Publications by authors named "Sandeep B Subramanya"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Thymoquinone, a Dietary Bioactive Compound, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis by Stimulating Expression of the Colonic Epithelial PPAR-γ Transcription Factor.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 17;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain PO Box 17666, United Arab Emirates.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Here, we investigated thymoquinone (TQ), a naturally occurring phytochemical present in , for anti-inflammatory effects in colonic inflammation. To address this, we used in vivo (mice) and in vitro (HT-29 cells) models in this investigation. Our results showed that TQ treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and protected colon microscopic architecture. In addition, TQ also reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators at both the mRNA and protein levels. Further, TQ decreased phosphorylation of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) proteins and enhanced colon epithelial PPAR-γ transcription factor expression. TQ significantly decreased proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL-1 and IL-8), and mediator (COX-2) mRNA expression in HT-29 cells treated with TNF-α. TQ also increased HT-29 PPAR-γ mRNA, PPAR-γ protein expression, and PPAR-γ promoter activity. These results indicate that TQ inhibits MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and transcriptionally regulates PPAR-γ expression to induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of colon inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073634PMC
April 2021

Nerolidol Mitigates Colonic Inflammation: An Experimental Study Using both In Vivo and In Vitro Models.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 17666, UAE.

Nerolidol (NED) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol present in various plants with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated NED as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were administered 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. Six groups received either vehicle alone or DSS alone or DSS with oral NED (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight/day by oral gavage) or DSS with sulfasalazine. Disease activity index (DAI), colonic histology, and biochemical parameters were measured. TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells were used as in vitro model of colonic inflammation to study NED (25 µM and 50 µM). NED significantly decreased the DAI and reduced the inflammation-associated changes in colon length as well as macroscopic and microscopic architecture of the colon. Changes in tissue Myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations, neutrophil and macrophage mRNA expression (CXCL2 and CCL2), and proinflammatory cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) both at the protein and mRNA level were significantly reduced by NED. The increase in content of the proinflammatory enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS induced by DSS were also significantly inhibited by NED along with tissue nitrate levels. NED promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation dose dependently. NED significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT)), Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and SOD3 mRNA levels. NED treatment in TNF-α-challenged HT-29 cells significantly decreased proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL1, IL-8, CCL2) and COX-2 mRNA levels. NED supplementation attenuates colon inflammation through its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity both in in vivo and in vitro models of colonic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12072032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400891PMC
July 2020

Phytochemical drug candidates for the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Phytother Res 2020 Jul 3;34(7):1530-1549. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Physiology, Zayed Bin Sultan Center for Health Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Plant-based compounds or phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, resins, and polyphenols have been used extensively in traditional medicine for centuries and more recently in Western alternative medicine. Extensive evidence suggests that consumption of dietary polyphenolic compounds lowers the risk of inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory properties of several phytochemicals are mediated through ligand-inducible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), particularly the PPARγ transcription factor. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is represented by ulcerative colitis, which occurs in the mucosa of the colon and rectum, and Crohn's disease (CD) that can involve any segment of gastrointestinal tract. Because of the lack of cost-effective pharmaceutical treatment options, many IBD patients seek and use alternative and unconventional therapies to alleviate their symptoms. PPARγ plays a role in the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression and activation of anti-inflammatory immune cells. The phytochemicals reported here are ligands that activate PPARγ, which in turn modulates inflammatory responses. PPARγ is highly expressed in the gut making it a potential therapeutic target for IBDs. This review summarizes the effects of the currently published phytochemicals that modulate the PPARγ pathway and reduce or eliminate colonic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6625DOI Listing
July 2020

Therapeutic Potential of Plants and Plant Derived Phytochemicals against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 28;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box # 17666, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 17666, UAE.

Acetaminophen (APAP), which is also known as paracetamol or -acetyl--aminophenol is a safe and potent drug for fever, pain and inflammation when used at its normal therapeutic doses. It is available as over-the-counter drug and used by all the age groups. The overdose results in acute liver failure that often requires liver transplantation. Current clinical therapy for APAP-induced liver toxicity is the administration of -acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a sulphydryl compound an approved drug which acts by replenishing cellular glutathione (GSH) stores in the liver. Over the past five decades, several studies indicate that the safety and efficacy of herbal extracts or plant derived compounds that are used either as monotherapy or as an adjunct therapy along with conventional medicines for hepatotoxicity have shown favorable responses. Phytochemicals mitigate necrotic cell death and protect against APAP-induced liver toxicityby restoring cellular antioxidant defense system, limiting oxidative stress and subsequently protecting mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Recent experimental evidences indicat that these phytochemicals also regulate differential gene expression to modulate various cellular pathways that are implicated in cellular protection. Therefore, in this review, we highlight the role of the phytochemicals, which are shown to be efficacious in clinically relevant APAP-induced hepatotoxicity experimental models. In this review, we have made comprehensive attempt to delineate the molecular mechanism and the cellular targets that are modulated by the phytochemicals to mediate the cytoprotective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. In this review, we have also defined the challenges and scope of phytochemicals to be developed as drugs to target APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321362PMC
November 2018

Frondanol, a Nutraceutical Extract from , Attenuates Colonic Inflammation in a DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice.

Mar Drugs 2018 Apr 30;16(5). Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box⁻17666, Al Ain, UAE.

Frondanol is a nutraceutical lipid extract of the intestine of the edible Atlantic sea cucumber, with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated Frondanol as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were given 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. The colitis group received oral Frondanol (100 mg/kg body weight/per day by gavage) and were compared with a control group and the DSS group. Disease activity index (DAI) and colon histology were scored for macroscopic and microscopic changes. Colonic tissue length, myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration, neutrophil and macrophage marker mRNA, pro-inflammatory cytokine proteins, and their respective mRNAs were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. The tissue content of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was also measured using ELISA. Frondanol significantly decreased the DAI and reduced the inflammation-associated changes in colon length as well as macroscopic and microscopic architecture of the colon. Changes in tissue MPO concentrations, neutrophil and macrophage mRNA expression (F4/80 and MIP-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) both at the protein and mRNA level were significantly reduced by Frondanol. The increase in content of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced by DSS was also significantly inhibited by Frondanol. It was thus found that Frondanol supplementation attenuates colon inflammation through its potent anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16050148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5983279PMC
April 2018

Protective effect of against dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice.

Am J Transl Res 2017 15;9(4):1792-1800. Epub 2017 Apr 15.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates UniversityPO Box 17666, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

The protective effect of methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosaleaves (LS) was evaluated against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of DSS (2.5% in drinking water ad libitum) in C57BL/6 mice induced ulcerative colitis in 7 days. The LS was orally administered for 7 days at daily doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. At the end of 7 days of treatment the animals were sacrificed, colonic tissues were removed and processed for further analysis of oxidative stress, and histopathology. In DSS treated mice the oxidative stress markers were elevated compared to controls. There was also significant reduction in the anti-oxidant defense levels marked by reduced cellular glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The DSS-induced damage to the colon epithelium was evident from a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation. The histology of colon sections revealed inflammatory changes and marked impairment in the integrity of the mucosal lining with inflammatory changes. Both the doses of LS significantly prevented DSS-induced inflammatory and ulcerative damages of the colon, reduced lipid peroxidation and also restored the levels of innate antioxidants in the colon tissue. These findings indicate the protective effects of LS against the DSS-induced inflammatory and oxidative damage in the mouse colon. Further investigation involving bioactivity guided fractionation of the LS can yield potent constituent which may have a significant role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5411927PMC
April 2017

The location of pacemakers in the uteri of pregnant guinea pigs and rats.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2015 Dec 16;309(11):R1439-46. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Division of Translational and Systems Medicine, Warwick Medical School, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratory, Coventry, United Kingdom.

The pregnant uterus is a smooth muscle organ whose pattern of contraction is dictated by the propagation of electrical impulses. Such electrical activity may originate from one or more pacemakers, but the location of these sites has not yet been determined. To detect the location of the pacemaker in the gravid uterus, two approaches were used: 1) determine the site from where the contraction started using isolated uteri from the pregnant guinea pig, and videotape their contractions; and 2) record, in isolated uteri from pregnant term rats, with 240 extracellular electrodes simultaneously, and determine where the electrical bursts started. In both the contractile and electrophysiological experiments, there was not a single, specific pacemaker area. However, most contractions (guinea pig 87%) and bursts (rat 76%) started close to the mesometrial border (mean 2.7 ± 4.0 mm SD in guinea pigs and 1.3 ± 1.4 mm in rats). In addition, in the rat, most sites of initiations were located closer to the ovarial end of the horn (mean distance from the ovarial end 6.0 ± 6.2 mm SD), whereas such an orientation was not seen in the guinea pig. In both guinea pig and rat uteri at term, there is not one specific pacemaker area. Rather, contractile and electrical activity may arise from any site, with the majority starting close to the mesometrial border. Furthermore, in the rat, most activities started at the ovarial end of the horn. This may suggest a slightly different pattern of contraction in both species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00187.2015DOI Listing
December 2015

Effect of Ethanol Exposure on Slow Wave Activity and Smooth Muscle Contraction in the Rat Small Intestine.

Dig Dis Sci 2015 Dec 24;60(12):3579-89. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Ethanol ingestion causes a variety of gastrointestinal disturbances including motility alterations. Slow wave propagation coordinates gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal slow wave activity is thought to contribute to motility disorders. To date, however, little is known about the effect of acute ethanol on motility disturbances associated with slow wave activity.

Aim: To investigate the effect of ethanol on small intestine slow wave activity.

Methods: Segments (3-5 cm long) were isolated from the rat duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and mounted in an organ bath superfused with a normal Tyrode solution or with 1, 3, or 5% ethanol containing Tyrode. The electrical activities were recorded using an array of 121 extracellular electrodes, and motility recordings were performed using a digital video camera.

Results: The frequency and amplitude of slow wave activity were not altered at 1, 3, or 5% ethanol concentrations, but a significant drop in velocity was found at 3 and 5% ethanol. Furthermore, inexcitable areas appeared in a dose-dependent manner. Slow wave was sometimes also seen to propagate in a circular fashion, thereby describing a reentrant loop. Finally, in all duodenal, jejunal, and ileal segments, ethanol inhibited contractions and became fully quiescent at 3-5%.

Conclusions: These studies for the first time demonstrate that ethanol significantly inhibits slow wave and spike activity in a dose-dependent manner and could also initiate reentrant activities. Intestinal contractions were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, ethanol inhibits both slow wave activity and motor activity to cause ethanol-induced intestinal disturbances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-015-3813-7DOI Listing
December 2015

Chronic alcohol feeding inhibits physiological and molecular parameters of intestinal and renal riboflavin transport.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2013 Sep 26;305(5):C539-46. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Department of Medicine and Physiology/Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) is essential for normal human health. Mammals obtain RF from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption and prevent its urinary loss by reabsorption in the kidneys. Both of these absorptive events are carrier-mediated and involve specific RF transporters (RFVTs). Chronic alcohol consumption in humans is associated with a high prevalence of RF deficiency and suboptimal levels, but little is known about the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on physiological and molecular parameters of the intestinal and renal RF transport events. We addressed these issues using rats chronically fed an alcohol liquid diet and pair-fed controls as a model. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding significantly inhibits carrier-mediated RF transport across the intestinal brush-border and basolateral membrane domains of the polarized enterocytes. This inhibition was associated with a parallel reduction in the expression of the rat RFVT-1 and -3 at the protein, mRNA, and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant inhibition in RF uptake in the colon. Similarly, a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated RF transport across the renal brush-border and basolateral membrane domains was observed, which again was associated with a significant reduction in the level of expression of RFVT-1 and -3 at the protein, mRNA, and hnRNA levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic alcohol exposure impairs both intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption processes of RF and that these effects are, at least in part, mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s) involving the slc52a1 and slc52a3 genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00089.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3761153PMC
September 2013

Differentiation-dependent regulation of intestinal vitamin B(2) uptake: studies utilizing human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and native rat intestine.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013 Apr 14;304(8):G741-8. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Intestinal epithelial cells undergo differentiation as they move from the crypt to the villi, a process that is associated with up- and downregulation in expression of a variety of genes, including those involved in nutrient absorption. Whether the intestinal uptake process of vitamin B(2) [riboflavin (RF)] also undergoes differentiation-dependent regulation and the mechanism through which this occurs are not known. We used human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and native rat intestine as models to address these issues. Caco-2 cells showed a significantly higher carrier-mediated RF uptake in post- than preconfluent cells. This upregulation was associated with a significantly higher level of protein and mRNA expression of the RF transporters hRFVT-1 and hRFVT-3 in the post- than preconfluent cells; it was also accompanied with a significantly higher rate of transcription of the respective genes (SLC52A1 and SLC52A3), as indicated by the higher level of expression of heterogeneous nuclear RNA and higher promoter activity in post- than preconfluent cells. Studies with native rat intestine also showed a significantly higher RF uptake by epithelial cells of the villus tip than epithelial cells of the crypt; this again was accompanied by a significantly higher level of expression of the rat RFVT-1 and RFVT-3 at the protein, mRNA, and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels. These findings show, for the first time, that the intestinal RF uptake process undergoes differentiation-dependent upregulation and suggest that this is mediated (at least in part) via transcriptional mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00018.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3625875PMC
April 2013

Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013 Jan 25;304(1):G64-71. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Department of Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA.

The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00379.2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543636PMC
January 2013

Modulation of function of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) by Rab8a in intestinal epithelial cells: studies utilizing Caco-2 cells and Rab8a knockout mice.

Dig Dis Sci 2013 Mar 27;58(3):641-9. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Background: Ascorbic acid (AA) is required for normal human health and development. Human intestine expresses two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (hSVCT-1 and -2) that mediate cellular AA transport, with hSVCT1 targeting to the apical membrane of polarized epithelia. Studies have shown a role for the Rab8a in the apical membrane targeting of transporters in intestinal cells.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rab8a impacts the function and/or targeting of hSVCT1, and intestinal AA uptake.

Methods: We used human intestinal cells and cells from a Rab8a knockout mouse. (14)C-AA uptake was performed to determine functionality. PCR and western blotting were performed to determine RNA and protein expression, respectively. Confocal imaging was performed to determine co-localization.

Results: We show that hSVCT1 co-localized with Rab8a in intestinal cells. Knockdown of Rab8a lead to a significant inhibition in AA uptake and cell surface biotinylation studies revealed a lower cell surface expression of hSVCT1 in Rab8a siRNA-treated cells. Similarly, in the small intestine of a Rab8a knockout mouse, AA uptake was significantly inhibited. This effect again resulted from a decreased expression level of mSVCT1 protein, even though mRNA expression of SVCT1 was similar in intestinal cells from Rab8a knockout and wild-type litter-mates. The latter data are suggestive of enhanced lysosomal degradation of hSVCT1 protein in Rab8a-deficient cells; indeed, confocal imaging of Rab8a siRNA-treated intestinal cells revealed a strong overlap between hSVCT1-YFP and LAMP1-RFP.

Conclusions: These findings show a role for Rab8a in the physiological function of hSVCT1 in intestinal epithelia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-012-2388-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3547156PMC
March 2013

Relative contribution of THTR-1 and THTR-2 in thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: studies utilizing Slc19a2 and Slc19a3 knockout mouse models.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2012 Mar 22;302(5):G572-8. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, USA.

Thiamin is essential for normal function of pancreatic acinar cells, and its deficiency leads to a reduction in pancreatic digestive enzymes. We have recently shown that thiamin uptake by rat pancreatic acinar cells is carrier-mediated and that both thiamin transporter (THTR)-1 and THTR-2 are expressed in these cells; little, however, is known about the relative contribution of these transporters toward total carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by these cells. We addressed this issue using a gene-specific silencing approach (siRNA) in mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells and Slc19a2 and Slc19a3 knockout mouse models. First we established that thiamin uptake by mouse pancreatic acinar cells is via a carrier-mediated process. We also established that these cells as well as native human pancreas express THTR-1 and THTR-2, with expression of the former (and activity of its promoter) being significantly higher than that of the latter. Using gene-specific siRNA against mouse THTR-1 and THTR-2, we observed a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by 266-6 cells in both cases. Similarly, thiamin uptake by freshly isolated primary pancreatic acinar cells of the Slc19a2 and Slc19a3 knockout mice was significantly lower than uptake by acinar cells of the respective littermates; the degree of inhibition observed in the former knockout model was greater than that of the latter. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that both mTHTR-1 and mTHTR-2 are involved in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00484.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3311432PMC
March 2012

Thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: effect of chronic alcohol feeding/exposure.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2011 Nov 25;301(5):G896-904. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Department of Medicine and Physiology/Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, USA.

Thiamin is important for normal function of pancreatic acinar cells, but little is known about its mechanism of uptake and about the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues using freshly isolated rat primary and rat-derived cultured AR42J pancreatic acinar cells as models. Results showed thiamin uptake by both primary and cultured AR42J pancreatic acinar cells to be via a specific carrier-mediated mechanism and that both of the thiamin transporters 1 and 2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2) are expressed in these cells. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats was found to lead to a significant inhibition of carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein and mRNA levels. Chronic exposure (96 h) of AR42J cells to alcohol also led to a significant decreased carrier-mediated thiamin uptake, an effect that was associated with a significant decrease in the activity of the human SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters expressed in these cells. We also examined the effect of chronic alcohol feeding of rats on level of expression of key thiamin metabolizing enzymes (thiamin phosphokinase and thiamin pyrophosphatase) as well as on level of expression of the mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate transporter of pancreatic acinar cells and observed a significant inhibition in all these parameters. These results demonstrate for the first time that thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells is via a carrier-mediated process and that both the THTR-1 as well as THTR-2 are expressed in these cells. Also, chronic alcohol feeding/exposure inhibits thiamin uptake process and the inhibition is, at least in part, being exerted at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, chronic alcohol feeding also negatively impacts intracellular parameters of thiamin metabolism in pancreatic acinar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00308.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3220324PMC
November 2011

Differential expression of human riboflavin transporters -1, -2, and -3 in polarized epithelia: a key role for hRFT-2 in intestinal riboflavin uptake.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Dec 11;1808(12):3016-21. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Department of Medicine, University of California Medical School, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Transport of riboflavin (RF) across both the brush border membrane (BBM) and basolateral membrane (BLM) of the polarized enterocyte occurs via specific carrier-mediated mechanisms. Although, three human riboflavin transporters (hRFTs), i.e., hRFT-1, hRFT-2 and hRFT-3 are expressed in the intestine, little is known about the cell surface domain(s) at which these specific hRFTs are expressed. Here, we used live cell confocal imaging of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 and renal MDCK cells to show that the hRFT-1 is mainly expressed at the BLM, hRFT-2 is exclusively expressed at the apical membrane, while hRFT-3 is mostly localized inside intracellular vesicular structures (with some expression at the BLM). Further the level of hRFT-2 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells and in native human intestine is significantly higher than that of hRFT-1 and -3; hRFT-2 was also more efficient in transporting 3H-RF than hRFT-1 and -3. These findings implied an important role for hRFT-2 in intestinal RF uptake, a conclusion that was further supported by findings of hRFT-2 gene-specific siRNA knockdown investigation. These results show that members of the hRFT family are differentially expressed in polarized epithelia, and that the apically expressed hRFT-2 plays a key role in intestinal RF accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3196270PMC
December 2011

Chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts the physiological and molecular parameters of the renal biotin reabsorption process.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2011 Mar 5;300(3):F611-7. Epub 2011 Jan 5.

Departments of Medicine, Physiology, and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, and Department of Veterans AffairsMedical Center, Long Beach, California, USA.

Normal body homeostasis of biotin is critically dependent on its renal recovery by kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, a process that is mediated by the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; a product of the SLC5A6 gene). Chronic ethanol consumption interferes with the renal reabsorption process of a variety of nutrients, including water-soluble vitamins. To date, however, there is nothing known about the effect of chronic alcohol feeding on physiological and molecular parameters of the renal biotin reabsorption process. We addressed these issues using rats and transgenic mice carrying the human SLC5A6 (P1P2) 5'-regulatory region as an in vivo model systems of alcohol exposure, and cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells chronically exposed to alcohol as an in vitro model of alcohol exposure. The [(3)H]biotin uptake results showed that chronic ethanol feeding in rats leads to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin transport across both renal brush border and basolateral membrane domains. This inhibition was associated with a marked reduction in the level of expression of SMVT protein, mRNA, and heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). Furthermore, studies with transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region showed that chronic alcohol feeding leads to a significant decrease in promoter activity. Studies with HK-2 cells chronically exposed to alcohol again showed a marked reduction in carrier-mediated biotin uptake, which was associated with a significant reduction in promoter activity of the human SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region. These findings demonstrate for the first time that chronic ethanol feeding inhibits renal biotin transport and that this effect is, at least in part, being exerted at the transcriptional level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00707.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3064131PMC
March 2011

Inhibition of intestinal biotin absorption by chronic alcohol feeding: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2011 Mar 9;300(3):G494-501. Epub 2010 Dec 9.

Departments of Medicine and Physiology/Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, USA.

The water-soluble vitamin biotin is essential for normal cellular functions and its deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities. Mammals obtain biotin from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption, a process mediated by the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic alcohol use in humans is associated with a significant reduction in plasma biotin levels, and animal studies have shown inhibition in intestinal biotin absorption by chronic alcohol feeding. Little, however, is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition in intestinal biotin transport by chronic alcohol use. These mechanisms were investigated in this study by using rats and transgenic mice carrying the human full-length SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region chronically fed alcohol liquid diets; human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells chronically exposed to alcohol were also used as models. The results showed chronic alcohol feeding of rats to lead to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin transport events across jejunal brush border and basolateral membrane domains. This inhibition was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of the SMVT protein, mRNA, and heterogenous nuclear RNA. Chronic alcohol feeding also inhibited carrier-mediated biotin uptake in rat colon. Studies with transgenic mice confirmed the above findings and further showed chronic alcohol feeding significantly inhibited the activity of SLC5A6 5'-regulatory region. Finally, chronic exposure of Caco-2 cells to alcohol led to a significant decrease in the activity of both promoters P1 and P2 of the human SLC5A6 gene. These studies identify for the first time the cellular and molecular parameters of the intestinal biotin absorptive processes that are affected by chronic alcohol feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00465.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3064116PMC
March 2011

Chronic alcohol consumption and intestinal thiamin absorption: effects on physiological and molecular parameters of the uptake process.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010 Jul 6;299(1):G23-31. Epub 2010 May 6.

Department of Medical Research, VA Medical Center, Long Beach, and Department of Medicine, University of California College of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA.

Thiamin is essential for normal cellular functions, and its deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities. Humans and other mammals obtain the vitamin via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of thiamin, a dietary and a bacterial (i.e., normal microflora of the large intestine) source. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with thiamin deficiency, which is caused (in part) by inhibition in intestinal thiamin absorption. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular aspects of the intestinal thiamin uptake process that are affected by chronic alcohol use. To address these issues, we used rats fed an alcohol-liquid diet and human intestinal epithelial HuTu-80 cells chronically exposed to ethanol as model systems. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding to rats led to a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin transport across both the jejunal brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane domains. This was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of thiamin transporter-1 (THTR-1), but not THTR-2, at the protein and mRNA levels. Level of expression of the heterogenous nuclear RNA of THTR-1 in the intestine of alcohol-fed rats was also decreased compared with their pair-fed controls. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake in rat colon. Studies with HuTu-80 cells chronically exposed to ethanol also showed a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin uptake. This inhibition was associated with a reduction in level of expression of human THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein, mRNA, and transcriptional (promoter activity) levels. These studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol feeding inhibits intestinal thiamin absorption via inhibition of the individual membrane transport event across the polarized absorptive epithelial cells. Furthermore, the inhibition is, at least in part, mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00132.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904112PMC
July 2010

Effect of chronic alcohol feeding on physiological and molecular parameters of renal thiamin transport.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2010 Jul 28;299(1):F28-34. Epub 2010 Apr 28.

The renal thiamin reabsorption process plays an important role in regulating thiamin body homeostasis and involves both thiamin transporters-1 and -2 (THTR1 and THTR2). Chronic alcohol use is associated with thiamin deficiency. Although a variety of factors contribute to the development of this deficiency, effects of chronic alcohol use on renal thiamin transport have not been thoroughly examined. We addressed this issue by examining the effect of chronic alcohol feeding of rats with liquid diet on physiological and molecular parameters of renal thiamin transport. Chronic alcohol feeding caused a significant inhibition in carrier-mediated thiamin transport across the renal brush-border membrane and was evident as early as 2 wk after initiation of alcohol feeding. Similarly, thiamin transport across the renal basolateral membrane was significantly inhibited by chronic alcohol feeding. The inhibition in renal thiamin transport was associated with a marked decrease in the level of expression of THTR1 and -2 proteins, mRNAs, and heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. Chronic alcohol feeding also caused a significant reduction in the level of expression of thiamin pyrophosphokinase but not that of the mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate transporter. These studies show that chronic alcohol feeding inhibits the entry and exit of thiamin in the polarized renal epithelial cells and that the effect is, at least in part, mediated at the transcriptional level. These findings also suggest that chronic alcohol feeding interferes with the normal homeostasis of thiamin in renal epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00140.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904160PMC
July 2010

Differential regulation of cholera toxin-inhibited Na-H exchange isoforms by butyrate in rat ileum.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007 Oct 9;293(4):G857-63. Epub 2007 Aug 9.

Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8010, USA.

Electroneutral Na absorption occurs in the intestine via sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) isoforms NHE2 and NHE3. Bicarbonate and butyrate both stimulate electroneutral Na absorption through NHE. Bicarbonate- but not butyrate-dependent Na absorption is inhibited by cholera toxin (CT). Long-term exposure to butyrate also influences expression of apical membrane proteins in epithelial cells. These studies investigated the effects of short- and long-term in vivo exposure to butyrate on apical membrane NHE and mRNA, protein expression, and activity in rat ileal epithelium that had been exposed to CT. Ileal loops were exposed to CT in vivo for 5 h and apical membrane vesicles were isolated. 22Na uptake was measured by using the inhibitor HOE694 to identify NHE2 and NHE3 activity, and Western blot analyses were performed. CT reduced total NHE activity by 70% in apical membrane vesicles with inhibition of both NHE2 and NHE3. Reduced NHE3 activity and protein expression remained low following removal of CT but increased to control values following incubation of the ileal loop with butyrate for 2 h. In parallel there was a 40% decrease in CT-induced increase in cAMP content. In contrast, NHE2 activity partially increased following removal of CT and was further increased to control levels by butyrate. NHE2 protein expression did not parallel its activity. Neither NHE2 nor NHE3 mRNA content were affected by CT or butyrate. These results indicate that CT has varying effects on the two apical NHE isoforms, inhibiting NHE2 activity without altering its protein expression and reducing both NHE3 activity and protein expression. Butyrate restores both CT-inhibited NHE2 and NHE3 activities to normal levels but via different mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00462.2006DOI Listing
October 2007