Publications by authors named "Sandeep K Parvathareddy"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clonal Evolution and Timing of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 12;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, where ~50% of patients develop metastasis, despite current improved management. Genomic characterisation of metastatic CRC, and elucidating the effects of therapy on the metastatic process, are essential to help guide precision medicine. Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on 191 sampled tumour regions of patient-matched therapy-naïve and treated CRC primary tumours ( = 92 tumour regions) and metastases ( = 99 tumour regions), in 30 patients. Somatic variants were analysed to define the origin, composition, and timing of seeding in the metastatic progression of therapy-naïve and treated metastatic CRC. High concordance, with few genomic differences, was observed between primary CRC and metastases. Most cases supported a late dissemination model, via either monoclonal or polyclonal seeding. Polyclonal seeding appeared more common in therapy-naïve metastases than in treated metastases. Whereby, treatment prompted for the selection of distinct resistant clones, through monoclonal seeding to distant metastatic sites. Overall, this study reinforces the importance of early clinical detection and surgical excision of the CRC tumour, whilst further highlighting the clinical challenges for metastatic CRC with increased intratumour heterogeneity (either due to early dissemination or polyclonal metastatic spread) and the underlying risk of future therapeutic resistance in treated patients.
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October 2020

POLE and POLD1 germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants, a rare event in colorectal cancer from the Middle East.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 08 22;8(8):e1368. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, iyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality related to cancer. Only ~5% of all CRCs occur as a result of pathogenic variants in well-defined CRC predisposing genes. The frequency and effect of exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 genes in Middle Eastern CRCs is still unknown.

Methods: Targeted capture sequencing and Sanger sequencing technologies were employed to investigate the germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 in Middle Eastern CRCs. Immunohistochemical analysis of POLE and POLD1 was performed to look for associations between protein expression and clinico-pathological characteristics.

Results: Five damaging or possibly damaging variants (0.44%) were detected in 1,135 CRC cases, four in POLE gene (0.35%, 4/1,135) and one (0.1%, 1/1,135) in POLD1 gene. Furthermore, low POLE protein expression was identified in 38.9% (417/1071) cases and a significant association with lymph node involvement (p = .0184) and grade 3 tumors (p = .0139) was observed. Whereas, low POLD1 expression was observed in 51.9% (555/1069) of cases and was significantly associated with adenocarcinoma histology (p = .0164), larger tumor size (T3 and T4 tumors; p = .0012), and stage III tumors (p = .0341).

Conclusion: POLE and POLD1 exonuclease domain pathogenic variants frequency in CRC cases was very low and these exonuclease domain pathogenic variants might be rare causative events of CRC in the Middle East. POLE and POLD1 can be included in multi-gene panels to screen CRC patients.
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August 2020

Genetic heterogeneity and evolutionary history of high-grade ovarian carcinoma and matched distant metastases.

Br J Cancer 2020 04 26;122(8):1219-1230. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Background: High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most frequent type of ovarian carcinoma, associated with poor clinical outcome and metastatic disease. Although metastatic processes are becoming more understandable, the genomic landscape and metastatic progression in HGSOC has not been elucidated.

Methods: Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on HGSOC primary tumours and their metastases (n = 33 tumour regions) from six patients. The resulting somatic variants were analysed to delineate tumour evolution and metastatic dissemination, and to compare the repertoire of events between primary HGSOC and metastasis.

Results: All cases presented branching evolution patterns in primary HGSOC, with three cases further showing parallel evolution in which different mutations on separate branches of a phylogenetic tree converge on the same gene. Furthermore, linear metastatic progression was observed in 67% of cases with late dissemination, in which the metastatic tumour mostly acquires the same mutational process active in primary tumour, and parallel metastatic progression, with early dissemination in the remaining 33.3% of cases. Metastatic-specific SNVs were further confirmed as late dissemination events. We also found the involvement of metastatic-specific driver events in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and identified potential clinically actionable events in individual patients of the metastatic HGSOC cohort.

Conclusions: This study provides deeper insights into clonal evolution and mutational processes that can pave the way to new therapeutic targets.
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April 2020

Evolution and Impact of Subclonal Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 11 24;105(5):959-973. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Unlike many cancers, the pattern of tumor evolution in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its potential role in relapse have not been elucidated. In this study, multi-region whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on early-stage PTC tumors (n = 257 tumor regions) from 79 individuals, including 17 who had developed relapse, to understand the temporal and spatial framework within which subclonal mutations catalyze tumor evolution and its potential clinical relevance. Paired primary-relapse tumor tissues were also available for a subset of individuals. The resulting catalog of variants was analyzed to explore evolutionary histories, define clonal and subclonal events, and assess the relationship between intra-tumor heterogeneity and relapse-free survival. The multi-region WES approach was key in correctly classifying subclonal mutations, 40% of which would have otherwise been erroneously considered clonal. We observed both linear and branching evolution patterns in our PTC cohort. A higher burden of subclonal mutations was significantly associated with increased risk of relapse. We conclude that relapse in PTC, while generally rare, does not follow a predictable evolutionary path and that subclonal mutation burden may serve as a prognostic factor. Larger studies utilizing multi-region sequencing in relapsed PTC case subjects with matching primary tissues are needed to confirm these observations.
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November 2019