Publications by authors named "Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio"

41 Publications

Chronic inflammatory periapical diseases: a Brazilian multicenter study of 10,381 cases and literature review.

Braz Oral Res 2021 15;35:e033. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of chronic inflammatory periapical diseases in different regions of Brazil and to compare with data from the literature. A multicenter study was carried out in four Brazilian referral centers in oral diagnosis. Histopathological records were reviewed, and all cases diagnosed microscopically as periapical granuloma, radicular cyst, and periapical abscess were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square test were performed. A total of 10,381 cases of chronic inflammatory periapical diseases were found (13.8% of 74,931 archived specimens) over a period of 65 years. Radicular cysts were the most common lesion (59.9%). Women (56.1%) with a mean age of 37.01 years old (range 13 to 100 ± 14.42) and people of white skin color (59.2%) were the most affected individuals by chronic inflammatory periapical diseases. The lesions were generally asymptomatic (28.1%), located in the maxilla (60.1%), and posterior region (49.8%). The radicular cysts were larger when compared to periapical granulomas (p < 0.001). The disagreement between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses was higher when the final diagnosis was a periapical granuloma (p < 0.001). Chronic inflammatory periapical diseases continue to be common lesions affecting mainly adults. This should be a consequence of the burden of untreated caries in permanent teeth. Women are more affected and radicular cyst was the most common lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2021.vol35.0033DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of a Homemade Salivary Substitute Prepared Using Chamomile (.) Flower and Flax () Seed to Relieve Primary Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Preliminary Report.

J Altern Complement Med 2020 Sep;26(9):799-806

Center of Diagnosis of Diseases of the Mouth, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

To evaluate (1) the effect of a salivary substitute prepared using chamomile (.) flower and flax () seed to relieve Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) symptoms, (2) their effect on the inhibition of matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 metalloproteinases, and (3) their potential cellular cytotoxic effect. 40 women aging >40 years with diagnosis of primary BMS. Center of Diagnosis of Diseases of the Mouth, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil. This was an open clinical trial where primary BMS patients used the homemade salivary. At the first appointment, after 30 and 60 days, the authors evaluated the pattern and intensity of BMS and xerostomia symptoms, and then determined and compared the unstimulated salivary flow rate (SFR), viscosity, and salivary pH. MMP2 and MMP9 activities in saliva and cytotoxicity were assessed using different concentrations of chamomile flower and flax seed separately. Subjects used the homemade salivary substitute for 3 months and were instructed to rinse their mouth three to four times daily for 1 min. A numeric rating scale to evaluate the intensity of burning sensation and xerostomia symptoms, salivary flow rate (SFR) to determine salivary volume, dynamic rheology technique for viscosity and a digital meter for salivary pH. MMP2 and MMP9 activities in saliva and cytotoxicity were assessed by zymography and cell viability assay respectively. After treatment, severity of BMS symptoms decreased, the SFR increased, salivary viscosity decreased, and severity of xerostomia sensation (in patients who reported having this symptom) improved ( < 0.05). Chamomile flower and flax seed had no effect on inhibiting MMP2 and MMP9 activities, and neither showed cellular cytotoxic effects. This homemade salivary substitute is an economical, viable, easily manipulated, noncytotoxic, and a practical alternative to relieve BMS symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2019.0478DOI Listing
September 2020

Reduced demand for oral diagnosis during COVID-19: A Brazilian center experience.

Oral Dis 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Semiology and Clinics, Diagnostic Center for Oral Diseases, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404340PMC
July 2020

The T102C polymorphism of 5HT2A receptor in oral epithelial dysplasia: A pilot case-control study.

Arch Oral Biol 2020 May 24;113:104688. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Graduate Program in Health and Behavior, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, 96010-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: investigate the T102C polymorphism of 5HT2A receptor in dysplasia in oral potentially malignant lesions and its association with smoking and alcohol habits.

Methods: case-control study that included patients with oral potentially malignant lesions (OPML) histopathologically diagnosed with dysplasia and healthy controls, and within these group patients with and without smoking and alcohol consumption habits. Cell samples from the oral lesions were collected with the patients previously anesthetized using disposable cytological brushes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction was performed and the T102C polymorphism (rs6313) was genotyped in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination assays.

Results: 110 individuals were included in this study (38 with dysplasia and 72 controls). The genotype (p = 0.016), allele (p = 0.020) and smoking habits (<0.001) distribution differed significantly between dysplasia and control group, where the CT and TT (C - cytosine/ T - thymine) genotype and the T allele showed a higher frequency in dysplasia (65.6, 18.8 and 84.4 %, respectively) than in controls (55.7, 4.9 and 60.7). Concerning smoking habits, the higher frequency was in the dysplasia group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis, associating variables of interest and the presence of dysplasia, showed that individuals with smoking habits present 7.58 increase risk to develop dysplasia than non-smokers; and individuals carrying the T allele for the T102C polymorphism have a 4.6 increased risk to develop oral dysplasia in OPML.

Conclusions: the T102C polymorphism is associated with oral dysplasia in OPML, however, failed to show association with smoking and alcohol habits in OPML dysplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104688DOI Listing
May 2020

Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of the oral lymphoepithelial cyst: A multicenter study.

J Oral Pathol Med 2020 Mar 16;49(3):219-226. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Background: Analyze the clinical, demographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of oral lymphoepithelial cyst (OLEC).

Methods: Samples were retrospectively retrieved from five oral pathology services. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patient charts. Histopathological and immunohistochemical (CD3 and CD20) features were evaluated. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses (P ≤ .05).

Results: Seventy-seven cases were found among a total of 146 150 specimens (0.05%). OLEC was predominantly diagnosed in females (70.1%). Mean patient age was 46.51 years. The lesions arose mainly on the lateral border of the tongue (40.3%), measured up to 1 cm (61.0%), and were asymptomatic (64.9%). Twenty-four lesions (31.2%) were white. Forty-one cases (53.2%) presented lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate with no specific arrangement. The cystic lining was composed of a non-keratinized stratified epithelium (59.7%) presenting hyperplasia (39.0%). Connection with the surface, epithelium was found in 23 cases (29.9%) and 31 (40.3%) cases had two or more cystic cavities. The lumen content was predominantly desquamated cells (48.1%). Subgemmal neurogenous plaque was found in 11/42 (26.2%) cases involving the tongue. CD20 cells predominated in 36/63 cases (57.2%), and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was not always continuous around the cystic cavity (52.4%).

Conclusion: Lymphoepithelial cyst is an uncommon lesion of the oral cavity. The present study offers the largest sample of OLEC for which clinical, demographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features were evaluated. The clinical and demographic findings were similar to those described in previous reports, but the microscopic analyses revealed interesting aspects of the cystic epithelium and the lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in OLEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12978DOI Listing
March 2020

High CD3 lymphocytes, low CD66b neutrophils, and scarce tumor budding in the invasive front of lip squamous cell carcinomas.

Arch Oral Biol 2019 Aug 27;104:46-51. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Semiology and Clinic, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate tumor budding (TB) and quantify the neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration in the invasive front of lip squamous cell carcinomas. In addition, the associations between these features and the histopathological grading in the invasive front were analyzed.

Design: A total of 43 lip squamous cell carcinoma surgical specimens were included and classified in accordance with a histological invasive front grading system. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD66b and CD3 for the evaluation of neutrophils and T lymphocytes, respectively, in the invasive front of the tumors. Tumor budding was evidenced by AE1/AE3 staining.

Results: Thirty-six (83.7%) of the tumors were well-differentiated tumors. Eleven (25.6%) of the cases exhibited high-intensity tumor budding. There were low neutrophil and high T lymphocyte infiltrations in the invasive front, leading to a low neutrophil/T lymphocyte ratio in the same region. Moreover, we found an association between tumor budding and the pattern of invasion, and between the CD3 cell count and the inflammatory infiltrate (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The low neutrophil and high T lymphocyte infiltration in the invasive front, and the few high-intensity tumor budding cases are in accordance with the histopathological features of well-differentiated lip tumors. If these characteristics remain in lip squamous cell carcinomas with more aggressive histopathological features, it deserves to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.05.027DOI Listing
August 2019

Influence of Pregnancy on the Inflammatory Process Following Direct Pulp Capping: a Preliminary Study in Rats.

Braz Dent J 2019 Jan-Feb;30(1):22-30

Graduate Program in Dentistry, UFPel - Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory process following direct pulp capping during pregnancy. This experimental study involved 48 maxillary first molars of female Wistar rats. The procedures were performed in pregnant and non-pregnant animals (n =20 each). Direct pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and restoration with a light-cured resin composite was performed in half of exposed pulp specimens. In the other half of specimens, light-cured composite was placed directly on the exposed pulp. In the control groups (n=4 each), no intervention was performed. Animals were euthanized at 3 and 7 days. All sections (three per slide) were viewed under an optical microscope. One previously calibrated pathologist performed descriptive analysis and assigned scores for inflammatory response and tissue organization adjacent to the pulp exposure. The Kappa value for intra-examiner variability was 0.91. At 3 days, in animals treated with MTA, inflammatory infiltrate was absent in non-pregnant animals while mild inflammatory infiltrate was observed in some pregnant animals. The inflammatory response ranged from mild to severe in both groups treated with composite alone. At 7 days, the inflammatory response was more intense in pregnant than in non-pregnant animals treated with MTA; while this difference were not evident in animals treated with composite alone. In conclusion, pregnancy may not influence the inflammatory process following direct pulp capping with light-cured resin composite, which was always harmful to the pulp; while the tissue response after the direct pulp with MTA were more favorable in non-pregnant animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201902093DOI Listing
August 2019

Is Conservative Surgery the Best Approach for Peripheral Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors?

Open Dent J 2018 25;12:856-863. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Pelotas Dental School, Semiology and Clinic, Federal University of Pelotas, Rua Gonçalves Chaves, 457, Bairro Centro, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Background: Peripheral Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors (CEOT) rich in clear cells are a rare entity in the oral cavity, with only 14 previous case reports in the English literature. None have discussed recommended treatment approaches for extraosseous CEOT.

Objective: This brief descriptive review describes a treatment approach for peripheral CEOT including the clear cell variant.

Study Design: A complete review of all well-documented extraosseous case reports with an emphasis on the treatment was performed. Additionally, the present article reports a case of a 21-year-old woman with an asymptomatic swelling in the gingiva finally diagnosed as peripheral CEOT abundant in clear cells.

Results: Twenty-four cases of peripheral CEOT were described; conservative surgery was the first treatment approach in approximately 80% of cases, with only one recurrence.

Discussion: Clear cell finding was not associated with more aggressive behavior.

Conclusion: Conservative surgery may be an advantageous approach for this group of peripheral lesions with or without clear cells, with a recurrence rate of approximately 4%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874210601812010856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210496PMC
October 2018

Modified Approach to Central Giant Cell Lesion.

J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;42(4):292-294. Epub 2018 May 11.

This case report discusses a modified technique for treatment of a central giant cell lesion (CGCL) in children, where a recontouring procedure is performed prior to the treatment with intra lesional corticosteroid. We discuss the advantages of this less invasive technique, specially considering the early age of the patient and its bone growth, as well as the conservative approach for lesions in those cases. The treatment of an 8-year-old female patient exhibiting CGCL in anterior region of mandible with bone expansion is described. The procedure was performed using blade #15 and rongeur forceps, in order to obtain an adequate jaw contour. Two weeks later, drug treatment started with triamcinolone 10mg/ml diluted in 0.5% bupivacaine without vasoconstrictor agent, 1:1 ratio, for eight sessions. There were no complications in surgery and postoperative period. In 3-year follow-up, anatomical preservation is present with no signs of recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17796/1053-4628-42.4.9DOI Listing
November 2018

A multicenter study of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions in a Brazilian pediatric population.

Braz Oral Res 2018 Mar 15;32:e20. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Universidade de Pernambuco - UPE, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Camaragibe, PE, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions among children from representative regions of Brazil. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. Biopsy records comprising the period from 2000 to 2015 were obtained from the archives of three Brazilian oral pathology referral centers. A total of 32,506 biopsy specimens were analyzed, and specimens from 1,706 children aged 0-12 years were selected. Gender, age, anatomical location and histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Descriptive statistics was carried out. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the association between the categorical variables. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The post-hoc test was used to identify the subgroups that significantly differed from one another, and the Bonferroni correction was applied. A total of 1,706 oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed in pediatric patients, including 51.9% girls. Oral mucocele was the most prevalent reactive/inflammatory lesion (64%). The most commonly affected sites were the lips (34.5%) and mandible (19.9%). A significant association was observed between age and the group of lesions of the oral cavity (p < 0.001), and between age and anatomical location (p < 0.001). Pediatric oral and maxillofacial lesions were frequent and showed wide diversity, with the prevalence of mucocele. Knowledge of oral lesions is important for pediatric dentists worldwide, since it provides accurate data for the diagnosis and oral health of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2018.vol32.0020DOI Listing
March 2018

Biological response to self-etch adhesive after partial caries removal in rats.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Jul 29;22(6):2161-2173. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Center for Oral and Systemic Diseases, Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina (UNC), Chapel Hill, USA.

Objectives: The purposes of this study were to evaluate a model of slow caries progression and to investigate the performance of a self-etch adhesive system for partial caries removal.

Materials And Methods: Rat molars were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 culture. Different time points were analyzed: days 78, 85, and 95 (± 2). After this, the samples were processed for morphological analysis. Additionally, the first molars were restored with zinc oxide and eugenol (IRM™; Dentsply; Brazil) or adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond™; Kuraray Medical; Japan) 78 days after caries induction. After, 3 or 15 days post-treatment, the animals were euthanized, and their mandibles were processed for morphological analysis, classified by means of scores, and submitted to statistical analysis. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analysis was performed for osteonectin (OSN) and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) expression.

Results: According to the caries induction model used, on day 95 greater inflammatory infiltration (p < 0.001), and more extensive degradation of secondary/primary dentin were demonstrated than on day 78 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the restorative materials presented similar performance (p > 0.05) and proved to be fundamental to control the carious lesion. The TGF-ß1 and OSN were shown to be active during the caries process.

Conclusions: The slow caries lesion model was feasible for morphological analysis of the dentin-pulp complex. The self-etch adhesive system triggered no acute inflammatory infiltration or pulp necrosis, instead it seemed to stimulate early pulp repair.

Clinical Relevance: Clearfil SE Bond™ applied directly on caries-affected dentin did not predispose to pulp inflammation; instead, it appeared to provide early biological benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2303-zDOI Listing
July 2018

Demographic and Clinical Profile of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma from a Service-Based Population.

Braz Dent J 2017 May-Jun;28(3):301-306

Graduate Program in Dentistry, UFPel - Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinical profile of the oral squamous cells carcinoma (OSCC) cases registered in a center of oral diagnosis in southern Brazil. Eight hundred and six individuals with OSCC from 1959 to 2012 were included in this study. The variables recorded were: sex, age, occupation according to workplace, alcohol and tobacco consumption, skin color, tumor location, histological type, clinical appearance, size, evolution time, presence of pain and lymph node metastasis. Descriptive analysis was performed and the associations between variables were assessed using the chi-square and Fisher's exact test, with a confidence level of 5%. OSSC was more common in males (76.6%) aged between 51 to 70 years (53.9%). The most frequent sites were lower lip vermilion (23.3%), tongue (20.2%) and gingiva/alveolar ridge (18.1%). There was a strong association between outdoor occupation and white skin color with lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). OSCC intraoral lesions were commonly more painful, larger than 2 cm and presented lymphatic metastasis. In conclusion, most of the results confirm the data from literature about sex, age, tumor location and occupation. Moreover, the positive correlations between LSCC and occupation, between LSCC and white skin color, and between bigger lesions and presence of pain/cervical metastasis also corroborate the literature data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201601257DOI Listing
September 2018

A symptomatic swelling of the upper lip.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2018 Feb 17;125(2):107-111. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Graduation Program, Dental School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2017.10.012DOI Listing
February 2018

A multicenter study of malignant oral and maxillofacial lesions in children and adolescents.

Oral Oncol 2017 12 5;75:39-45. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the frequency of malignant oral and maxillofacial lesions among children and adolescents from representative geographic regions of Brazil.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on biopsies obtained from 1990 to 2016 at six Brazilian oral and maxillofacial pathology referral centers. A total of 85,105 biopsy specimens from children and adolescents were analyzed. Gender, age, anatomical location, symptomatology and histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods.

Results: Fifty-eight (0.06%) malignant oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed in children (19%) and adolescents (81%). The lesions were more frequent among females (60.3%) and adolescents. The most prevalent lesions were mucoepidermoid carcinomas (22.4%), osteosarcomas (13.8%), squamous cell carcinomas (12.1%), and Burkitt's lymphomas (12.1%). The most commonly affected sites were the palate (19%), mandible (13.8%), and maxilla (13.8%). Almost half the patients were asymptomatic.

Conclusion: Pediatric oral and maxillofacial malignant lesions were infrequent and showed wide diversity, with a prevalence of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Analysis of malignant lesions in children and adolescents helps pediatric dentists and oncologists to obtain a better understanding of such lesions and to reduce the time for diagnosis, with a consequent improvement of prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2017.10.016DOI Listing
December 2017

Odontogenic myxoma: A 63-year retrospective multicenter study of 85 cases in a Brazil population and a review of 999 cases from literature.

J Oral Pathol Med 2018 Jan 25;47(1):71-77. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Background: Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon neoplasm of the jaws. Considering the importance of defining the relative incidence and demographic profile of these lesions in South America, the aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and imagiological features of OM from three South American oral pathology services and to discuss these findings in light of the literature.

Methods: Data regarding age, gender, anatomic site, and imagiological features from 85 cases of OM were collected. Additionally, we did a review of OM studies published in three electronic databases.

Results: Among 63 450 oral biopsies, 1178 (1.85%) were odontogenic tumors (World Health Organization - 2017), of which 85 (7.21%) met the criteria of OM. The mean age was 30.7 years (range: 10-61 years; SD: 12.22). Forty-five (52.9%) cases occurred in females and 40 (47.1%) in males (ratio: 1:1.12). Maxilla was affected in 44 cases (53%) and mandible in 39 (47%). Of the 41 informed cases (48.2%), all of them were radiolucent lesions. The literature review indicated a majority of mean ages in third decade and a predilection for females, mandible, and multilocular radiolucent lesions.

Conclusions: The features of OM samples have strong similarity to that reported in studies from other continents. It is possible to infer that geographic variation does not help to explain some differences observed in the clinical features of OM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12647DOI Listing
January 2018

Unusual osteolytic lesion of the jaw.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 11 10;124(5):443-448. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Oral Diagnosis Area, Semiology and Clinics Department, Federal University of Pelotas, UFPel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2017.06.123DOI Listing
November 2017

Immunohistochemical Expression of TGF-β1 and Osteonectin in engineered and Ca(OH)2-repaired human pulp tissues.

Braz Oral Res 2016 Oct 10;30(1):e93. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, School of Dentistry,Post Graduation Program in Dentistry, Pelotas, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and osteonectin (ON) in pulp-like tissues developed by tissue engineering and to compare it with the expression of these proteins in pulps treated with Ca(OH)2 therapy. Tooth slices were obtained from non-carious human third molars under sterile procedures. The residual periodontal and pulp soft tissues were removed. Empty pulp spaces of the tooth slice were filled with sodium chloride particles (250-425 µm). PLLA solubilized in 5% chloroform was applied over the salt particles. The tooth slice/scaffold (TS/S) set was stored overnight and then rinsed thoroughly to wash out the salt. Scaffolds were previously sterilized with ethanol (100-70°) and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). TS/S was treated with 10% EDTA and seeded with dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). Then, TS/S was implanted into the dorsum of immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Human third molars previously treated with Ca(OH)2 for 90 days were also evaluated. Samples were prepared and submitted to histological and immunohistochemical (with anti-TGF-β1, 1:100 and anti-ON, 1:350) analyses. After 28 days, TS/S showed morphological characteristics similar to those observed in dental pulp treated with Ca(OH)2. Ca(OH)2-treated pulps showed the usual repaired pulp characteristics. In TS/S, newly formed tissues and pre-dentin was colored, which elucidated the expression of TGF-β1 and ON. Immunohistochemistry staining of Ca(OH)2-treated pulps showed the same expression patterns. The extracellular matrix displayed a fibrillar pattern under both conditions. Regenerative events in the pulp seem to follow a similar pattern of TGF-β1 and ON expression as the repair processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107BOR-2016.vol30.0093DOI Listing
October 2016

Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review.

PLoS One 2016 21;11(7):e0155231. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Post-Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses.

Objective: The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique.

Data, Sources, And Selection: The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research.

Results: Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups.

Conclusions: The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155231PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4956102PMC
July 2017

Asymptomatic gingival nodule in the anterior maxilla.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Feb 11;121(2):115-8. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Department of Semiology and Clinics, Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Dental School, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.07.034DOI Listing
February 2016

Oral mucosal lesions' impact on oral health-related quality of life in preschool children.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2015 Dec 14;43(6):578-85. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry of Federal University of Pelotas (PPGO-UFPel), Pelotas, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and their impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children aged 5 years.

Methods: A sample of 1118 children from Pelotas' birth cohort, born in 2004 (response rate of 85.8%), were selected to participate in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied to mothers and from the oral examinations of the children. OML were identified by type, site, and size. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used to assess caregivers' perception on children's OHRQoL. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate Poisson regression analyses were carried out, considering the impact on OHRQoL (total ECOHIS score) as the outcome.

Results: The prevalence of the OML was 30.1% (95% CI 27.5-32.9). Ulcers were the more prevalent type of lesion (29.4%), and the most affected site was the gums (31.0%). In bivariate analysis, there was a positive association between the presence of OML and OHRQoL impact measured by the following: mean overall score of ECOHIS (P < 0.001); extent (P < 0.001); prevalence (P = 0.030); and intensity (P = 0.010). After adjustments for sociodemographic and oral health variables, children with OML presented higher impact on OHRQoL [rate ratio (RR) 1.38 95% CI 1.11; 1.72] comparing with their counterparts. Analyzing specific domains, children with OML also presented higher impact on children symptoms (RR 1.46 95% CI 1.20; 1.66) and family functional (RR 3.14 95% CI 1.59; 6.22) domains.

Conclusion: Almost one-third of children presented with oral mucosal lesions, and these lesions impaired children's oral health-related quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12185DOI Listing
December 2015

Influence of poly-L-lactic acid scaffold's pore size on the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

Braz Dent J 2015 Mar-Apr;26(2):93-8. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Post-Graduate Program in Dentistry, Dental School, UFPel - Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffold's pore size on the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The scaffolds were prepared in pulp chambers of 1-mm-thick tooth slices from third molars using salt crystals (150-250 µm or 251-450 µm) as porogen. DPSC (1x105 cells) were seeded in the scaffolds with different pore sizes, and cultured in 24-well plates. The cell proliferation was evaluated using the WST-1 assay after 3-21 days. Furthermore, RT-PCR was used to assess the differentiation of the DPSCs into odontoblasts, using markers of odontoblastic differentiation (DSPP, DSP-1 and MEPE). RNA from human odontoblasts was used as control. Cell proliferation rate was similar in both scaffolds except at the 14th day period, in which the cells seeded in the scaffolds with larger pores showed higher proliferation (p<0.05). After 21 days DPSCs seeded in both evaluated scaffolds were able of expressing odontoblastic markers DMP-1, DSPP and MEPE. In summary, both scaffolds tested in this study allowed the proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs into odontoblast-like cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201300032DOI Listing
December 2016

Nonuse of dental service by schoolchildren in Southern Brazil: impact of socioeconomics, behavioral and clinical factors.

Int J Public Health 2015 May 11;60(4):411-6. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Post-Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Objectives: To assess clinical, behavioral and socioeconomic factors associated with nonuse of dental services by schoolchildren.

Methods: A cross-sectional school-based study with 1211 children aged 8-12 years was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil. The outcome (never having had a dental appointment) and independent variables were collected through interview with parents and children, including sex, age, parent's schooling, family income, self-perception about oral health, and dental fear. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination performed at schools.

Results: 291 (24.3 %; 95 % CI 22.0-26.9) of the children had never visited a dentist. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that the outcome was associated with children from mothers with little education (≤0.001), from public schools (≤0.001), from crowded households (≤0.001), who had no caries (≤0.001), who had dental fear (≤0.001), and who started oral hygiene later (0.04).

Conclusions: Despite the extensive increase in oral health coverage, especially in the public system in the last years in Brazil, there is still an unassisted portion of the population of schoolchildren. It was observed that socioeconomic, behavioral, and clinical factors influenced the nonuse of dental services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-015-0670-2DOI Listing
May 2015

Preferences on vital and nonvital tooth bleaching: a survey among dentists from a city of southern Brazil.

Braz Dent J 2013 Sep-Oct;24(5):527-31

Department of Semiology and Clinics, UFPel - Federal University of Pelotas, PelotasRS, Brazil.

This study evaluated the preferences of general dentists regarding vital and nonvital tooth bleaching therapies and investigated whether the time of clinical practice and post-graduate training influence these options. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire with closed questions applied to dentists (n=276) of a mid-sized city of the southern Brazil (Pelotas, RS). Information was collected regarding sociodemographic variables, level of specialization and time since graduation. In addition, options regarding bleaching therapies including the first choice of material, technique and clinical practice for vital and nonvital tooth bleaching therapies were included. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis and the associations were evaluated using chi-square and Fisher exact tests (α=0.05). The response rate was 68% (n=187). At-home bleaching therapy was broadly preferred (78.1%) over in-office (21.9%) bleaching. For at-home bleaching, most dentists answered to use 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) (40.2%) and >30% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (31.7%) for nonvital therapies. The majority of dentists with post-graduation training preferred at-home bleaching techniques (p=0.003). At-home bleaching therapy was also more indicated by younger dentists. No association was found between the choice for nonvital bleaching therapies and time since graduation (p=0.532) or continuous education (p=0.083). In conclusion, at-home bleaching was preferred over in-office therapies; 10% CP and >30% HP were chosen as first option agents to treat discolored vital and nonvital teeth, respectively. The time in clinical practice and the level of specialization affected dentists' choices only for vital tooth bleaching treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201302152DOI Listing
November 2015

Demographic profile of oral nonodontogenic cysts in a Brazilian population.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2014 Jul 1;19(4):e308-12. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Centro de Diagnóstico das Doenças da Boca CDDB, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas UFPEL, Rua Gonçalves Chaves, 457, sala 608, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, CEP 96015-560,

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of oral non-odontogenic cysts (ONOC) in a Brazilian population over a 53-year period and to compare this data with the literature.

Study Design: A total of 20.391 biopsies records were evaluated, from April/1959 to August/2012. Cases of oral developmental cysts were selected. Data regarding age, gender, time of evolution, and anatomic site of all cases were collected. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics.

Results: Among 20.391 oral biopsies, 71 (0.35%) met the criteria of ONOC. Females accounted for 50.70% of all cases. The mean age observed was 38.14 years (range: 5-88 years). Nasopalatine duct cysts, oral lymphoepithelial cysts and epidermoid cysts were the most common ONOC, accounting for 63 cases (88.73%). Nasopalatine duct cysts occurred in 31 cases (43.66%), followed by 22 patients with oral lymphoepithelial cysts (30.99%) and 10 cases of epidermoid cysts (14.08%). Nasopalatine duct cysts revealed predominance among males (58.06). Oral lymphoepithelial cysts were more commonly observed in tongue (50%). Epidermoid cysts were most frequently found in the buccal mucosa (40.00%).

Conclusions: The differential diagnosis of ONOC is based on the clinical, radiological, and histological findings. It is difficult to establish an epidemiological profile of ONOCs, considering the low frequency of these lesions and the divergences in the demographic and clinical presentation data among different populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119303PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/medoral.19335DOI Listing
July 2014

Tenascin and fibronectin expression after pulp capping with different hemostatic agents: a preliminary study.

Braz Dent J 2013 ;24(3):188-93

Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

This study investigated the expression of extracellular matrix glycoproteins tenascin (TN) and fibronectin (FN) in pulp repair after capping with calcium hydroxide (CH), following different hemostasis protocols. Class I cavities with a pulp exposure were prepared in 42 human third molars scheduled for extraction. Different hemostatic agents (0.9% saline solution, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate) were used and pulps were capped with CH cement. After 7, 30 or 90 days, teeth were extracted, formalin-fixed, and prepared for immunohistochemical technique. Hemostatic agents did not influence the expression of TN and FN. Both glycoproteins were found in the entire the pulp tissue and around collagen fibers, but were absent in the mineralized tissues. In the predentin, TN showed positive immunostaining and FN had a variable expression. Within 7 days post-treatment, a slightly more pronounced immunostaining on the pulp exposure site was observed. Within 30 days, TN and FN demonstrated a positive expression around the dentin barrier and at 90 days, a thin and linear expression of TN and FN was delimitating the reparative dentin. In conclusion, hemostatic agents did not influence TN and FN expression. Immunostaining for TN and FN was seen in different regions and periods, demonstrating their role in pulp repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201302168DOI Listing
September 2015

Factors associated with prevalence of oral lesions and oral self-examination in young adults from a birth cohort in Southern Brazil.

Cad Saude Publica 2013 Jan;29(1):155-64

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brasil.

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of oral lesions and oral self-examination and the association between these variables and life course determinants in a young population. A representative sample (n = 720) of all births occurring in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1982, was investigated and the outcomes were assessed in 2006. Data regarding exploratory variables was collected from other cohort waves. The prevalence of oral lesions was 23.3% (95%CI: 20.3-26.6). A total of 31% of individuals (95%CI: 27.6-34.4) reported never having performed oral self-examination. Multivariable analysis showed that low socio-economic status at birth, lack of oral hygiene instruction from a dentist up to the age of 15 years and smoking habits at the age of 22 year were associated with the presence of oral lesions. Performing oral self-examination was associated with high levels of maternal schooling at birth and having received oral hygiene orientation from a dentist up to the age of 15 years. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are associated with both presence of oral mucosal lesions and the habit of performing self-examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2013000100018DOI Listing
January 2013

Etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma in non-smokers and non-alcoholic drinkers: a brief approach.

Braz Dent J 2012 ;23(5):586-90

Departament of Social Medicine, Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer in the world. The effect of some etiological factors is well established in the literature, such as consumption of tobacco and alcohol. However, approximately 15 to 20% of all oral cancer cases occur in patients without the traditional risk factors, reflecting in numerous cases of OSCC in non-smokers and non-alcoholic drinkers. Also, several studies have suggested a possible association between human papillomavirus and OSCC. Under these aspects, the purpose of this study is to address cases of oral cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers focusing on the role of HPV, thus contributing to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of OSCC. A computer database search was performed using the Pubmed database. The search key words were: epidemiology, oral squamous cell carcinoma, risk factors and human papillomavirus. It is important to assess patients without the potential risk factors, since this knowledge may help identifying other features associated with the occurrence of oral cancer, enabling an appropriate clinical management and monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402012000500020DOI Listing
December 2013

Novel experimental cements for use on the dentin-pulp complex.

Braz Dent J 2012 ;23(4):344-50

Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

This aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and biological properties of novel experimental cements (Hybrid, Paste and Resin) based on synergistic combinations of existing materials, including pH, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and cytotoxicity comparing them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA - Angelus®) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC) developed at our laboratory. For the physicochemical and biological tests, specimens with standard dimensions were produced. pH measurements were performed with digital pH meter at the following time intervals: 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. For the DTS test, cylindrical specimens were subjected to compressive load until fracture. The MTT assay was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Paste group showed pH values similar to MTA, and Hybrid group presented pH values similar to GIC (p>0.05). The tested materials showed pH values ranging from alkaline to near neutrality at the evaluated times. MTA and GIC showed similar DTS values. The lowest and highest DTS values were seen in the Paste and Resin groups, respectively (p<0.05). Cell viability for MTA and experimental Hybrid, Paste and Resin groups was 49%, 93%, 90% and 86%, respectively, when compared with the control group. The photo-cured experimental resin cement showed similar or superior performance compared with the current commercial or other tested experimental materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402012000400006DOI Listing
December 2013