Publications by authors named "Sandra D"

14 Publications

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The McGill Face Database: Validation and Insights Into the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Complex Mental States.

Perception 2020 Mar 17;49(3):310-329. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Departments of Philosophy and Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0301006620901671DOI Listing
March 2020

Different Patterns of Sleep-Dependent Procedural Memory Consolidation in Vipassana Meditation Practitioners and Non-meditating Controls.

Front Psychol 2019 23;10:3014. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Dream and Nightmare Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, CIUSSS NÎM - HSCM, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Aim: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and sleep spindles are all implicated in the consolidation of procedural memories. Relative contributions of sleep stages and sleep spindles were previously shown to depend on individual differences in task processing. However, no studies to our knowledge have focused on individual differences in experience with Vipassana meditation as related to sleep. Vipassana meditation is a form of mental training that enhances proprioceptive and somatic awareness and alters attentional style. The goal of this study was to examine a potential role for Vipassana meditation experience in sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation.

Methods: Groups of Vipassana meditation practitioners ( = 22) and matched meditation-naïve controls ( = 20) slept for a daytime nap in the laboratory. Before and after the nap they completed a procedural task on the Wii Fit balance platform.

Results: Meditators performed slightly better on the task before the nap, but the two groups improved similarly after sleep. The groups showed different patterns of sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation: in meditators, task learning was positively correlated with density of slow occipital spindles, while in controls task improvement was positively associated with time in REM sleep. Sleep efficiency and sleep architecture did not differ between groups. Meditation practitioners, however, had a lower density of occipital slow sleep spindles than controls.

Conclusion: Results suggest that neuroplastic changes associated with meditation practice may alter overall sleep microarchitecture and reorganize sleep-dependent patterns of memory consolidation. The lower density of occipital spindles in meditators may mean that meditation practice compensates for some of the memory functions of sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989470PMC
January 2020

Cognitive capacity limitations and Need for Cognition differentially predict reward-induced cognitive effort expenditure.

Cognition 2018 03 13;172:101-106. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1G1, Canada. Electronic address:

While psychological, economic, and neuroscientific accounts of behavior broadly maintain that people minimize expenditure of cognitive effort, empirical work reveals how reward incentives can mobilize increased cognitive effort expenditure. Recent theories posit that the decision to expend effort is governed, in part, by a cost-benefit tradeoff whereby the potential benefits of mental effort can offset the perceived costs of effort exertion. Taking an individual differences approach, the present study examined whether one's executive function capacity, as measured by Stroop interference, predicts the extent to which reward incentives reduce switch costs in a task-switching paradigm, which indexes additional expenditure of cognitive effort. In accordance with the predictions of a cost-benefit account of effort, we found that a low executive function capacity-and, relatedly, a low intrinsic motivation to expend effort (measured by Need for Cognition)-predicted larger increase in cognitive effort expenditure in response to monetary reward incentives, while individuals with greater executive function capacity-and greater intrinsic motivation to expend effort-were less responsive to reward incentives. These findings suggest that an individual's cost-benefit tradeoff is constrained by the perceived costs of exerting cognitive effort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.12.004DOI Listing
March 2018

Homophone dominance at the whole-word and sub-word levels: spelling errors suggest full-form storage of regularly inflected verb forms.

Authors:
Dominiek Sandra

Lang Speech 2010 ;53(Pt 3):405-44

University of Antwerp, Linguistics Department, Prinsstraat 13, Office D109, B2000 Antwerp, Belgium.

Two experiments and two corpus studies focus on homophone dominance in the spelling of regularly inflected verb forms, the phenomenon that the higher-frequency homophone causes more intrusion errors on the lower-frequency one than vice versa. Experiment 1 was a speeded dictation task focusing on the Dutch imperative, a verb form whose formation rule is poorly known. A clear-cut effect of homophone dominance was found. This effect was equally strong when the target imperative was preceded by another imperative in the same sentence whose pronunciation reflected the spelling rule. Experiment 2 indicated that the effect of homophone dominance cannot be reduced to an effect of recency. Language users cannot discriminate a recently seen verb form when shown the two homophones. Instead, they choose the most frequent spelling pattern. In Corpus Study 1 a Google search on the world wide web revealed a sublexical effect of homophone dominance in the spelling errors on regular past tense forms. Corpus Study 2 demonstrated the validity of the search method. The sublexical effect of homophone dominance, involving units that cut across the stem-suffix boundary, lends itself naturally to a representational model of the connectionist or analogical processing tradition but is hard to reconcile with a rule-based account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0023830910371459DOI Listing
December 2010

Semantic transparency and masked morphological priming: the case of prefixed words.

Mem Cognit 2009 Sep;37(6):895-908

Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

In four lexical decision experiments, we investigated masked morphological priming with Dutch prefixed words. Reliable effects of morphological relatedness were obtained with visual primes and visual targets in the absence of effects due to pure form overlap. In certain conditions, priming effects were significantly greater with semantically transparent prefixed primes (e.g., rename-name) relative to the priming effects obtained with semantically opaque prefixed words (e.g., relate-late), even with very brief (40-msec) prime durations. With visual primes and auditory targets (cross-modal priming), significant facilitation was found in all related prime conditions, independent of whether or not primes were morphologically related to targets. The results are interpreted within a bimodal hierarchical model of word recognition in which morphological effects arise through the interplay of sublexical (morpho-orthographic) and supralexical (morpho-semantic) representations. The word stimuli from this study may be downloaded as supplemental materials from http://mc.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/MC.37.6.895DOI Listing
September 2009

Downregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

Phytomedicine 2010 Jan 28;17(1):42-6. Epub 2009 Jul 28.

Department of Applied Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system, comprising of uPA, its receptor uPAR and inhibitor, type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), plays a vital role in various biological processes involving extracellular proteolysis, fibrinolysis, cell migration and proliferation. The timely occurence of these processes are essential for normal wound healing. This study examines the regulation of uPA and PAI-1 by a natural polyphenol-rich compound, grape seed extract (GSE). GSE is reported to have beneficial effects in promoting wound healing. Fibroblast cells exposed to different doses of GSE for 18hours were processed for further studies such as ELISA, RT-PCR, western blotting, fibrinolytic assay, cell surface plasmin activity assay and in vitro wound healing assay. GSE treatment caused a significant downregulation of uPA and PAI-1 expression, both at the RNA and protein levels. ELISA also revealed a dose-dependent decrease in uPA and PAI-1 activities. Functional significance of the downregulation was evident in decreased fibrinolytic activity, concomittant with decreased cell-surface plasmin activity. In vitro wound healing studies showed that GSE also retarded the migration of cells towards the wounded region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.06.010DOI Listing
January 2010

Who is dominating the Dutch neighbourhood? On the role of subsyllabic units in Dutch nonword reading.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2009 Jan 11;62(1):140-54. Epub 2008 Mar 11.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, Ghent, Belgium.

To assess the role of the subsyllabic units onset-nucleus (ON; spark) and rime (spark) in Dutch visual word recognition, we compared lexical decisions to four groups of nonwords in which the existence of ONs and rimes was orthogonally manipulated. Nonwords with existent ONs and/or rimes were rejected more slowly and less accurately. ON and rime neighbours thus influence Dutch nonword reading to the same extent. Simulations with the interactive activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981) revealed that this model with left-to-right coded representations could not replicate the effects found in the lexical decision data whereas an adapted version with representations of onset, nucleus, and coda could. Effects of the larger units ON and rime emerged from activation patterns created by the smaller units onset, nucleus, and coda.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210701851206DOI Listing
January 2009

Dutch plural inflection: the exception that proves the analogy.

Cogn Psychol 2007 Jun 12;54(4):283-318. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

Center for Psycholinguistics, University of Antwerp, Belgium.

We develop the view that inflection is driven partly by non-phonological analogy and that non-phonological information is of particular importance to the inflection of non-canonical roots, which in the view of [Marcus, G. F., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen, H., Wiese, R., & Pinker, S. (1995). German inflection: the exception that proves the rule. Cognitive Psychology, 29, 189-256.] are inflected by a symbolic rule process. We used the Dutch plural to evaluate these claims. An analysis of corpus data shows that a model using non-phonological information (orthography) produces significantly fewer errors on plurals of non-canonical Dutch nouns, in particular borrowings, than a model that includes only phonological information. Moreover, we show that a double default system, as proposed by Pinker [Pinker, S. (1999). Words and rules. London: Phoenix.], does not offer an advantage over the latter model. A second study, examining the use of orthography in an online plural production task, shows that, in Dutch, the chosen pseudoword plural is significantly affected by non-phonological information. A final simulation study confirms that these results are in line with a model of inflectional morphology that explains the inflection of non-canonical roots by non-phonological analogy instead of by a default rule process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2006.07.002DOI Listing
June 2007

Rhyming words and onset-rime constituents: an inquiry into structural breaking points and emergent boundaries in the syllable.

J Exp Child Psychol 2005 Dec 31;92(4):366-87. Epub 2005 Aug 31.

Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders (FWO), Center for Psycholinguistics, University of Antwerp, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.

Geudens and Sandra, in their 2003 study, investigated the special role of onsets and rimes in Dutch-speaking children's explicit phonological awareness. In the current study, we tapped implicit phonological knowledge using forced-choice similarity judgment (Experiment 1) and recall of syllable lists (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, Dutch-speaking prereaders judged rime-sharing pseudowords (/fas/-/mas/) to sound more similar than pseudowords sharing an equally sized nonrime unit (/fas/-/fak/). However, in a syllable recall task (/tepsilonf/, /ris/, /nal/), Dutch-speaking prereaders were as likely to produce recombination errors that broke up the rime (/tepsilons/) as to produce errors that retained the rime (/repsilonf/). Thus, a rime effect was obtained in a task that highlighted the phonological similarity between items sharing their rimes, but this effect disappeared in tasks without repetition of rime units. We conclude that children's sensitivity to rimes depends on similarity relations and might not reflect a fixed perceived structure of spoken syllables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2005.07.002DOI Listing
December 2005

Segmenting two-phoneme syllables: developmental differences in relation with early reading skills.

Brain Lang 2004 Jul-Sep;90(1-3):338-52

University of Antwerp-UFSIA, Center for Psycholinguistics, Antwerp 2000, Belgium.

This study explored developmental differences in children's segmentation skills of VC and CV syllables (e.g., /af/ and /fa/) in relation to their early reading abilities. To this end, we followed a subgroup of Dutch speaking prereaders who participated in, and replicated the segmentation task in first grade, at the outset of phonics reading instruction. Reading abilities were assessed after 6 and 9 months. First, we confirmed that VCs offer an easier context to isolate phonemes than CVs. Second, matching analyses showed that this development from VC to CV segmentation posed comparatively increasing difficulties for poor segmenters. Third, this qualitatively different development was reflected in early reading performance. Our data emphasize the importance of phonetic factors and instruction-based experiences in phonological development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00446-2DOI Listing
August 2004

Compound fracture: the role of semantic transparency and morphological headedness.

Brain Lang 2003 Jan;84(1):50-64

Department of Linguistics, University of Alberta, 4-36 Assiniboia Hall, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E7.

This paper explores the role of semantic transparency in the representation and processing of English compounds. We focus on the question of whether semantic transparency is best viewed as a property of the entire multimorphemic string or as a property of constituent morphemes. Accordingly, we investigated the processing of English compound nouns that were categorized in terms of the semantic transparency of each of their constituents. Fully transparent such as bedroom are those in which the meanings of each of the constituents are transparently represented in the meaning of the compound as a whole. These compounds were contrasted with compounds such as strawberry, in which only the second constituent is semantically transparent, jailbird, in which only the first constituent is transparent, and hogwash, in which neither constituent is semantically transparent. We propose that significant insights can be achieved through such analysis of the transparency of individual morphemes. The two experiments that we report present evidence that both semantically transparent compounds and semantically opaque compounds show morphological constituency. The semantic transparency of the morphological head (the second constituent in a morphologically right-headed language such as English) was found to play a significant role in overall lexical decision latencies, in patterns of decomposition, and in the effects of stimulus repetition within the experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0093-934x(02)00520-5DOI Listing
January 2003

Homophonic forms of regularly inflected verbs have their own orthographic representations: a developmental perspective on spelling errors.

Brain Lang 2002 Apr-Jun;81(1-3):545-54

University of Antwerp.

In previous research (Sandra, Frisson, & Daems, 1999) we demonstrated that experienced writers of Dutch (18-year-olds) make spelling errors on regularly inflected homophonic verb forms. Intrusion errors, i.e., spelling of the homophonic alternative, occurred more often when the low-frequency homophone had to be written. In the present article we report error data for three groups of less experienced spellers, who have not yet fully mastered the rules for verb suffix spelling: 12-year-olds, 13-year-olds, and 14-year-olds. Younger spellers obviously make many more errors than experienced ones. Whereas this is in part due to inadequate rule mastery/application, their error patterns are also clearly influenced by the frequency relationship between the homophonic forms, i.e., the same factor accounting for the errors of experienced spellers. The conclusion of our present and past research is that homophonic forms of regularly inflected verbs have their own orthographic representations in the mental lexicon and that these representations cause interference in writing (spelling errors), whereas they might cause facilitation in reading (a claim made by dual-route models of reading).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2546DOI Listing
July 2002

Onsets and rimes in a phonologically transparent orthography: differences between good and poor beginning readers of Dutch.

Authors:
A Geudens D Sandra

Brain Lang 1999 Jun 1-15;68(1-2):284-90

University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

This study investigates whether beginning readers of Dutch develop onset-rime units when these units are emphasized in their reading method, even when the orthography is transparent at the grapheme-phoneme level. The speed of naming intact pseudowords (wot) was compared with the speed of naming pseudowords with an onset-rime (w ot) or body-coda (wo t) segmentation. Whereas body-coda items consistently slowed down naming for both good and poor readers, the onset-rime effect covaried with reading skill: it changed from inhibitory for good readers to facilitatory for poor readers. Two alternative explanations are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1999.2084DOI Listing
October 1999

Why simple verb forms can be so difficult to spell: the influence of homophone frequency and distance in Dutch.

Brain Lang 1999 Jun 1-15;68(1-2):277-83

University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Two experiments are reported in which the determinants of spelling errors on homophonous verb forms in Dutch were studied. Both experiments indicated that errors were determined by the frequency relationship between the two homophonous forms and the distance between the verb and the word determining its spelling. We propose an interference model for spelling in which a phonologically driven retrieval process is the locus of the frequency effect and a morphosyntactically driven computational component can account for the distance effect. Alternative explanations are also explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1999.2108DOI Listing
October 1999
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