068PMC
February 2016

Antihistamines and itch.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2015 ;226:257-90

Janssen Research and Development, L.L.C., San Diego, CA, 92121, USA,

Histamine is one of the best-characterized pruritogens in humans. It is known to play a role in pruritus associated with urticaria as well as ocular and nasal allergic reactions. Histamine mediates its effect via four receptors. Antihistamines that block the activation of the histamine H₁receptor, H₁R, have been shown to be effective therapeutics for the treatment of pruritus associated with urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. However, their efficacy in other pruritic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis is limited. The other histamine receptors may also play a role in pruritus, with the exception of the histamine H₂receptor, H₂R. Preclinical evidence indicates that local antagonism of the histamine H₃receptor, H₃R, can induce scratching perhaps via blocking inhibitory neuronal signals. The histamine H₄receptor, H₄R, has received a significant amount of attention as to its role in mediating pruritic signals. Indeed, it has now been shown that a selective H₄R antagonist can inhibit histamine-induced itch in humans. This clinical result, in conjunction with efficacy in various preclinical pruritus models, points to the therapeutic potential of H₄R antagonists for the treatment of pruritus not controlled by antihistamines that target the H₁R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44605-8_15DOI Listing
July 2015

1-Aryl-2-((6-aryl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)ethanols as competitive inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014 Mar 31;24(5):1280-4. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

A series of 1-aryl-2-(((6-aryl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)ethanols have been found to be competitive inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). One member of this class, JNJ-40413269, was found to have excellent pharmacokinetic properties, demonstrated robust central target engagement, and was efficacious in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.01.064DOI Listing
March 2014

Heteroarylureas with spirocyclic diamine cores as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014 Feb 6;24(3):737-41. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Janssen Research and Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

A series of mechanism based heteroaryl urea fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors with spirocyclic diamine cores is described. A potent member of this class, (37), was found to inhibit FAAH centrally, elevate the brain levels of three fatty acid ethanolamides [FAAs: anandamide (AEA), oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA)], and was moderately efficacious in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.12.113DOI Listing
February 2014

Heteroaryl urea inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase: structure-mutagenicity relationships for arylamine metabolites.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2012 Dec 22;22(24):7357-62. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Janssen Research and Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

The structure-activity relationships for a series of heteroaryl urea inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are described. Members of this class of inhibitors have been shown to inactivate FAAH by covalent modification of an active site serine with subsequent release of an aromatic amine from the urea electrophile. Systematic Ames II testing guided the optimization of urea substituents by defining the structure-mutagenicity relationships for the released aromatic amine metabolites. Potent FAAH inhibitors were identified having heteroaryl amine leaving groups that were non-mutagenic in the Ames II assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.076DOI Listing
December 2012

Discovery of a novel series of selective HCN1 blockers.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011 Sep 23;21(18):5197-201. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

The discovery of a series of novel, potent, and selective blockers of the cyclic nucleotide-modulated channel HCN1 is disclosed. Here we report an SAR study around a series of selective blockers of the HCN1 channel. Utilization of a high-throughput VIPR assay led to the identification of a novel series of 2,2-disubstituted indane derivatives, which had moderate selectivity and potency at HCN1. Optimization of this hit led to the identification of the potent, 1,1-disubstituted cyclohexane HCN1 blocker, 2-ethoxy-N-((1-(4-isopropylpiperazin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)methyl)benzamide. The work leading to the discovery of this compound is described herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.07.051DOI Listing
September 2011

Characterization of 2-(2,6-dichloro-benzyl)-thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidin-7-yl]-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-amine (JNJ-39729209) as a novel TRPV1 antagonist.

Eur J Pharmacol 2011 Aug 10;663(1-3):40-50. Epub 2011 May 10.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

As an integrator of multiple nociceptive and/or inflammatory stimuli, TRPV1 is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of various painful disorders. Several TRPV1 antagonists have been advanced into clinical trials and the initial observations suggest that TRPV1 antagonism may be associated with mild hyperthermia and thermal insensitivity in man. However, no clinical efficacy studies have been described to date, making an assessment of risk:benefit impossible. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these early observations are representative of all TRPV1 antagonists and whether additional clinical studies with novel TRPV1 antagonists are required in order to understand optimal compound characteristics. In the present study we describe 2-(2,6-dichloro-benzyl)-thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidin-7-yl]-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-amine (JNJ-39729309) as a novel, TRPV1 antagonist. JNJ-39729209 displaced tritiated resiniferotoxin binding to TRPV1 and prevented TRPV1 activation by capsaicin, protons and heat. In-vivo, JNJ-39729209 blocked capsaicin-induced hypotension, induced a mild hyperthermia and inhibited capsaicin-induced hypothermia in a dose dependent manner. JNJ-39729209 showed significant efficacy against carrageenan- and CFA-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and exhibited significant anti-tussive activity in a guinea-pig model of capsaicin-induced cough. In pharmacokinetic studies, JNJ-39729209 was found to have low clearance, a moderate volume of distribution, good oral bioavailability and was brain penetrant. On the basis of these findings, JNJ-39729209 represents a structurally novel TRPV1 antagonist with potential for clinical development. The advancement of JNJ-39729209 into human clinical trials could be useful in further understanding the analgesic potential of TRPV1 antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.05.001DOI Listing
August 2011

Discovery and synthesis of 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-pyrimido-[4,5-d]azepines as novel TRPV1 antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Dec 17;20(23):7137-41. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development LLC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Utilization of a tetrahydro-pyrimdoazepine core as a bioisosteric replacement for a piperazine-urea resulted in the discovery a novel series of potent antagonists of TRPV1. The tetrahydro-pyrimdoazepines have been identified as having good in vitro and in vivo potency and acceptable physical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.09.023DOI Listing
December 2010

1,2-diamino-ethane-substituted-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-pyrimido[4,5-d]azepines as TRPV1 antagonists with improved properties.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Dec 7;20(23):7142-6. Epub 2010 Sep 7.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development LLC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Based upon a previously reported lead compound 1, a series of 1,2-diamino-ethane-substituted-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-pyrimido[4,5-d]azepines were synthesized and evaluated for improved physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties while maintaining TRPV1 antagonist activity. Structure-activity relationship studies directed toward improving the aqueous solubility (pH 2 and fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (SIF)) and rat pharmacokinetics led to the discovery of compound 13. Aqueous solubility of compound 13 (pH 2 ≥237 μg/mL and SIF=11 μg/mL) was significantly improved over compound 1 (pH 2=5 μg/mL and SIF=0.5 μg/mL). In addition, compound 13 afforded improved rat pharmacokinetics (CL=0.7 L/kg/h) compared to compound 1 (CL=3.1 L/kg/h). Compound 13 was orally bioavailable and afforded a significant reversal of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia at 5 and 30 mg/kg in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.09.006DOI Listing
December 2010

Sodium channel blockers for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Neurotherapeutics 2009 Oct;6(4):663-78

Pain & Related Disorders Team, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

Drugs that block voltage-gated sodium channels are efficacious in the management of neuropathic pain. Accordingly, this class of ion channels has been a major focus of analgesic research both in academia and in the pharmaceutical/biotechnology industry. In this article, we review the history of the use of sodium channel blockers, describe the current status of sodium channel drug discovery, highlight the challenges and hurdles to attain sodium channel subtype selectivity, and review the potential usefulness of selective sodium channel blockers in neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nurt.2009.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084288PMC
October 2009

HCN channels as targets for drug discovery.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2009 Jan;12(1):64-72

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Hyperpolarization- and Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are a family of six transmembrane domain, single pore-loop, hyperpolarization activated, non-selective cation channels. The HCN family consists of four members (HCN1-4). HCN channels represent the molecular correlates of I(h) (also known as 'funny' I(f) and 'queer' I(q)), a hyperpolarization-activated current best known for its role in controlling heart rate and in the regulation of neuronal resting membrane potential and excitability. A significant body of molecular and pharmacological evidence is now emerging to support a role for these channels in the function of sensory neurons and pain sensation, particularly pain associated with nerve or tissue injury. As such, HCN channels may represent valid targets for novel analgesic agents. This evidence will be reviewed in this article. We will then summarize our efforts to develop and validate methods for screening for novel HCN channel blockers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138620709787048028DOI Listing
January 2009

Biochemical and biological properties of 4-(3-phenyl-[1,2,4] thiadiazol-5-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid phenylamide, a mechanism-based inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

Anesth Analg 2009 Jan;108(1):316-29

Pain and Related Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane enzyme within the amidase-signature family. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of several endogenous biologically active lipids, including anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide), oleoyl ethanolamide, and palmitoyl ethanolamide. These endogenous FAAH substrates have been shown to be involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including synaptic regulation, regulation of sleep and feeding, locomotor activity, pain and inflammation. Here we describe the biochemical and biological properties of a potent and selective FAAH inhibitor, 4-(3-phenyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid phenylamide (JNJ-1661010). The time-dependence of apparent IC(50) values at rat and human recombinant FAAH, dialysis and mass spectrometry data indicate that the acyl piperazinyl fragment of JNJ-1661010 forms a covalent bond with the enzyme. This bond is slowly hydrolyzed, with release of the piperazinyl fragment and recovery of enzyme activity. The lack of inhibition observed in a rat liver esterase assay suggests that JNJ-1661010 is not a general esterase inhibitor. JNJ-1661010 is >100-fold preferentially selective for FAAH-1 when compared to FAAH-2. JNJ-1661010 dose-dependently increases arachidonoyl ethanolamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, and palmitoyl ethanolamide in the rat brain. The compound attenuates tactile allodynia in the rat mild thermal injury model of acute tissue damage and in the rat spinal nerve ligation (Chung) model of neuropathic pain. JNJ-1661010 also diminishes thermal hyperalgesia in the inflammatory rat carrageenan paw model. These data suggest that FAAH inhibitors with modes of action similar to JNJ-1661010 may be useful clinically as broad-spectrum analgesics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ane.0b013e31818c7cbdDOI Listing
January 2009

Identification and synthesis of 2,7-diamino-thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives as TRPV1 antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Jan 13;19(1):40-6. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development LLC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

We have identified and synthesized a series of 2,7-diamino-thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines as TRPV1 antagonists. An exploration of the structure-activity relationships at the 2-, 5-, and 7-positions of the thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine led to the identification of several potent TRPV1 antagonists, including 3, 29, 51, and 57. Compound 3 was orally bioavailable and afforded a significant reversal of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia with an ED(50)=0.5mg/kg in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.11.024DOI Listing
January 2009

Novel ketooxazole based inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008 Mar 30;18(6):2109-13. Epub 2008 Jan 30.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Efforts to improve the properties of the well studied ketooxazole FAAH inhibitor OL-135 resulted in the discovery of a novel propylpiperidine series of FAAH inhibitors that has a modular design and superior properties to OL-135. The efficacy of one of these compounds was demonstrated in a rat spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.01.091DOI Listing
March 2008

Activation of TRPA1 by farnesyl thiosalicylic acid.

Mol Pharmacol 2008 Apr 2;73(4):1225-34. Epub 2008 Jan 2.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The nonselective cation channel TRPA1 (ANKTM1, p120) is a potential mediator of pain, and selective pharmacological modulation of this channel may be analgesic. Although several TRPA1 activators exist, these tend to be either reactive or of low potency and/or selectivity. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to identify novel TRPA1 agonists. Using a combination of calcium fluorescent assays and whole-cell electrophysiology, we discovered several compounds that possess potent, selective TRPA1-activating activity, including several lipid compounds (farnesyl thiosalicylic acid, farnesyl thioacetic acid, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2), and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid), and two marketed drugs: disulfiram (Antabuse; a compound used in the treatment of alcohol abuse) and the antifungal agent chlordantoin. Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid activates the channel in excised patches and in the absence of calcium. Furthermore, using a quadruple TRPA1 mutant, we show that the mechanism of action of farnesyl thiosalicylic acid differs from that of the reactive electrophilic reagent allylisothiocyanate. As a TRPA1 agonist with a potentially novel mechanism of action, farnesyl thiosalicylic acid may be useful in the study of TRPA1 channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.107.042663DOI Listing
April 2008

Pharmacology and antitussive efficacy of 4-(3-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-amide (JNJ17203212), a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist in guinea pigs.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007 Nov 9;323(2):665-74. Epub 2007 Aug 9.

Department of Pain and Related Disorders, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) plays an integral role in modulating the cough reflex, and it is an attractive antitussive drug target. The purpose of this study was to characterize a TRPV1 antagonist, 4-(3-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-amide (JNJ17203212), against the guinea pig TRPV1 receptor in vitro followed by a proof-of-principle study in an acid-induced model of cough. The affinity of JNJ17203212 for the recombinant guinea pig TRPV1 receptor was estimated by radioligand binding, and it was functionally characterized by antagonism of low-pH and capsaicin-induced activation of the ion channel (fluorometric imaging plate reader and electrophysiology). The nature of antagonism was further tested against the native channel in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. Following pharmacokinetic characterization of JNJ17203212 in guinea pigs, pharmacodynamic and efficacy studies were undertaken to establish the antitussive efficacy of the TRPV1 antagonist. The pK(i) of JNJ17203212 for recombinant guinea pig TRPV1 was 7.14 +/- 0.06. JNJ17203212 inhibited both pH (pIC(50) of 7.23 +/- 0.05) and capsaicin (pIC(50) of 6.32 +/- 0.06)-induced channel activation. In whole-cell patch clamp, the pIC(50) for inhibition of guinea pig TRPV1 was 7.3 +/- 0.01. JNJ17203212 demonstrated surmountable antagonism in isolated trachea, with a pK(B) value of 6.2 +/- 0.1. Intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg JNJ17203212 achieved a maximal plasma exposure of 8.0 +/- 0.4 microM, and it attenuated capsaicin evoked coughs with similar efficacy to codeine (25 mg/kg). Last, JNJ17203212 dose-dependently produced antitussive efficacy in citric acid-induced experimental cough in guinea pigs. Our data provide preclinical support for developing TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of cough.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.107.127258DOI Listing
November 2007

The role of pacemaker currents in neuropathic pain.

Pain Pract 2004 Sep;4(3):182-93

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., San Diego, California, USA. schaplan@

Hyperpolarization-activated cation nonselective cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels mediate pacemaker currents that control basic rhythmic processes including heartbeat. Alterations in HCN channel expression or function have been described in both epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmias. Recent evidence suggests that pacemaker currents may also play an important role in ectopic neuronal activity that manifests as neuropathic pain. Pacemaker currents are subject to endogenous regulation by cyclic nucleotides, pH and perhaps phosphorylation. In addition, a number of neuromodulators with known roles in pain affect current density and kinetics. The pharmacology of a number of drugs that are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain includes effects on pacemaker currents. Altered pacemaker currents in injured tissues may be an important mechanism underlying neuropathic pain, and drugs that modulate these currents may offer new therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2004.04303.xDOI Listing
September 2004

Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase produces analgesia by multiple mechanisms.

Br J Pharmacol 2006 May;148(1):102-13

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., San Diego, CA 92121-1126, USA.

1 The reversible fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor OL135 reverses mechanical allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and mild thermal injury (MTI) models in the rat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the cannabinoid and opioid systems in mediating this analgesic effect. 2 Elevated brain concentrations of anandamide (350 pmol g(-1) of tissue vs 60 pmol g(-1) in vehicle-treated controls) were found in brains of rats given OL135 (20 mg kg(-1)) i.p. 15 min prior to 20 mg kg(-1) i.p. anandamide. 3 Predosing rats with OL135 (2-60 mg kg(-1) i.p.) 30 min before administration of an irreversible FAAH inhibitor (URB597: 0.3 mg kg(-1) intracardiac) was found to protect brain FAAH from irreversible inactivation. The level of enzyme protection was correlated with the OL135 concentrations in the same brains. 4 OL135 (100 mg kg(-1) i.p.) reduced by 50% of the maximum possible efficacy (MPE) mechanical allodynia induced by MTI in FAAH(+/+)mice (von Frey filament measurement) 30 min after dosing, but was without effect in FAAH(-/-) mice. 5 OL135 given i.p. resulted in a dose-responsive reversal of mechanical allodynia in both MTI and SNL models in the rat with an ED(50) between 6 and 9 mg kg(-1). The plasma concentration at the ED(50) in both models was 0.7 microM (240 ng ml(-1)). 6 In the rat SNL model, coadministration of the selective CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528 (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), with 20 mg kg(-1) OL135 blocked the OL135-induced reversal of mechanical allodynia, but the selective CB(1) antagonist SR141716A (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was without effect. 7 In the rat MTI model neither SR141716A or SR144528 (both at 5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), or a combination of both antagonists coadministered with OL135 (20 mg kg(-1)) blocked reversal of mechanical allodynia assessed 30 min after dosing. 8 In both the MTI model and SNL models in rats, naloxone (1 mg kg(-1), i.p. 30 min after OL135) reversed the analgesia (to 15% of control levels in the MTI model, to zero in the SNL) produced by OL135.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617043PMC
May 2006

Hyperpolarization-activated, cation-nonselective, cyclic nucleotide-modulated channel blockade alleviates mechanical allodynia and suppresses ectopic discharge in spinal nerve ligated rats.

J Pain 2005 Jul;6(7):417-24

Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, San Diego, California, USA.

Unlabelled: Abnormal spontaneous firing is well described in axotomized sensory neurons and likely contributes to nerve injury-induced pain. The hyperpolarization-activated current I(h) initiates spontaneous, rhythmic depolarization in the sinoatrial node and central neurons. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible contribution of I(h) to primary afferent ectopic discharge and pain behavior in nerve-injured rats. Nerve injury was produced by tight ligation of lumbar spinal nerves (L5/6). Two weeks later, rats showed marked mechanical allodynia. Withdrawal thresholds were measured before and after administration of saline or the specific I(h) antagonist ZD7288 (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). ZD7288 dose-dependently reversed mechanical allodynia. In a second experiment, we performed both in vivo and in vitro extracellular single unit recordings from teased dorsal root fascicles. Intravenous infusion (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) of ZD7288 during a period of 10 minutes significantly blocked ectopic discharges in vivo. Perfusion (25 to 100 mumol/L) of ZD7288 for 5 minutes in vitro almost completely blocked ectopic discharges from large myelinated fibers (Abeta) while partially suppressing ectopic discharge from thinly myelinated fibers (Adelta). We conclude from these data that in axotomized sensory neurons, a ZD7288-sensitive current contributes to spontaneous discharges in myelinated fibers. Thus, I(h) might substantially contribute to the pathophysiology of nerve injury-related neuropathic pain.

Perspective: The current study investigated the mechanism of abnormal spontaneous discharges (ectopic discharges) from axotomized sensory afferents. Ectopic discharges are a main driving source of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Understanding the mechanism of ectopic discharges and identifying how to control them will be useful toward developing new therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2005.02.002DOI Listing
July 2005

Identifying modulators of hERG channel activity using the PatchXpress planar patch clamp.

J Biomol Screen 2005 Mar;10(2):168-81

Pain and Related Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The authors used the PatchXpress 7000A system to measure compound activity at the hERG channel using procedures that mimicked the "gold-standard" conventional whole-cell patch clamp. A set of 70 compounds, including hERG antagonists with potencies spanning 3 orders of magnitude, were tested on hERG302-HEK cells using protocols aimed at either identifying compound activity at a single concentration or obtaining compound potency from a cumulative concentration dependence paradigm. After exposure to compounds and subsequent washout of the wells to determine reversibility of the block, blockade by a reference compound served as a quality control. Electrical parameters and voltage dependence were similar to those obtained using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp. Rank order of compound potency was also comparable to that determined by conventional methods. One exception was flunarizine, a particularly lipophilic compound. The PatchXpress accurately identified the activity of 29 moderately potent antagonists, which only weakly displace radiolabeled astemizole and are false negatives in the binding assay. Finally, no false hits were observed from a collection of relatively inactive compounds. High-quality data acquisition by PatchXpress should help accelerate secondary screening for ion channel modulators and the drug discovery process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057104272295DOI Listing
March 2005

Selective blockade of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 attenuates bone cancer pain.

J Neurosci 2005 Mar;25(12):3126-31

Neurosystems Center and Department of Preventive Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Cancer colonization of bone leads to the activation of osteoclasts, thereby producing local tissue acidosis and bone resorption. This process may contribute to the generation of both ongoing and movement-evoked pain, resulting from the activation of sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli (nociceptors). The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) is a cation channel expressed by nociceptors that detects multiple pain-producing stimuli, including noxious heat and extracellular protons, raising the possibility that it is an important mediator of bone cancer pain via its capacity to detect osteoclast- and tumor-mediated tissue acidosis. Here, we show that TRPV1 is present on sensory neuron fibers that innervate the mouse femur and that, in an in vivo model of bone cancer pain, acute or chronic administration of a TRPV1 antagonist or disruption of the TRPV1 gene results in a significant attenuation of both ongoing and movement-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Administration of the antagonist had similar efficacy in reducing early, moderate, and severe pain-related responses, suggesting that TRPV1 may be a novel target for pharmacological treatment of chronic pain states associated with bone cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3815-04.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6725088PMC
March 2005

Identification and biological evaluation of 4-(3-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)amide, a high affinity TRPV1 (VR1) vanilloid receptor antagonist.

J Med Chem 2005 Mar;48(6):1857-72

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

High throughput screening using the recombinant human TRPV1 receptor was used to identify a series of pyridinylpiperazine ureas (3) as TRPV1 vanilloid receptor ligands. Exploration of the structure-activity relationships by parallel synthesis identified the essential pharmacophoric elements for antagonism that permitted further optimization via targeted synthesis to provide a potent orally bioavailable and selective TRPV1 modulator 41 active in several in vivo models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm0495071DOI Listing
March 2005