Publications by authors named "Sandra L Deming"

38 Publications

Evaluating Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Sep;113(9):1168-1176

Department of Oncology, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian, and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry.

Methods: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9241 case subjects and 10 193 control subjects. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category.

Results: For overall BC, the odds ratio per SD of the 313-variant PRS (PRS313) was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.571 (95% CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared with women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38-fold to 1.72-fold). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction.

Conclusion: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared with that reported in European, Asian, and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418423PMC
September 2021

Discovery and fine-mapping of height loci via high-density imputation of GWASs in individuals of African ancestry.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 04 12;108(4):564-582. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

The Charles R. Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059339PMC
April 2021

A functionally significant SNP in TP53 and breast cancer risk in African-American women.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2017 27;3. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, , IL 60637 USA.

A coding region polymorphism exists in the gene (Pro47Ser; rs1800371) in individuals of African descent, which reduces p53 tumor suppressor function in a mouse model. It has been unclear whether this functionally significant polymorphism alters cancer risk in humans. This analysis included 6907 women with breast cancer and 7644 controls from the AMBER, ROOT, and AABC consortia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations between the TP53 Pro47Ser allele and overall breast cancer risk. Because polymorphisms in tend to be associated with cancer risk in pre-menopausal women, we also limited our analyses to this population in the AMBER and ROOT consortia, where menopausal status was known, and conducted a fixed effects meta-analysis. In an analysis of all women in the AMBER, ROOT, and AABC consortia, we found no evidence for association of the Pro47Ser variant with breast cancer risk. However, when we restricted our analysis to only pre-menopausal women from the AMBER and ROOT consortia, there was a per allele odds ratio of 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.08-2.76; -value = 0.023). Although the Pro47Ser variant was not associated with overall breast cancer risk, it may increase risk among pre-menopausal women of African ancestry. Following up on more studies in human populations may better elucidate the role of this variant in breast cancer etiology. However, because of the low frequency of the polymorphism in women of African ancestry, its impact at a population level may be minimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-017-0007-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445618PMC
February 2017

Characterizing Genetic Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2017 07 4;26(7):1016-1026. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 100 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk, the majority of which were discovered in women of European ancestry. Because of different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, many of these genetic markers may not represent signals in populations of African ancestry. We tested 74 breast cancer risk variants and conducted fine-mapping of these susceptibility regions in 6,522 breast cancer cases and 7,643 controls of African ancestry from three genetic consortia (AABC, AMBER, and ROOT). Fifty-four of the 74 variants (73%) were found to have ORs that were directionally consistent with those previously reported, of which 12 were nominally statistically significant ( < 0.05). Through fine-mapping, in six regions (), we observed seven markers that better represent the underlying risk variant for overall breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes, whereas in another two regions (), we identified suggestive evidence of signals that are independent of the reported index variant. Overlapping chromatin features and regulatory elements suggest that many of the risk alleles lie in regions with biological functionality. Through fine-mapping of known susceptibility regions, we have revealed alleles that better characterize breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. The risk alleles identified represent genetic markers for modeling and stratifying breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500414PMC
July 2017

Genome-wide association studies in women of African ancestry identified 3q26.21 as a novel susceptibility locus for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

Hum Mol Genet 2016 11;25(21):4835-4846

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Multiple breast cancer loci have been identified in previous genome-wide association studies, but they were mainly conducted in populations of European ancestry. Women of African ancestry are more likely to have young-onset and oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer for reasons that are unknown and understudied. To identify genetic risk factors for breast cancer in women of African descent, we conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of breast cancer; one study consists of 1,657 cases and 2,029 controls genotyped with Illumina’s HumanOmni2.5 BeadChip and the other study included 3,016 cases and 2,745 controls genotyped using Illumina Human1M-Duo BeadChip. The top 18,376 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the meta-analysis were replicated in the third study that consists of 1,984 African Americans cases and 2,939 controls. We found that SNP rs13074711, 26.5 Kb upstream of TNFSF10 at 3q26.21, was significantly associated with risk of oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]=1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40; P = 1.8 × 10 − 8). Functional annotations suggest that the TNFSF10 gene may be involved in breast cancer aetiology, but further functional experiments are needed. In addition, we confirmed SNP rs10069690 was the best indicator for ER-negative breast cancer at 5p15.33 (OR = 1.30; P = 2.4 × 10 − 10) and identified rs12998806 as the best indicator for ER-positive breast cancer at 2q35 (OR = 1.34; P = 2.2 × 10 − 8) for women of African ancestry. These findings demonstrated additional susceptibility alleles for breast cancer can be revealed in diverse populations and have important public health implications in building race/ethnicity-specific risk prediction model for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddw305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975608PMC
November 2016

Admixture Mapping of African-American Women in the AMBER Consortium Identifies New Loci for Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Receptor Subtypes.

Front Genet 2016 21;7:170. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston MA, USA.

Recent genetic admixture coupled with striking differences in incidence of estrogen receptor (ER) breast cancer subtypes, as well as severity, between women of African and European ancestry, provides an excellent rationale for performing admixture mapping in African American women with breast cancer risk. We performed the largest breast cancer admixture mapping study with in African American women to identify novel genomic regions associated with the disease. We conducted a genome-wide admixture scan using 2,624 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in 3,629 breast cancer cases (including 1,968 ER-positive, 1093 ER-negative, and 601 triple-negative) and 4,658 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium, a collaborative study of four large geographically different epidemiological studies of breast cancer in African American women. We used an independent case-control study to test for SNP association in regions with genome-wide significant admixture signals. We found two novel genome-wide significant regions of excess African ancestry, 4p16.1 and 17q25.1, associated with ER-positive breast cancer. Two regions known to harbor breast cancer variants, 10q26 and 11q13, were also identified with excess of African ancestry. Fine-mapping of the identified genome-wide significant regions suggests the presence of significant genetic associations with ER-positive breast cancer in 4p16.1 and 11q13. In summary, we identified three novel genomic regions associated with breast cancer risk by ER status, suggesting that additional previously unidentified variants may contribute to the racial differences in breast cancer risk in the African American population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2016.00170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5030764PMC
September 2016

Methodological Considerations in Estimation of Phenotype Heritability Using Genome-Wide SNP Data, Illustrated by an Analysis of the Heritability of Height in a Large Sample of African Ancestry Adults.

PLoS One 2015 30;10(6):e0131106. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Height has an extremely polygenic pattern of inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed hundreds of common variants that are associated with human height at genome-wide levels of significance. However, only a small fraction of phenotypic variation can be explained by the aggregate of these common variants. In a large study of African-American men and women (n = 14,419), we genotyped and analyzed 966,578 autosomal SNPs across the entire genome using a linear mixed model variance components approach implemented in the program GCTA (Yang et al Nat Genet 2010), and estimated an additive heritability of 44.7% (se: 3.7%) for this phenotype in a sample of evidently unrelated individuals. While this estimated value is similar to that given by Yang et al in their analyses, we remain concerned about two related issues: (1) whether in the complete absence of hidden relatedness, variance components methods have adequate power to estimate heritability when a very large number of SNPs are used in the analysis; and (2) whether estimation of heritability may be biased, in real studies, by low levels of residual hidden relatedness. We addressed the first question in a semi-analytic fashion by directly simulating the distribution of the score statistic for a test of zero heritability with and without low levels of relatedness. The second question was addressed by a very careful comparison of the behavior of estimated heritability for both observed (self-reported) height and simulated phenotypes compared to imputation R2 as a function of the number of SNPs used in the analysis. These simulations help to address the important question about whether today's GWAS SNPs will remain useful for imputing causal variants that are discovered using very large sample sizes in future studies of height, or whether the causal variants themselves will need to be genotyped de novo in order to build a prediction model that ultimately captures a large fraction of the variability of height, and by implication other complex phenotypes. Our overall conclusions are that when study sizes are quite large (5,000 or so) the additive heritability estimate for height is not apparently biased upwards using the linear mixed model; however there is evidence in our simulation that a very large number of causal variants (many thousands) each with very small effect on phenotypic variance will need to be discovered to fill the gap between the heritability explained by known versus unknown causal variants. We conclude that today's GWAS data will remain useful in the future for causal variant prediction, but that finding the causal variants that need to be predicted may be extremely laborious.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0131106PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488332PMC
April 2016

Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 Oct 18;95(4):437-44. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4185117PMC
October 2014

A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Oct 22;23(20):5518-26. Epub 2014 May 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and.

Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P < 0.05. Through fine-mapping, in three regions (1q32, 3p24, 10q25), we identified variants that better captured associations with overall breast cancer or estrogen receptor positive disease. We also observed suggestive associations with variants (at P < 5 × 10(-6)) in three separate regions (6q25, 14q13, 22q12) that may represent novel risk variants. Directional consistency of association observed for ∼65-70% of currently known genetic variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry implies a shared functional common variant at most loci. To validate and enhance the spectrum of alleles that define associations at the known breast cancer risk loci, as well as genome-wide, will require even larger collaborative efforts in women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4168823PMC
October 2014

Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Jun 2;23(12):3327-42. Epub 2014 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4030781PMC
June 2014

Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

Hum Mol Genet 2013 Aug 17;22(16):3329-46. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723312PMC
August 2013

A genome-wide scan for breast cancer risk haplotypes among African American women.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(2):e57298. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0057298PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3585353PMC
September 2013

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11.

Hum Mol Genet 2012 Dec 13;21(24):5373-84. Epub 2012 Sep 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P ≤ 1 × 10(-5) in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR = 1.16; P = 1.1 × 10(-8)) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR = 1.08, P = 1.3 × 10(-6)) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR = 1.01, P = 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.12; P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), and with both ER-positive (OR = 1.09; P = 1.5 × 10(-5)) and ER-negative (OR = 1.16, P = 2.5 × 10(-7)) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/dds381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510753PMC
December 2012

A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry.

Hum Genet 2013 Jan 25;132(1):39-48. Epub 2012 Aug 25.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of >1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10(-6) and 10(-5) in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3 × 10(-6); rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5 × 10(-5)). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-012-1214-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749077PMC
January 2013

Age at last birth in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: pooled analysis in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium.

Am J Epidemiol 2012 Aug 23;176(4):269-78. Epub 2012 Jul 23.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (P(trend) < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491967PMC
August 2012

Melatonin pathway genes and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2012 Apr 3;132(2):693-9. Epub 2011 Dec 3.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Institute for Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Eighth Floor, Suite 800. 2525 West End Ave, Nashville, TN 3720-1738, USA.

Previous studies suggest that melatonin may act on cancer growth through a variety of mechanisms, most notably by direct anti-proliferative effects on breast cancer cells and via interactions with the estrogen pathway. Three genes are largely responsible for mediating the downstream effects of melatonin: melatonin receptors 1a and 1b (MTNR1a and MTNR1b), and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). It is hypothesized that genetic variation in these genes may lead to altered protein production or function. To address this question, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTNR1a, MTNR1b, and AANAT genes and breast cancer risk among 2,073 cases and 2,083 controls, using a two-stage analysis of genome-wide association data among women of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Results demonstrate two SNPs were consistently associated with breast cancer risk across both study stages. Compared with MTNR1b rs10765576 major allele carriers (GG or GA), a decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with the AA genotype (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.97, P = 0.0281). Although no overall association was seen in the combined analysis, the effect of MTNR1a rs7665392 was found to vary by menopausal status (P-value for interaction = 0.001). Premenopausal women with the GG genotype were at increased risk for breast cancer compared with major allele carriers (TT or TG) (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.07-2.31, P = 0.020), while postmenopausal women were at decreased risk (OR = 0.58, 95% 0.36-0.95, P = 0.030). No significant breast cancer associations were found for variants in the AANAT gene. These results suggest that common genetic variation in the MTNR1a and 1b genes may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility, and that associations may vary by menopausal status. Given that multiple variants in high linkage disequilibrium with MTNR1b rs76653292 have been associated with altered function or expression of insulin and glucose family members, further research may focus on clarifying this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1884-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3777385PMC
April 2012

A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

Nat Genet 2011 Oct 30;43(12):1210-4. Epub 2011 Oct 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, USA.

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279120PMC
October 2011

Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

PLoS Genet 2011 Oct 6;7(10):e1002298. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Canada.

Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10(-12) and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10(-8)). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10(-4) for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188544PMC
October 2011

Fine-mapping of breast cancer susceptibility loci characterizes genetic risk in African Americans.

Hum Mol Genet 2011 Nov 18;20(22):4491-503. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 19 common genetic variants that are associated with breast cancer risk. Testing of the index signals found through GWAS and fine-mapping of each locus in diverse populations will be necessary for characterizing the role of these risk regions in contributing to inherited susceptibility. In this large study of breast cancer in African-American women (3016 cases and 2745 controls), we tested the 19 known risk variants identified by GWAS and replicated associations (P < 0.05) with only 4 variants. Through fine-mapping, we identified markers in four regions that better capture the association with breast cancer risk in African Americans as defined by the index signal (2q35, 5q11, 10q26 and 19p13). We also identified statistically significant associations with markers in four separate regions (8q24, 10q22, 11q13 and 16q12) that are independent of the index signals and may represent putative novel risk variants. In aggregate, the more informative markers found in the study enhance the association of these risk regions with breast cancer in African Americans [per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, P = 2.8 × 10(-24) versus OR = 1.04, P = 6.1 × 10(-5)]. In this detailed analysis of the known breast cancer risk loci, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk that better characterize their association with breast cancer in women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddr367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3196889PMC
November 2011

The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

Nature 2011 Jul 20;476(7359):170-5. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3154982PMC
July 2011

Association of hormone-related characteristics and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status in the shanghai breast cancer study.

Am J Epidemiol 2011 Sep 18;174(6):661-71. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Institute of Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 600, Nashville, TN 37203-1738, USA.

Etiologic differences between subtypes of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are not well understood. The authors evaluated associations of hormone-related factors with breast cancer subtypes in a population-based case-control study involving 1,409 ER-positive (ER+)/PR-positive (PR+) cases, 712 ER-negative (ER-)/PR-negative (PR-) cases, 301 ER+/PR- cases, 254 ER-/PR+ cases, and 3,474 controls aged 20-70 years in Shanghai, China (phase I, 1996-1998; phase II, 2002-2005). Polytomous logistic regression and Wald tests for heterogeneity across subtypes were conducted. Breast cancer risks associated with age at menarche, age at menopause, breastfeeding, age at first livebirth, waist-to-hip ratio, and oral contraceptive use did not differ by hormone receptor status. Among postmenopausal women, higher parity (≥2 children vs. 1) was associated with reduced risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.91) and higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with increased risk (highest quartile: OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.47) of the ER+/PR+ subtype but was unrelated to the ER-/PR- subtype (for parity, P(heterogeneity) = 0.02; for BMI, P(heterogeneity) < 0.01). Hormone replacement therapy (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.40, 3.62) and alcohol consumption (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.51) appeared to be preferentially associated with the ER+/PR- subtype. These findings indicate that BMI, parity, hormone replacement therapy, and alcohol consumption may play different roles in subtypes of breast cancer. More research is needed to better understand the etiology of 2 relatively rare subtypes, ER+/PR- tumors and ER-/PR+ tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166707PMC
September 2011

Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

PLoS Genet 2011 Apr 21;7(4):e1001371. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping) or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD), but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080860PMC
April 2011

Well-done meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposures in relation to breast cancer risk: the Nashville Breast Health Study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011 Oct 3;129(3):919-28. Epub 2011 May 3.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2525 West End Avenue, 8th floor, Suite 800, Nashville, TN 37203-1738, USA.

Previous studies of the association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We evaluated this association in a population-based case-control study of incident breast cancer conducted in Nashville, Tennessee, United States, including 2,386 breast cancer cases and 1,703 healthy women controls. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain information related to meat intake including amount, cooking methods, and doneness levels, as well as other known or hypothesized risk factors for breast cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat was associated with a significantly elevated risk of breast cancer (P-trend < 0.001). The association was particularly strong for high intake of well-done red meat (P-trend < 0.001), with an adjusted OR of 1.5 (95% CI = 1.3-1.9) for the highest versus the lowest quartile. Associations between red meat and breast cancer risk were slightly stronger for postmenopausal women than for premenopausal women. Meat-derived mutagens such as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women only (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The results from this study provide strong support for the hypotheses that high red meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure may be associated with an increase in breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1538-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775710PMC
October 2011

Replication and functional genomic analyses of the breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1 generalize its importance in women of chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry.

Cancer Res 2011 Feb 8;71(4):1344-55. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

We evaluated the generalizability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2046210 (A/G allele), associated with breast cancer risk that was initially identified at 6q25.1 in a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women. In a pooled analysis of more than 31,000 women of East-Asian, European, and African ancestry, we found a positive association for rs2046210 and breast cancer risk in Chinese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.30 (1.22-1.38) and 1.64 (1.50-1.80) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 1.54 × 10⁻³⁰], Japanese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.13-1.52) and 1.37 (1.06-1.76), P for trend = 2.51 × 10⁻⁴], and European-ancestry American women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.07 (0.99-1.16) and 1.18 (1.04-1.34), P for trend = 0.0069]. No association with this SNP, however, was observed in African American women [ORs (95% CI) = 0.81 (0.63-1.06) and 0.85 (0.65-1.11) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 0.4027]. In vitro functional genomic studies identified a putative functional variant, rs6913578. This SNP is 1,440 bp downstream of rs2046210 and is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2046210 in Chinese (r(2) = 0.91) and European-ancestry (r² = 0.83) populations, but not in Africans (r² = 0.57). SNP rs6913578 was found to be associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese and European-ancestry American women. After adjusting for rs2046210, the association of rs6913578 with breast cancer risk in African Americans approached borderline significance. Results from this large consortium study confirmed the association of rs2046210 with breast cancer risk among women of Chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry. This association may be explained in part by a putatively functional variant (rs6913578) identified in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083305PMC
February 2011

Identification of a functional genetic variant at 16q12.1 for breast cancer risk: results from the Asia Breast Cancer Consortium.

PLoS Genet 2010 Jun 24;6(6):e1001002. Epub 2010 Jun 24.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. We carried out a multi-stage genome-wide association (GWA) study in over 28,000 cases and controls recruited from 12 studies conducted in Asian and European American women to identify genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. After analyzing 684,457 SNPs in 2,073 cases and 2,084 controls in Chinese women, we evaluated 53 SNPs for fast-track replication in an independent set of 4,425 cases and 1,915 controls of Chinese origin. Four replicated SNPs were further investigated in an independent set of 6,173 cases and 6,340 controls from seven other studies conducted in Asian women. SNP rs4784227 was consistently associated with breast cancer risk across all studies with adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.25 (1.20-1.31) per allele (P = 3.2 x 10(-25)) in the pooled analysis of samples from all Asian samples. This SNP was also associated with breast cancer risk among European Americans (per allele OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.09-1.31, P = 1.3 x 10(-4), 2,797 cases and 2,662 controls). SNP rs4784227 is located at 16q12.1, a region identified previously for breast cancer risk among Europeans. The association of this SNP with breast cancer risk remained highly statistically significant in Asians after adjusting for previously-reported SNPs in this region. In vitro experiments using both luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated functional significance of this SNP. These results provide strong evidence implicating rs4784227 as a functional causal variant for breast cancer in the locus 16q12.1 and demonstrate the utility of conducting genetic association studies in populations with different genetic architectures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891809PMC
June 2010

Challenges unique to the design of a comprehensive questionnaire assessing breast cancer risk factors among women in sub-Saharan Africa.

J Health Care Poor Underserved 2010 Feb;21(1 Suppl):11-6

Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center Institute for Medicine and Public Health TN, USA.

We assessed the efficacy of a pilot questionnaire designed to elicit information about external risk factors for breast cancer in sub-Saharan African women. Preliminary analysis identified areas of the questionnaire and interviewing process that required modification, as well as socioeconomic factors that contribute to reduced participation among these understudied populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0274DOI Listing
February 2010

E-cadherin polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010 Jun 16;121(2):445-52. Epub 2009 Oct 16.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Institute of Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2525 West End Avenue, 8th Floor, Nashville, TN 37203-1738, USA.

The epithelial transmembrane glycoprotein E-cadherin (CDH1) is necessary for intercellular adhesion, cell signaling, and maintenance of cellular differentiation; reduced expression contributes to cell proliferation, invasion, and cancer progression. Functional or potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in E-cadherin have been previously identified and evaluated in relation to cancer risk; however, studies on breast cancer have been sparse. Forty-six SNPs were genotyped to capture genetic variation of the CDH1 gene among 2,290 Phase 1 and 1,944 Phase 2 participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS), a large, population-based, case-control study. No overall associations between E-cadherin SNPs and breast cancer risk were observed. When stratified by menopausal status, associations that were consistent between Phases 1 and 2 and significant when data from both phases were combined were observed for several SNPs. Although none of these associations retained statistical significance after correcting for the total number of polymorphisms evaluated, this study suggests that genetic variation in CDH1 may be associated with breast cancer risk, and that this relationship may vary by menopausal status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-009-0579-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874636PMC
June 2010

Evaluation of 11 breast cancer susceptibility loci in African-American women.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009 Oct 29;18(10):2761-4. Epub 2009 Sep 29.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN 37203-1738, USA.

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic risk variants for breast cancer among women of Asian and European ancestry. Investigating these genetic susceptibility loci in other populations would be helpful to evaluate the generalizability of the findings and identify the causal variants for breast cancer. We evaluated 11 GWAS-identified genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer in a study including 2,594 African-American women (810 cases and 1,784 controls). Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs13387042 (2q35) and rs1219648 (FGFR2 gene), were found to be associated with breast cancer risk. Risk increased nearly linearly with the number of affected risk alleles, with a 2-fold elevated risk for women homozygous for the risk alleles in both single-nucleotide polymorphisms. No additional significant associations, however, were identified for the other nine loci evaluated in the study. The results from this study extend some of the recent GWAS findings to African-Americans and may guide future efforts to identify the causal variants for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759857PMC
October 2009

No association between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-7 SNPs and endometrial cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009 Jun 12;18(6):1925-8. Epub 2009 May 12.

Division of Epidemiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203-1738, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2770800PMC
June 2009

Genome-wide association study identifies a new breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1.

Nat Genet 2009 Mar 15;41(3):324-8. Epub 2009 Feb 15.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

We carried out a genome-wide association study among Chinese women to identify risk variants for breast cancer. After analyzing 607,728 SNPs in 1,505 cases and 1,522 controls, we selected 29 SNPs for a fast-track replication in an independent set of 1,554 cases and 1,576 controls. We further investigated four replicated loci in a third set of samples comprising 3,472 cases and 900 controls. SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1, located upstream of the gene encoding estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), showed strong and consistent association with breast cancer across all three stages. Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) were 1.36 (1.24-1.49) and 1.59 (1.40-1.82), respectively, for genotypes A/G and A/A versus G/G (P for trend 2.0 x 10(-15)) in the pooled analysis of samples from all three stages. We also found a similar, albeit weaker, association in an independent study comprising 1,591 cases and 1,466 controls of European ancestry (P(trend) = 0.01). These results strongly implicate 6q25.1 as a susceptibility locus for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754845PMC
March 2009
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