Publications by authors named "Sanad Oulkadi"

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Thromboembolic complications of recreational nitrous oxide (ab)use: a systematic review.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Radiology, Radiologist, Thoracic Imaging, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, Belgium.

The recreatinal use of nitrous oxide has become more common in recent years, especially in adolescents and young adults. It has been mainly associated with medical conditions like megaloblastic anemia and (myelo)neuropathy. We report on the thromboembolic complications, a less known side effect, associated with recreational inhalation of nitrous oxide. An extensive literature search was performed for publications reporting on the thromboembolic complications associated with recreational nitrous oxide abuse. Data about sex, age, location of thrombosis, laboratory findings, therapy and outcome were collected. A total of 13 case reports or case series were identified comprising a total of 14 patients. The reported thromboembolic side effects included deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, mesenterial-, portal and splenic vein thrombosis, cerebral sinus thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis, stroke, acute myocardial infarction and peripheral artery thromboembolism. These side effects are possibly mediated by the interaction of nitrous oxide with vitamin B12, a cofactor of the methionine synthase complex, which eventually results in elevation of plasma levels of homocysteine. Despite being a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the exact pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Cessation of nitrous oxide inhalation is necessary to prevent recurrent thrombosis. Nitrous oxide abuse may thus result in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic complications. One should be aware of this etiology, especially in a young person with no obvious risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Spreading awareness is important to inform people about the potentially serious side effects associated with nitrous oxide inhalation.
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June 2022