Publications by authors named "Sandosh Padmanabhan"

216 Publications

Efficacy of a family-based cardiovascular risk reduction intervention in individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease in India (PROLIFIC): an open-label, single-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Oct;9(10):e1442-e1450

Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India; Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi, India; Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Coronary heart disease, a leading cause of death globally, is amenable to lifestyle interventions. The family environment can affect the ability or willingness of individuals to make lifestyle changes. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a targeted family-based intervention for reduction of total cardiovascular risk in individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease.

Methods: We did an open-label, cluster randomised controlled trial (PROLIFIC) in the families (first-degree relatives and spouses, older than age 18 years) of individuals with coronary heart disease who had been diagnosed before age 55 years. Patients with coronary heart disease diagnosed within the past year were selected from a tertiary care speciality hospital that provides care for patients from Kerala, India. Family members of selected patients who were bedridden or terminally ill, and individuals with a history of established cardiovascular heart disease and stroke were excluded, as were families with fewer than two eligible family members. Simple randomisation with computer-generated random numbers was used to randomly assign families to intervention and usual care groups (1:1). Participants in the intervention group received a comprehensive package of interventions facilitated by non-physician health workers, consisting of: screening for cardiovascular risk factors; structured lifestyle interventions; linkage to a primary health-care facility for individuals with established chronic disease risk factors or conditions; and active follow-up for adherence. The usual care group received one-time counselling and annual screening for risk factors. We obtained data on lifestyle, clinical, and biochemical characteristics at baseline and annually during the 2-year follow-up. The primary outcome was achievement or maintenance of any three of the following: blood pressure lower than 140/90 mm Hg, fasting plasma glucose lower than 110 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lower than 100 mg/dL, and abstinence from tobacco. The primary outcome was analysed in all participants available for follow-up at the relevant timepoint. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02771873.

Findings: From Jan 1, 2015, to April 30, 2017, 980 patients with coronary heart disease were assessed for eligibility and 230 were excluded primarily due to lack of evidence of coronary artery disease (n=199), or a diagnosis of coronary heart disease more than 1 year previously (n=29). Of the 750 remaining families, 368 (with 825 participants) were assigned to the intervention group and 382 (with 846 participants) were assigned to the usual care group. At the 2-year follow-up, data from 803 (97%) of 825 participants in the intervention group and 819 (97%) of 846 participants in the usual care group were available. Of the 1671 participants, 1111 (66·5%) were women, and 560 (33·5%) were men. The mean age of the study population was 40·8 years (SD 14·2). At the 2-year follow-up, the primary outcome was achieved by 514 (64%) of 803 participants in the intervention group and 379 (46%) of 819 in the usual care group. After adjustment for clustering and baseline risk factors, the odds of achieving the primary outcome at the 2-year timepoint was two times higher in the intervention group than in the usual care group (odds ratio 2·2, 95% CI 1·7-2·7; p<0·0001).

Interpretation: The reduction of total cardiovascular risk observed after the intervention could have a substantial public health impact by preventing future cardiovascular events.

Funding: The Wellcome Trust and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, and India Alliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00319-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Use and validation of text mining and cluster algorithms to derive insights from Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) medical literature.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed Update 2021 16;1:100010. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

RMIT, Australia.

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) late last year has not only led to the world-wide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic but also a deluge of biomedical literature. Following the release of the COVID-19 open research dataset (CORD-19) comprising over 200,000 scholarly articles, we a multi-disciplinary team of data scientists, clinicians, medical researchers and software engineers developed an innovative natural language processing (NLP) platform that combines an advanced search engine with a biomedical named entity recognition extraction package. In particular, the platform was developed to extract information relating to clinical risk factors for COVID-19 by presenting the results in a cluster format to support knowledge discovery. Here we describe the principles behind the development, the model and the results we obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpbup.2021.100010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050406PMC
April 2021

N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin G predicts incident hypertension.

J Hypertens 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Department of Twin Research, Kings College London, London, UK Genos Glycoscience Research Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München Research Center for Environmental Health German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München Research Center for Environmental Health LMU Munich, IBE-Chair of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany Department of Public Health, University of Split, School of Medicine, Split, Croatia NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London Academic Rheumatology Clinical Sciences Building, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Objectives: Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an important regulator of the immune system and has been implicated in prevalent hypertension.The aim of this study is to investigate whether the IgG glycome begins to change prior to hypertension diagnosis by analysing the IgG glycome composition in a large population-based female cohort with two independent replication samples.

Methods: We included 989 unrelated cases with incident hypertension and 1628 controls from the TwinsUK cohort (mean follow-up time of 6.3 years) with IgG measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and longitudinal BP measurement available. We replicated our findings in 106 individuals from the 10 001 Dalmatians and 729 from KORA S4. Cox regression mixed models were applied to identify changes in glycan traits preincident hypertension, after adjusting for age, mean arterial pressure, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (FDR < 0.1). Significant IgG-incident hypertension associations were replicated in the two independent cohorts by leveraging Cox regression mixed models in the 10 001 Dalmatians and logistic regression models in the KORA cohort.

Results: We identified and replicated four glycan traits, incidence of bisecting GlcNAc, GP4, GP9 and GP21, that are predictive of incident hypertension after adjusting for confoundes and multiple testing [hazard ratio (95% CI) ranging from 0.45 (0.24-0.84) for GP21 to 2.9 (1.5-5.68) for GP4]. We then linearly combined the four replicated glycans and found that the glycan score correlated with incident hypertension, SBP and DBP.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the IgG glycome changes prior to the development of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002963DOI Listing
July 2021

Unravelling the tangled web of hypertension and cancer.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Jul;135(13):1609-1625

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, 126 University Place, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, U.K.

Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of mortality globally, being responsible for an estimated 17 million deaths every year. Cancer is the second leading cause of death on a global level with roughly 9 million deaths per year being attributed to neoplasms. The two share multiple common risk factors such as obesity, poor physical exercise, older age, smoking and there exists rare monogenic hypertension syndromes. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects more than a billion people worldwide and may also be a risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer (e.g. renal cell carcinoma (RCC)). The interaction space of the two conditions becomes more complicated when the well-described hypertensive effect of certain antineoplastic drugs is considered along with the extensive amount of literature on the association of different classes of antihypertensive drugs with cancer risk/prevention. The cardiovascular risks associated with antineoplastic treatment calls for efficient management of relative adverse events and the development of practical strategies for efficient decision-making in the clinic. Pharmacogenetic interactions between cancer treatment and hypertension-related genes is not to be ruled out, but the evidence is not still ample to be incorporated in clinical practice. Precision Medicine has the potential to bridge the gap of knowledge regarding the full spectrum of interactions between cancer and hypertension (and cardiovascular disease) and provide novel solutions through the emerging field of cardio-oncology. In this review, we aimed to examine the bidirectional associations between cancer and hypertension including pharmacotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20200307DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanistic interactions of uromodulin with the thick ascending limb: perspectives in physiology and hypertension.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug;39(8):1490-1504

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality worldwide. The kidney is a major regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis, with monogenic disorders indicating a link between abnormal ion transport and salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the association between salt and hypertension remains controversial. Thus, there is continued interest in deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind these processes. Uromodulin (UMOD) is the most abundant protein in the normal urine and is primarily synthesized by the thick ascending limb epithelial cells of the kidney. Genome-wide association studies have linked common UMOD variants with kidney function, susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and hypertension independent of renal excretory function. This review will discuss and provide predictions on the role of the UMOD protein in renal ion transport and hypertension based on current observational, biochemical, genetic, pharmacological and clinical evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611110PMC
August 2021

Cardiovascular and renal risk factors and complications associated with COVID-19.

CJC Open 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, UK.

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2), represents the largest medical challenge in decades. It has exposed unexpected cardiovascular vulnerabilities at all stages of the disease (pre-infection, acute phase and subsequent chronic phase). The major cardiometabolic drivers identified to have epidemiological and mechanistic associations with COVID-19 are abnormal adiposity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Hypertension is of particular interest, because components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which are critically involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension, are also implicated in COVID-19. Specifically ACE2, a multifunctional protein of the RAS, which is part of the protective axis of the RAS, is also the receptor through which SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells causing viral infection. Cardiovascular and cardiometabolic co-morbidities not only predispose to COVID-19, but are complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that acute kidney injury is common in COVID-19, that it occurs early and in temporal association with respiratory failure and is associated with poor prognosis, especially in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Here we discuss cardiovascular and kidney disease in the context of COVID-19 and provide recent advances on putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, focusing on the RAS and ACE2 as well as the immune system and inflammation. We provide up-to-date information on the relationship between hypertension, diabetes, and COVID-19 and emphasize the major cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19. We also briefly discuss emerging cardiovascular complications associated with long COVID-19, notably postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2021.05.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205551PMC
June 2021

Variants associated with expression have sex-differential effects on lung function.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 24;5:111. Epub 2021 May 24.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.

Lung function is highly heritable and differs between the sexes throughout life. However, little is known about sex-differential genetic effects on lung function. We aimed to conduct the first genome-wide genotype-by-sex interaction study on lung function to identify genetic effects that differ between males and females. We tested for interactions between 7,745,864 variants and sex on spirometry-based measures of lung function in UK Biobank (N=303,612), and sought replication in 75,696 independent individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Five independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed genome-wide significant (P<5x10 ) interactions with sex on lung function, and 21 showed suggestive interactions (P<1x10 ). The strongest signal, from rs7697189 (chr4:145436894) on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV ) (P=3.15x10 ), was replicated (P=0.016) in SpiroMeta. The C allele increased FEV more in males (untransformed FEV β=0.028 [SE 0.0022] litres) than females (β=0.009 [SE 0.0014] litres), and this effect was not accounted for by differential effects on height, smoking or pubertal age. rs7697189 resides upstream of the hedgehog-interacting protein ( ) gene and was previously associated with lung function and lung expression. We found expression was significantly different between the sexes (P=6.90x10 ), but we could not detect sex differential effects of rs7697189 on expression. We identified a novel genotype-by-sex interaction at a putative enhancer region upstream of the gene. Establishing the mechanism by which SNPs have different effects on lung function in males and females will be important for our understanding of lung health and diseases in both sexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15846.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938335.2PMC
May 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2021 May 20;23(Suppl B):B147-B150. Epub 2021 May 20.

University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, and UHCW NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.

In the UK, heart and circulatory diseases account for 29% of all deaths (14% through coronary heart disease and 8% through stroke). In 2015, the prevalence of hypertension was 20% in the UK and 23% in the Republic of Ireland. In 2019, 14% of people registered with a UK general practice had hypertension and yet it was the attributable risk factor for around half of all deaths from coronary heart disease or stroke. We participated in May Measurement Month 2019 to increase awareness of blood pressure (BP) measurement, and to identify the proportion of undiagnosed hypertension and degree of uncontrolled hypertension in the community. The 2019 campaign set up screening sites within the community at places of worship, supermarkets, GP surgeries, workplaces, charity events, community pharmacies, gyms, and various other public places. We screened 10194 participants (mean age 51 ± 18 years, 60% women) and found that 1013 (9.9%) were on antihypertensive treatment, while 3408 (33.4%) had hypertension. Of the 3408 participants with hypertension, only 33.5% were aware of their condition despite 98.8% having previous BP measurements. In those on antihypertensive medication, only 38.2% had controlled BP (<140 and <90 mmHg). Our UK and Republic of Ireland data demonstrate concerning levels of undiagnosed hypertension and sub-optimal BP control in many individuals with a diagnosis. This evidence supports a critical need for better systematic community and primary care screening initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141951PMC
May 2021

Echocardiography Predictors of Survival in Hypertensive Patients With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

Am J Hypertens 2021 06;34(6):636-644

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a well-known target organ damage. Concentric hypertrophy is the strongest predictor of increased risk of cardiovascular events, but the predictive value of individual echocardiographic parameters remains unclear.The aim of this study was to search for echocardiographic and hemodynamic variables associated with concentric and eccentric remodeling and their association with long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods: Patients with echocardiography performed within 1 year prior to the initial clinic visit were included into the study. Logistic regression and multivariable Cox-proportional hazards were calculated according to several risk factors and variables. Additionally, cubic spline interpolation was used.

Results: We observed 690 patients for 10 years. There was a total of 177 major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and 90 deaths over a 10-year period. Left ventricular concentric hypertrophy is associated with worse outcomes than eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Interestingly, different echocardiographic parameters contributed to risk depending on type of hypertrophy. In concentric hypertrophy, relative wall thickness provides linear prediction of risk for all-cause mortality (ACM) and composite endpoint. Systolic blood pressure is a significant predictor of MACCE. Blood pressure variability also showed significant predictive value for MACCE and ACM.

Conclusions: These data indicate risk stratification based on LVH need to consider different measures based on the type of remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa194DOI Listing
June 2021

Artificial Intelligence in Hypertension: Seeing Through a Glass Darkly.

Circ Res 2021 Apr 1;128(7):1100-1118. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow.

Hypertension remains the largest modifiable cause of mortality worldwide despite the availability of effective medications and sustained research efforts over the past 100 years. Hypertension requires transformative solutions that can help reduce the global burden of the disease. Artificial intelligence and machine learning, which have made a substantial impact on our everyday lives over the last decade may be the route to this transformation. However, artificial intelligence in health care is still in its nascent stages and realizing its potential requires numerous challenges to be overcome. In this review, we provide a clinician-centric perspective on artificial intelligence and machine learning as applied to medicine and hypertension. We focus on the main roadblocks impeding implementation of this technology in clinical care and describe efforts driving potential solutions. At the juncture, there is a critical requirement for clinical and scientific expertise to work in tandem with algorithmic innovation followed by rigorous validation and scrutiny to realize the promise of artificial intelligence-enabled health care for hypertension and other chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318106DOI Listing
April 2021

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Genomics of hypertension: the road to precision medicine.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2021 04 20;18(4):235-250. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The known genetic architecture of blood pressure now comprises >30 genes, with rare variants resulting in monogenic forms of hypertension or hypotension and >1,477 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) being associated with the blood pressure phenotype. Monogenic blood pressure syndromes predominantly involve the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the adrenal glucocorticoid pathway, with a smaller fraction caused by neuroendocrine tumours of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as being associated with the blood pressure phenotype explain only approximately 27% of the 30-50% estimated heritability of blood pressure, and the effect of each SNP on the blood pressure phenotype is small. A paucity of SNPs from GWAS are mapped to known genes causing monogenic blood pressure syndromes. For example, a GWAS signal mapped to the gene encoding uromodulin has been shown to affect blood pressure by influencing sodium homeostasis, and the effects of another GWAS signal were mediated by endothelin. However, the majority of blood pressure-associated SNPs show pleiotropic associations. Unravelling these associations can potentially help us to understand the underlying biological pathways. In this Review, we appraise the current knowledge of blood pressure genomics, explore the causal pathways for hypertension identified in Mendelian randomization studies and highlight the opportunities for drug repurposing and pharmacogenomics for the treatment of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-00466-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Rationale and Design of the Genotype-Blinded Trial of Torasemide for the Treatment of Hypertension (BHF UMOD).

Am J Hypertens 2021 02;34(1):92-99

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the uromodulin gene (UMOD) affecting uromodulin excretion and blood pressure (BP). Uromodulin is almost exclusively expressed in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle and its effect on BP appears to be mediated via the TAL sodium transporter, NKCC2. Loop-diuretics block NKCC2 but are not commonly used in hypertension management. Volume overload is one of the primary drivers for uncontrolled hypertension, so targeting loop-diuretics to individuals who are more likely to respond to this drug class, using the UMOD genotype, could be an efficient precision medicine strategy.

Methods: The BHF UMOD Trial is a genotype-blinded, multicenter trial comparing BP response to torasemide between individuals possessing the AA genotype of the SNP rs13333226 and those possessing the G allele. 240 participants (≥18 years) with uncontrolled BP, on ≥1 antihypertensive agent for ≥3 months, will receive treatment with Torasemide, 5 mg daily for 16 weeks. Uncontrolled BP is average home systolic BP (SBP) >135 mmHg and/or diastolic BP >85 mmHg. The primary outcome is the change in 24-hour ambulatory SBP area under the curve between baseline and end of treatment. Sample size was calculated to detect a 4 mmHg difference between groups at 90% power. Approval by West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee 5 (16/WS/0160).

Results: The study should conclude August 2021.

Conclusions: If our hypothesis is confirmed, a genotype-based treatment strategy for loop diuretics would help reduce the burden of uncontrolled hypertension.

Clinical Trials Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03354897.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891239PMC
February 2021

Rationale and design of the Medical Research Council's Precision Medicine with Zibotentan in Microvascular Angina (PRIZE) trial.

Am Heart J 2020 11 17;229:70-80. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Microvascular angina is caused by cardiac small vessel disease, and dysregulation of the endothelin system is implicated. The minor G allele of the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9349379 enhances expression of the endothelin 1 gene in human vascular cells, increasing circulating concentrations of ET-1. The prevalence of this allele is higher in patients with ischemic heart disease. Zibotentan is a potent, selective inhibitor of the ET receptor. We have identified zibotentan as a potential disease-modifying therapy for patients with microvascular angina. METHODS: We will assess the efficacy and safety of adjunctive treatment with oral zibotentan (10 mg daily) in patients with microvascular angina and assess whether rs9349379 (minor G allele; population prevalence ~36%) acts as a theragnostic biomarker of the response to treatment with zibotentan. The PRIZE trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential cross-over trial. The study population will be enriched to ensure a G-allele frequency of 50% for the rs9349379 SNP. The participants will receive a single-blind placebo run-in followed by treatment with either 10 mg of zibotentan daily for 12 weeks then placebo for 12 weeks, or vice versa, in random order. The primary outcome is treadmill exercise duration using the Bruce protocol. The primary analysis will assess the within-subject difference in exercise duration following treatment with zibotentan versus placebo. CONCLUSION: PRIZE invokes precision medicine in microvascular angina. Should our hypotheses be confirmed, this developmental trial will inform the rationale and design for undertaking a larger multicenter trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674581PMC
November 2020

May Measurement Month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from the UK and the Republic of Ireland.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Aug 28;22(Suppl H):H132-H134. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, and UHCW NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.

Raised blood pressure (BP) was the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease in 2017, with lack of awareness and adequate control of BP identified as the main drivers of this disease burden. In 2017, an opportunistic BP screening and awareness campaign called May Measurement Month (MMM) in the UK and Republic of Ireland (RoI) highlighted that levels of undiagnosed hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension in the community screened were approximately 23% and 40%, respectively. MMM18 was undertaken to further the campaign's efforts to increase awareness and create an evidence base of population risk associated with high BP. MMM18 BP screenings were conducted in the community at places of worship, supermarkets, GP surgeries, workplaces, community pharmacies, gyms, and various other public places. A total of 5000 volunteers, aged 47.3 (±17.2) years, 60% female were screened. Of all 5000 individuals screened, 1716 (34.3%) were hypertensive, of which only 51.3% were aware of their condition, 42.8% on antihypertensive treatment, and only 51.5% of those on medication controlled to target BP of <140/90 mmHg. Furthermore, obese, overweight, and underweight participants all had significantly higher BP values compared to individuals with a healthy body mass index (BMI). The 2018 MMM campaign in the UK and the RoI confirmed approximately one in three adults were hypertensive, with more than half having uncontrolled BP. In addition, these findings show that people with low BMI are at risk of having high BP. Finally, with only one in two people aware of their high BP, awareness remains a significant public health concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455270PMC
August 2020

Genetic Determinants of Electrocardiographic P-Wave Duration and Relation to Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 21;13(5):387-395. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Germany (A.T., U.V., M.D., S.B.F.).

Background: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD.

Methods: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies.

Results: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (, , , , , , , ). The top variants at known sarcomere genes () were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, and ) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk.

Conclusions: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578098PMC
October 2020

Dietary Influence on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in the TwinsUK Cohort.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 17;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Twin Research, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital Campus, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK.

Nutrition plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Here, we examine associations between nutrient intakes and BP in a large predominantly female population-based cohort. We assessed the correlation between 45 nutrients (from food frequency questionnaires) and systolic BP/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) in 3889 individuals from TwinsUK not on hypertensive treatments and replicated in an independent subset of monozygotic twins discordant for nutrient intake (17-242 pairs). Results from both analyses were meta-analysed. For significant nutrients, we calculated heritability using structural equation modelling. We identified and replicated 15 nutrients associated with SBP, 9 also being associated with DBP, adjusting for covariates and multiple testing. 14 of those had a heritable component (: 27.1-57.6%). Strong associations with SBP were observed for riboflavin (Beta(SE) = -1.49(0.38), = 1.00 × 10) and tryptophan (-0.31(0.01), = 5 × 10), while with DBP for alcohol (0.05(0.07), = 1.00 × 10) and lactose (-0.05(0.0), = 1.3 × 10). Two multivariable nutrient scores, combining independently SBP/DBP-associated nutrients, explained 22% of the variance in SBP and 13.6% of the variance in DBP. Moreover, bivariate heritability analysis suggested that nutrients and BP share some genetic influences. We confirm current understanding and extend the panel of dietary nutrients implicated in BP regulation underscoring the value of nutrient focused dietary research in preventing and managing hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12072130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400881PMC
July 2020

Blood pressure-lowering activity of statins: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of placebo-randomized controlled trials.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Dec 21;76(12):1745-1754. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre(GCRC), Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Purpose: To investigate the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of statins by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of placebo RCTs reporting antihypertensive effects of statins therapy. We only included RCTs that did not allow for concomitant antihypertensive therapy, or clearly stated that antihypertensive therapy was fixed throughout the study period.

Results: Our meta-analysis included 46 placebo RCTs, including 53 group comparisons and a total of 49,087 participants (24,589 participants in the statin groups and 24,498 participants in the placebo group). Subgroup analysis, based on use of concomitant antihypertensive, was performed. The meta-analysis showed that statin reduced systolic BP by - 1.6 mmHg (95% CI: - 2.50 to - 0.60), and diastolic BP by - 0.96 mmHg (95% CI: - 1.36 to - 0.56). Although the presence of concomitant antihypertensive therapy diluted the BP lowering effect of statins, it remained statistically significant and independent of the lipid-lowering activity. Furthermore, the BP -lowering effect of the statins was independent of the dose or type of statin (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results strengthen the evidence for pleiotropic effects of statins on BP that are independent of their lipid-lowering activity, supporting their beneficial role in hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-02965-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Genetic comorbidity between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits, stratified by age at onset of major depression.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2020 09 18;183(6):309-330. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991693PMC
September 2020

Multi-ancestry GWAS of the electrocardiographic PR interval identifies 202 loci underlying cardiac conduction.

Nat Commun 2020 05 21;11(1):2542. Epub 2020 May 21.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N = 293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have not previously been reported. Variants at identified loci increase the percentage of heritability explained, from 33.5% to 62.6%. We observe enrichment for cardiac muscle developmental/contractile and cytoskeletal genes, highlighting key regulation processes for atrioventricular conduction. Additionally, 8 loci not previously reported harbor genes underlying inherited arrhythmic syndromes and/or cardiomyopathies suggesting a role for these genes in cardiovascular pathology in the general population. We show that polygenic predisposition to PR interval duration is an endophenotype for cardiovascular disease, including distal conduction disease, AF, and atrioventricular pre-excitation. These findings advance our understanding of the polygenic basis of cardiac conduction, and the genetic relationship between PR interval duration and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15706-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242331PMC
May 2020

Genomics of Blood Pressure and Hypertension: Extending the Mosaic Theory Toward Stratification.

Can J Cardiol 2020 05 5;36(5):694-705. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The genetic architecture of blood pressure (BP) now includes more than 30 genes, with rare mutations resulting in inherited forms of hypertension or hypotension, and 1477 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These signify the heterogeneity of the BP phenotype and support the mosaic theory of hypertension. The majority of monogenic syndromes involve the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the adrenal glucocorticoid pathway, and a smaller fraction are due to rare neuroendocrine tumours of the adrenal glands and the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. Somatic mutations in genes coding for ion channels (KCNJ5 and CACNA1D) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATP1A1 and ATP2B3) highlight the central role of calcium signalling in autonomous aldosterone production by the adrenal gland. The per-SNP BP effect is small for SNPs according to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and all of the GWAS-identified BP SNPs explain ∼ 27% of the 30%-50% estimated heritability of BP. Uromodulin is a novel pathway identified by GWAS, and it has now progressed to a genotype-directed clinical trial. The majority of the GWAS-identified BP SNPs show pleiotropic associations, and unravelling those signals and underpinning biological pathways offers potential opportunities for drug repurposing. The GWAS signals are predominantly from Europe-centric studies with other ancestries underrepresented, however, limiting the generalisability of the findings. In this review, we leverage the burgeoning list of polygenic and monogenic variants associated with BP regulation along with phenome-wide studies in the context of the mosaic theory of hypertension, and we explore potential translational aspects that underlie different hypertension subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237883PMC
May 2020

Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 5;26(6):2111-2125. Epub 2020 May 5.

Health Disparities Research Section, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0719-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641978PMC
June 2021

Genomic Determinants of Hypertension With a Focus on Metabolomics and the Gut Microbiome.

Am J Hypertens 2020 05;33(6):473-481

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Epidemiologic and genomic studies have progressively improved our understanding of the causation of hypertension and the complex relationship with diet and environment. The majority of Mendelian forms of syndromic hypotension and hypertension (HTN) have all been linked to mutations in genes whose encoded proteins regulate salt-water balance in the kidney, supporting the primacy of the kidneys in blood pressure regulation. There are more than 1,477 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with blood pressure and hypertension and the challenge is establishing a causal role for these variants. Hypertension is a complex multifactorial phenotype and it is likely to be influenced by multiple factors including interactions between diet and lifestyle factors, microbiome, and epigenetics. Given the finite genetic variability that is possible in humans, it is likely that incremental gains from single marker analyses have now plateaued and a greater leap in our understanding of the genetic basis of disease will come from integration of other omics and the interacting environmental factors. In this review, we focus on emerging results from the microbiome and metabolomics and discuss how leveraging these findings may facilitate a deeper understanding of the interrelationships between genomics, diet, and microbial ecology in humans in the causation of essential hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241940PMC
May 2020

Prognostic Models Derived in PARADIGM-HF and Validated in ATMOSPHERE and the Swedish Heart Failure Registry to Predict Mortality and Morbidity in Chronic Heart Failure.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 04;5(4):432-441

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.

Importance: Accurate prediction of risk of death or hospitalizations in patients with heart failure (HF) may allow physicians to explore how more accurate decisions regarding appropriateness and timing of disease-modifying treatments, advanced therapies, or the need for end-of-life care can be made.

Objective: To develop and validate a prognostic model for patients with HF.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multivariable analyses were performed in a stepwise fashion. Harrell C statistic was used to assess the discriminative ability. The derivation cohort was Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF) participants. The models were validated using the Aliskiren Trial to Minimize Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure Trial (ATMOSPHERE) study and in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF). A total of 8399 participants enrolled in PARADIGM-HF. Data were analyzed between June 2016 and June 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, and the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization at both 1 and 2 years.

Results: Complete baseline clinical data were available for 8011 patients in PARADIGM-HF. The mean (SD) age of participants was 64 (11.4) years, 78.2% were men (n = 6567 of 8399), and 70.6% were New York Heart Association class II (n = 5919 of 8399). During a mean follow-up of 27 months, 1546 patients died, and 2031 had a cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization. The common variables were: male sex, race/ethnicity (black or Asian), region (Central Europe or Latin America), HF duration of more than 5 years, New York Heart Association class III/ IV, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus, β-blocker use at baseline, and allocation to sacubitril/valsartan. Ranked by χ2, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide was the single most powerful independent predictor of each outcome. The C statistic at 1 and 2 years was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.71-0.76) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.70-0.73) for the primary composite end point, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.71-0.75) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.73) for cardiovascular death, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.74) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67-0.74) for all-cause death, respectively. When validated in ATMOSPHERE, the C statistic at 1 and 2 years was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.72) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.68-0.71) for the primary composite end point, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.74) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.69-0.72) for cardiovascular death, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.74) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.68-0.72) for all-cause death, respectively. An online calculator was created to allow calculation of an individual's risk (http://www.predict-hf.com).

Conclusions And Relevance: Predictive models performed well and were developed and externally validated in large cohorts of geographically representative patients, comprehensively characterized with clinical and laboratory data including natriuretic peptides, who were receiving contemporary evidence-based treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.5850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990745PMC
April 2020

The relationship between antihypertensive medications and mood disorders: analysis of linked healthcare data for 1.8 million patients.

Psychol Med 2021 May 24;51(7):1183-1191. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Recent work suggests that antihypertensive medications may be useful as repurposed treatments for mood disorders. Using large-scale linked healthcare data we investigated whether certain classes of antihypertensive, such as angiotensin antagonists (AAs) and calcium channel blockers, were associated with reduced risk of new-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD).

Method: Two cohorts of patients treated with antihypertensives were identified from Scottish prescribing (2009-2016) and hospital admission (1981-2016) records. Eligibility for cohort membership was determined by a receipt of a minimum of four prescriptions for antihypertensives within a 12-month window. One treatment cohort (n = 538 730) included patients with no previous history of mood disorder, whereas the other (n = 262 278) included those who did. Both cohorts were matched by age, sex and area deprivation to untreated comparators. Associations between antihypertensive treatment and new-onset MDD or bipolar episodes were investigated using Cox regression.

Results: For patients without a history of mood disorder, antihypertensives were associated with increased risk of new-onset MDD. For AA monotherapy, the hazard ratio (HR) for new-onset MDD was 1.17 (95% CI 1.04-1.31). Beta blockers' association was stronger (HR 2.68; 95% CI 2.45-2.92), possibly indicating pre-existing anxiety. Some classes of antihypertensive were associated with protection against BD, particularly AAs (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.30-0.70). For patients with a past history of mood disorders, all classes of antihypertensives were associated with increased risk of future episodes of MDD.

Conclusions: There was no evidence that antihypertensive medications prevented new episodes of MDD but AAs may represent a novel treatment avenue for BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719004094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188528PMC
May 2021

Genetic dysregulation of endothelin-1 is implicated in coronary microvascular dysfunction.

Eur Heart J 2020 09;41(34):3239-3252

British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 9DH, UK.

Aims: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide linked to vascular diseases through a common intronic gene enhancer [(rs9349379-G allele), chromosome 6 (PHACTR1/EDN1)]. We performed a multimodality investigation into the role of ET-1 and this gene variant in the pathogenesis of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in patients with symptoms and/or signs of ischaemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods And Results: Three hundred and ninety-one patients with angina were enrolled. Of these, 206 (53%) with obstructive CAD were excluded leaving 185 (47%) eligible. One hundred and nine (72%) of 151 subjects who underwent invasive testing had objective evidence of CMD (COVADIS criteria). rs9349379-G allele frequency was greater than in contemporary reference genome bank control subjects [allele frequency 46% (129/280 alleles) vs. 39% (5551/14380); P = 0.013]. The G allele was associated with higher plasma serum ET-1 [least squares mean 1.59 pg/mL vs. 1.28 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.53; P = 0.005]. Patients with rs9349379-G allele had over double the odds of CMD [odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.10-4.96; P = 0.027]. Multimodality non-invasive testing confirmed the G allele was associated with linked impairments in myocardial perfusion on stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T (N = 107; GG 56%, AG 43%, AA 31%, P = 0.042) and exercise testing (N = 87; -3.0 units in Duke Exercise Treadmill Score; -5.8 to -0.1; P = 0.045). Endothelin-1 related vascular mechanisms were assessed ex vivo using wire myography with endothelin A receptor (ETA) antagonists including zibotentan. Subjects with rs9349379-G allele had preserved peripheral small vessel reactivity to ET-1 with high affinity of ETA antagonists. Zibotentan reversed ET-1-induced vasoconstriction independently of G allele status.

Conclusion: We identify a novel genetic risk locus for CMD. These findings implicate ET-1 dysregulation and support the possibility of precision medicine using genetics to target oral ETA antagonist therapy in patients with microvascular angina.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03193294.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557475PMC
September 2020

Genetic and shared couple environmental contributions to smoking and alcohol use in the UK population.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 Nov 25. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Alcohol use and smoking are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence individual differences in the use of these substances. In the present study we tested whether genetic factors, modelled alongside common family environment, explained phenotypic variance in alcohol use and smoking behaviour in the Generation Scotland (GS) family sample of up to 19,377 individuals. SNP and pedigree-associated effects combined explained between 18 and 41% of the variance in substance use. Shared couple effects explained a significant amount of variance across all substance use traits, particularly alcohol intake, for which 38% of the phenotypic variance was explained. We tested whether the within-couple substance use associations were due to assortative mating by testing the association between partner polygenic risk scores in 34,987 couple pairs from the UK Biobank (UKB). No significant association between partner polygenic risk scores were observed. Associations between an individual's alcohol PRS (b = 0.05, S.E. = 0.006, p < 2 × 10) and smoking status PRS (b = 0.05, S.E. = 0.005, p < 2 × 10) were found with their partner's phenotype. In support of this, G carriers of a functional ADH1B polymorphism (rs1229984), known to be associated with greater alcohol intake, were found to consume less alcohol if they had a partner who carried an A allele at this SNP. Together these results show that the shared couple environment contributes significantly to patterns of substance use. It is unclear whether this is due to shared environmental factors, assortative mating, or indirect genetic effects. Future studies would benefit from longitudinal data and larger sample sizes to assess this further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0607-xDOI Listing
November 2019

Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypes.

Nat Commun 2019 10 31;10(1):4957. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Neurology, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands.

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (F) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that F is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: F equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of F are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in F is independent of all environmental confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12283-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823371PMC
October 2019
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