Publications by authors named "Sandesh D Reddy"

5 Publications

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Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of long-term neuropathology after exposure to the nerve agent soman: correlation with histopathology and neurological dysfunction.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 11 15;1480(1):116-135. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas.

Nerve agents (NAs) produce acute and long-term brain injury and dysfunction, as evident from the Japan and Syria incidents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a versatile technique to examine such chronic anatomical, functional, and neuronal damage in the brain. The objective of this study was to investigate long-term structural and neuronal lesion abnormalities in rats exposed to acute soman intoxication. T2-weighted MRI images of 10 control and 17 soman-exposed rats were acquired using a Siemens MRI system at 90 days after soman exposure. Quantification of brain tissue volumes and T2 signal intensity was conducted using the Inveon Research Workplace software and the extent of damage was correlated with histopathology and cognitive function. Soman-exposed rats showed drastic hippocampal atrophy with neuronal loss and reduced hippocampal volume (HV), indicating severe damage, but had similar T2 relaxation times to the control group, suggesting limited scarring and fluid density changes despite the volume decrease. Conversely, soman-exposed rats displayed significant increases in lateral ventricle volumes and T2 times, signifying strong cerebrospinal fluid expansion in compensation for tissue atrophy. The total brain volume, thalamic volume, and thalamic T2 time were similar in both groups, however, suggesting that some brain regions remained more intact long-term after soman intoxication. The MRI neuronal lesions were positively correlated with the histological markers of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation 90 days after soman exposure. The predominant MRI hippocampal atrophy (25%) was highly consistent with massive reduction (35%) of neuronal nuclear antigen-positive (NeuN ) principal neurons and parvalbumin-positive (PV ) inhibitory interneurons within this brain region. The HV was significantly correlated with both inflammatory markers of GFAP astrogliosis and IBA1 microgliosis. The reduced HV was also directly correlated with significant memory deficits in the soman-exposed cohort, confirming a possible neurobiological basis for neurological dysfunction. Together, these findings provide powerful insight on long-term region-specific neurodegenerative patterns after soman exposure and demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuroimaging to monitor neuropathology, predict the risk of neurological deficits, and evaluate response to medical countermeasures for NAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708405PMC
November 2020

Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Experimental Epileptogenesis and Refractory Epilepsy.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 8;20(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807, USA.

This article provides an overview of neuroimaging biomarkers in experimental epileptogenesis and refractory epilepsy. Neuroimaging represents a gold standard and clinically translatable technique to identify neuropathological changes in epileptogenesis and longitudinally monitor its progression after a precipitating injury. Neuroimaging studies, along with molecular studies from animal models, have greatly improved our understanding of the neuropathology of epilepsy, such as the hallmark hippocampus sclerosis. Animal models are effective for differentiating the different stages of epileptogenesis. Neuroimaging in experimental epilepsy provides unique information about anatomic, functional, and metabolic alterations linked to epileptogenesis. Recently, several in vivo biomarkers for epileptogenesis have been investigated for characterizing neuronal loss, inflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, changes in neurotransmitter density, neurovascular coupling, cerebral blood flow and volume, network connectivity, and metabolic activity in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive method for detecting structural and functional changes in the brain, especially to identify region-specific neuronal damage patterns in epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computerized tomography are helpful to elucidate key functional alterations, especially in areas of brain metabolism and molecular patterns, and can help monitor pathology of epileptic disorders. Multimodal procedures such as PET-MRI integrated systems are desired for refractory epilepsy. Validated biomarkers are warranted for early identification of people at risk for epilepsy and monitoring of the progression of medical interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337422PMC
January 2019

Epigenetic Histone Deacetylation Inhibition Prevents the Development and Persistence of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 01 3;364(1):97-109. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Bryan, Texas

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. Currently, no drug therapy exists for curing epilepsy or disease modification in people at risk. Despite several emerging mechanisms, there have been few studies of epigenetic signaling in epileptogenesis, the process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic because of precipitating factors. Here, we report a novel role of histone deacetylation as a critical epigenetic mechanism in epileptogenesis. Experiments were conducted using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate in the hippocampus kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a classic model heavily used to approve drugs for treatment of epilepsy. Daily treatment with butyrate significantly inhibited HDAC activity and retarded the development of limbic epileptogenesis without affecting after-discharge signal. HDAC inhibition markedly impaired the persistence of seizure expression many weeks after epilepsy development. Moreover, subchronic HDAC inhibition for 2 weeks resulted in a striking retardation of epileptogenesis. HDAC inhibition, unexpectedly, also showed erasure of the epileptogenic state in epileptic animals. Finally, butyrate-treated animals exhibited a powerful reduction in mossy fiber sprouting, a morphologic index of epileptogenesis. Together these results underscore that HDAC inhibition prevents the development of TLE, indicating HDAC's critical signaling role in epileptogenesis. These findings, therefore, envisage a unique novel therapy for preventing or curing epilepsy by targeting the epigenetic HDAC pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.117.244939DOI Listing
January 2018

Midazolam as an anticonvulsant antidote for organophosphate intoxication--A pharmacotherapeutic appraisal.

Epilepsia 2015 Jun 29;56(6):813-21. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas, U.S.A.

Objective: This review summarizes the therapeutic potential of midazolam as an anticonvulsant antidote for organophosphate (OP) intoxication.

Methods: Benzodiazepines are widely used to treat acute seizures and status epilepticus (SE), a neurologic emergency of persistent seizures that can lead to severe neuronal damage or death. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine hypnotic with a rapid onset and short duration of action.

Results: Midazolam is considered the new drug of choice for persistent acute seizures and SE, including those caused by neurotoxic OPs and nerve agents. Midazolam is a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors in the brain. It potentiates GABAergic inhibition and thereby controls hyperexcitability and seizures. Midazolam is administered intravenously or intramuscularly to control acute seizures and SE. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic features, midazolam is being considered as a replacement anticonvulsant for diazepam in the antidote kit for nerve agents. Clinical studies such as the recent Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial (RAMPART) trial have confirmed the anticonvulsant efficacy of midazolam in SE in prehospital settings.

Significance: In experimental models, midazolam is effective when given at the onset of seizures caused by nerve agents. However, benzodiazepines are less effective at terminating seizures when given 30 min or later after OP exposure or seizure onset, likely because of internalization or downregulation of synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, GABAA receptors, which can lead to diminished potency and seizure recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.12989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457669PMC
June 2015

Antiseizure Activity of Midazolam in Mice Lacking δ-Subunit Extrasynaptic GABA(A) Receptors.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015 Jun 17;353(3):517-28. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas

Midazolam is a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant with rapid onset and short duration of action. Midazolam is the current drug of choice for acute seizures and status epilepticus, including those caused by organophosphate nerve agents. The antiseizure activity of midazolam is thought to result from its allosteric potentiation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors in the brain. However, there are indications that benzodiazepines promote neurosteroid synthesis via the 18-kDa cholesterol transporter protein (TSPO). Therefore, we investigated the role of neurosteroids and their extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor targets in the antiseizure activity of midazolam. Here, we used δ-subunit knockout (DKO) mice bearing a targeted deletion of the extrasynaptic receptors to investigate the contribution of the extrasynaptic receptors to the antiseizure activity of midazolam using the 6-Hz and hippocampus kindling seizure models. In both models, midazolam produced rapid and dose-dependent protection against seizures (ED50, 0.4 mg/kg). Moreover, the antiseizure potency of midazolam was undiminished in DKO mice compared with control mice. Pretreatment with PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide], a TSPO blocker, or finasteride, a 5α-reductase neurosteroid inhibitor, did not affect the antiseizure effect of midazolam. The antiseizure activity of midazolam was significantly reversed by pretreatment with flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist. Plasma and brain levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone were not significantly greater in midazolam-treated animals. These studies therefore provide strong evidence that neurosteroids and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are not involved in the antiseizure activity of midazolam, which mainly occurs through synaptic GABA(A) receptors via direct binding to benzodiazepine sites. This study reaffirms midazolam's use for controlling acute seizures and status epilepticus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.114.222075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4429675PMC
June 2015