Publications by authors named "Sana Ullah"

137 Publications

Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Folic Acid/Hybrid Fibers: In Vitro Controlled Release Study and Cytocompatibility Assays.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Oct 19;13(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan.

The fabrication of skin-care products with therapeutic properties has been significant for human health trends. In this study, we developed efficient hydrophilic composite nanofibers (NFs) loaded with the folic acid (FA) by electrospinning and electrospraying processes for tissue engineering or wound healing cosmetic applications. The morphological, chemical and thermal characteristics, in vitro release properties, and cytocompatibility of the resulting composite fibers with the same amount of folic acid were analyzed. The SEM micrographs indicate that the obtained nanofibers were in the nanometer range, with an average fiber diameter of 75-270 nm and a good porosity ratio (34-55%). The TGA curves show that FA inhibits the degradation of the polymer and acts as an antioxidant at high temperatures. More physical interaction between FA and matrices has been shown to occur in the electrospray process than in the electrospinning process. A UV-Vis in vitro study of FA-loaded electrospun fibers for 8 h in artificial acidic (pH 5.44) and alkaline (pH 8.04) sweat solutions exhibited a rapid release of FA-loaded electrospun fibers, showing the effect of polymer matrix-FA interactions and fabrication processes on their release from the nanofibers. PVA-CHi/FA webs have the highest release value, with 95.2% in alkaline media. In acidic media, the highest release (92%) occurred on the PVA-Gel-CHi/sFA sample, and this followed first-order and Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic models. Further, the L929 cytocompatibility assay results pointed out that all NFs (with/without FA) generated had no cell toxicity; on the contrary, the FA in the fibers facilitates cell growth. Therefore, the nanofibers are a potential candidate material in skin-care and tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13203594DOI Listing
October 2021

Re-evaluating the dynamic role of shadow economy and environmental policy stringency in the energy-growth nexus in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

School of Economics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

This paper examines the impact of shadow economy and environmental policy stringency on energy consumption and economic growth in the case of China for the period 1993 to 2019. Asymmetric ARDL empirical findings show that positive shocks in shadow economy and environmental policy stringency have a significant and positive impact on energy consumption and economic growth in the long run. However, the negative shocks in shadow economy exert positive and significant impacts on energy consumption and economic growth in the long run, but magnitudes are small compared to positive shocks. The long-run findings report no significant effect of negative shock in environmental policy stringency on energy consumption and economic growth. China should use environmental policy stringency as economic tools to maintain green economic growth and clean energy demand for sustained economic expansion. Policymakers should focus on the inclusion of environmental policy stringency in any future environment strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16967-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Air pollution and associated self-reported effects on the exposed students at Malakand division, Pakistan.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Oct 8;193(11):708. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210023, People's Republic of China.

Air pollution is associated with several severe physical, behavioral, and psychological health risks and glitches. Air pollution has been linked to 11 million premature deaths in Pakistan, out of the total 153 million premature deaths worldwide. Air pollution is continuously growing as a threatening challenge for Pakistan. Keeping this in view, the current study was designed to assess air pollution in terms of air quality index (AQI), particulate matters (PM and PM), SO, NO, and O over six districts of Malakand division, Northern Pakistan. The second part of the study appraised the associated self-reported effects of air pollution on Pakistani students and the practices, perceptions, and awareness of the students regarding air pollution through a closed-ended questionnaire, administered to 4100 students. The first section of the questionnaire was focused on the physical effects associated with air pollution; the second section was focused on air pollution-linked behavior and psychology; the third portion was focused on perception and awareness of the subjects, whereas the final section was focused on practices and concerns of the subjects regarding air pollution. The students reported that exposure to air pollution significantly affected their physical health, behavior, and psychology. The subjects were aware of the different air pollutants and health complications associated with air pollution, and therefore had adopted preventive measures. It was concluded that air pollution had adverse impacts on the physical and psychological health of the respondents, which consequently altered their behavior. Mass awareness, proper mitigating plan, suitable management, and implementation of strict environmental laws are suggested before the air gets further polluted and becomes life-threatening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09484-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498981PMC
October 2021

Recurrence Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma Lingers Even Decades After Nephrectomy.

Cureus 2021 Aug 16;13(8):e17217. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Oncology, Atomic Energy Cancer Hospital (NORI), Islamabad, PAK.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common malignancy in elderly males. Metastatic spread of this cancer is not an uncommon occurrence, even after nephrectomy. Lung, bone, liver, and brain are the most frequently involved sites. Such a type of presentation mostly occurs within five years after nephrectomy however, cases have been reported later as well. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma that presented in the form of a lung growth 28 years after nephrectomy. This highlights the importance to consider relapsed metastatic renal cancer in the differential, even decades after its surgical removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442569PMC
August 2021

Caring for the environment: measuring the dynamic impact of remittances and FDI on CO2 emissions in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Various old nexuses are getting new empirical attention in advanced econometric. Therefore, we examine the asymmetric influence of remittances and FDI on CO2 emissions by using the NARDL approach for China from 1981 to 2019. Based on NARDL empirical findings, a negative change in remittances has also positive effects on CO2 emissions in the short and long run. We found that positive and negative change in FDI has also a positive effect on CO2 emissions, while a positive change in FDI is relatively more effective on CO2 emissions than a negative change in FDI in long run. Asymmetry is observed in the only magnitude but not in direction. Our study implies that the China government should redesign the environmentally friendly policies and enforces the foreign investors to role play in environmental quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16180-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Unveiling the catalytic ability of carbonaceous materials in Fenton-like reaction by controlled-release CaO nanoparticles for trichloroethylene degradation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 24;416:125935. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Carbonaceous materials (CMs) have been applied extensively for enhancing the catalytic performance of environmental catalysts, however, the self-catalytic mechanism of CMs for groundwater remediation is rarely investigated. Herein, we unveiled the catalytic ability of various CMs via Fe(III) reduction through polyvinyl alcohol-coated calcium peroxide nanoparticles (PVA[email protected]) for trichloroethylene (TCE) removal. Among selected CMs (graphite (G), biochar (BC) and activated carbon (AC)), BC and AC showed enhancement of TCE removal of 89% and 98% via both adsorption and catalytic degradation. BET and SEM analyses showed a higher adsorption capacity of AC (27.8%) than others. The generation of solution-Fe(II) and surface-Fe(II) revealed the reduction of Fe(III) on CMs-surface. The role of O-containing groups was investigated by the FTIR technique and XPS quantified the 52% and 57% surface-Fe(II) in BC and AC systems, respectively. EPR and quenching tests confirmed that both solution and surface-bound species (HO•, O• and O) contributed to TCE degradation. Acidic pH condition encouraged TCE removal and the presence of HCO negatively affected TCE removal than other inorganic ions. Both schemes ([email protected]/Fe(III)/BC and [email protected]/Fe(III)/AC) exhibited promising results in the actual groundwater, surfactant-amended solution, and removal of other chlorinated-pollutants, opening a new direction towards green environmental remediation for prolonged benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125935DOI Listing
August 2021

Introducing Deep Eutectic Solvents as a Water-Free Dyeing Medium for Poly (1,4-cYclohexane Dimethylene Isosorbide Terephthalate) PICT Nanofibers.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 5;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Nagano Prefecture, Ueda 386-8567, Japan.

Water, one of the most priceless sources of life, is becoming dangerously threatened and contaminated due to population growth, industrial development, and climatic variations. The drainage of industrial, farming, and municipal sewage into drinking water sources pollutes the water. The textile processing industry is one of the major consumers of water. Herein, the idea of water-free dyeing of electrospun poly (1, 4-cyclohexane dimethylene isosorbide terephthalate) PICT nanofibers is proposed. For this, two different deep eutectic solvents (DE solvents) were introduced as an alternative to water for the dyeing of PICT nanofibers in order to develop a water-free dyeing medium. For this, C.I. disperse red 167 was used as a model dye to improve the aesthetic properties of PICT nanofibers. PICT nanofibers were dyed by conventional batch dyeing and ultrasonic dyeing methods to investigate the effect of the dyeing technique on color buildup characteristics. Dyeing conditions such as dyeing time, temperature and, dye-concentration were optimized. Morphological and chemical characterization observations revealed a smooth morphology of dyed and undyed PICT nanofibers. The ultrasonically dyed nanofibers showed higher color strength and increased tensile strength compared to conventionally dyed nanofibers. Further, the consumption of electrical and thermal energy was also calculated for both processes. The results confirmed that the ultrasonic dyeing method can save 58% on electrical energy and 25% on thermal energy as compared to conventional dyeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13162594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402044PMC
August 2021

Twin-twin transfusion syndrome complicated by single ventricle physiology: A case report.

Paediatr Anaesth 2021 Nov 20;31(11):1255-1258. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Children's Health System of Texas, Dallas, TX, USA.

Clinically significant extrauterine twin-twin transfusion syndrome in conjoined twins is rare and carries a high risk of perinatal mortality. The ensuing postnatal imbalance in circulation across connecting vessels results in hypovolemia in the donor and hypervolemia in the recipient. Data on management and treatment are sparse especially in the setting of a single ventricle congenital heart defect. We present a case of a pair of omphalopagus conjoined twins, one with a single ventricle physiology (Twin B), who developed twin-twin transfusion syndrome shortly after birth. The resulting pathophysiology in the setting of a single ventricle congenital heart defect created added layers of complexity to their management and expedited surgical separation. Shunting from Twin B to Twin A-with an anatomically normal heart-resulted in mal-perfusion and rapid deterioration jeopardizing the health of both twins. In the preoperative course, steps taken to medically optimize the twins prior to surgery and the anesthetic considerations are detailed in this report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.14276DOI Listing
November 2021

The dynamic linkage between financial inflow and environmental quality: evidence from China and policy options.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

An inflow of foreign capital into the host country would raise her aggregate capital stock, gross savings and investment, economic growth, and environmental quality. This study scrutinizes the asymmetric impact of FDI and remittances to CO2 emissions in China using annual data from 1981 to 2019, via an asymmetric ARDL approach. The findings show that a positive and negative shock in FDI causes a decrease in CO2 emissions in long run. The findings inferred that a negative shock of remittances has a negative impact on the environment by reducing CO2 emissions in long run. While the impact of a negative shock of remittance is more than the impact of a negative shock of FDI on CO2 emissions in long run in China. Thus, government that policymakers should consider foreign capital as a policy instrument especially designing strategies and policies related to environmental sustainability in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15616-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Examining the role of non-economic factors in energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China: policy options for the green economy.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

China has consumed relatively high energy consumption and large carbon emitters since the 2000s compared to other emerging countries. This study explores the impact of non-economic factors on energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China from 1991 to 2019. By using a linear autoregressive distributed lagged (ARDL) bounds testing approach for a cointegration link between non-economic factors, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. The result shows that education, law and order, and social globalization have negative impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions in long run. The results show that population growth exerts positive pressure on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The impact of non-economic factors in energy consumption and CO2 emissions are also likely to be evident in the future. The findings of this study can be valuable to authorities and policymakers in the terms of installing clean energy and green economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15359-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of Bile Salts on the Interfacial Dilational Rheology of Lecithin in the Lipid Digestion Process.

J Oleo Sci 2021 Aug 9;70(8):1069-1080. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University.

The effects of bile salts on the emulsifier adsorption layer play a crucial role in lipid digestion. The current study selected sodium cholate (NaCh) and lecithin as model compounds for bile salts and food emulsifiers, respectively. The interface dilational rheological and emulsification properties of NaCh and lecithin were carried out. The results showed that the NaCh molecules could quickly diffuse from the bulk to interface, which broke the tightly-arranged interfacial layer of lecithin and enhanced the viscoelasticity of interfacial film. As a result, the interfacial adsorption layer, which was originally dominated by the slow relaxation processes within the interface, was transformed into one controlled by the fast molecular diffusion exchange. This accelerated the exchange of materials between the bulk and interface, thereby creating suitable conditions for the interfacial adsorption of lipases, which promoted the digestion process. These results provided a mechanism for the promotion of lipid digestion by bile salts from the perspective of interfacial viscoelasticity and relaxation processes. A deeper understanding of the interfacial behavior of bile salts with emulsifiers would provide a basis for the rational design of interfacial layer for modulating lipid digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess21081DOI Listing
August 2021

Asymmetric effects of premature deagriculturalization on economic growth and CO emissions: fresh evidence from Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan.

This paper examines the relationship between deagriculturalization, economic growth, and CO emissions in Pakistan from the period 1975 to 2018 by employing a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model and Granger causality approach. The asymmetric ARDL findings show that there is a significant negative relationship between agriculturalization and economic growth, while deagriculturalization does not induce economic growth in the long run in Pakistan. Moreover, agriculturalization and deagriculturalization have a negative significant effect on Pakistan's carbon emissions in the long run. This study concludes that the asymmetric results deviate from symmetric results in Pakistan. The asymmetric causality test shows unidirectional asymmetric causality running from agriculturalization, deagriculturalization, and CO emissions. Moreover, agriculturalization and deagriculturalization do not Granger cause economic growth in Pakistan. Based on the results, the study stressed to formulate such policies which support economic growth and lower carbon emissions through reforming agriculture sector practices. These outcomes are very useful for Pakistan to formulate relevant policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15077-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264479PMC
July 2021

Controlling environmental pollution: dynamic role of fiscal decentralization in CO emission in Asian economies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The "environment" has become one of the important and debatable topics of the world and policymakers identifying the new predictors of CO2 emissions. Therefore, some economies have been promoting fiscal decentralization to encourage environmental quality by granting more financial autonomy to provincial and sub-national governments. Therefore, this study evaluates the dynamic effect of fiscal decentralization on CO2 in selected nine Asian economies using a fresh dynamic panel ARDL model from 1984 to 2017. The empirical findings show that fiscal decentralization has asymmetric effects on CO2 emissions because a positive change in revenue and expenditure decentralization reduced CO2 emissions in Asia. Moreover, a negative change in expenditure decentralization has also enhanced CO2 emissions in the long run. Thus, clean environmental policies and recommendations can be revised and proposed based on nonlinear findings in the modern era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15256-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Trajectory Simulation and Prediction of COVID-19 Compound Natural Factor (CNF) Model in EDBF Algorithm.

Earths Future 2021 Apr 5;9(4):e2020EF001936. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Space Information Integration and 3s Application School of Earth and Space Science Peking University Beijing China.

Natural and non-natural factors have combined effects on the trajectory of COVID-19 pandemic, but it is difficult to make them separate. To address this problem, a two-stepped methodology is proposed. First, a compound natural factor (CNF) model is developed via assigning weight to each of seven investigated natural factors, that is temperature, humidity, visibility, wind speed, barometric pressure, aerosol, and vegetation in order to show their coupling relationship with the COVID-19 trajectory. Onward, the empirical distribution based framework (EDBF) is employed to iteratively optimize the coupling relationship between trajectory and CNF to express the real interaction. In addition, the collected data is considered from the backdate, that is about 23 days-which contains 14-days incubation period and 9-days invalid human response time-due to the nonavailability of prior information about the natural spreading of virus without any human intervention(s), and also lag effects of the weather change and social interventions on the observed trajectory due to the COVID-19 incubation period; Second, the optimized CNF-plus-polynomial model is used to predict the future trajectory of COVID-19. Results revealed that aerosol and visibility show the higher contribution to transmission, wind speed to death, and humidity followed by barometric pressure dominate the recovery rates, respectively. Consequently, the average effect of environmental change to COVID-19 trajectory in China is minor in all variables, that is about -0.3%, +0.3%, and +0.1%, respectively. In this research, the response analysis of COVID-19 trajectory to the compound natural interactions presents a new prospect on the part of global pandemic trajectory to environmental changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020EF001936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250312PMC
April 2021

Examining the asymmetric socioeconomic determinants of CO2 emissions in China: challenges and policy implications.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 3;28(40):57115-57125. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan.

A better socioeconomic development is necessary for environmental sustainability. The current study scrutinizes the asymmetric socioeconomic factors of CO2 emissions in China by using the nonlinear ARDL approach. This study is based on annual data covering the period from 1980 to 2019. Results show that positive change in economic growth is the leading driver of CO2 growth, while a negative change in economic growth is offsetting CO2 emissions in China. Concurrently, positive and negative changes in energy consumption have adverse impacts on CO2 emissions in the long term, while negative shock has a small influence on CO2 emissions compared to the positive shock of energy. Positive years of schooling, shocks are found to be beneficial for fighting against CO2 emissions in China in the long run. The CO2 emissions are asymmetrically affected by the social and economic structure of China. Based on these empirical findings, thereby China should improve its socioeconomic development and standards of CO2 emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14608-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Meat Production and Supply Chain Under COVID-19 Scenario: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

Front Vet Sci 2021 7;8:660736. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted meat production, supply chain, and meat prices that caused a severe socio-economic crisis worldwide. Initially, meat and meat products' prices increased due to less production and increased demand because of panic buying. Whereas, later on, both meat production and demand were significantly decreased due to lockdown restrictions and lower purchasing power of the consumers that results in a decrease in meat prices. In early April 2020, meat packing facilities started to shut down due to the rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus among workers. Furthermore, meat producers and processors faced difficulty in harvesting and shipment of the products due to lockdown situations, decrease in labor force, restrictions in movement of animals within and across the country and change in legislation of local and international export market. These conditions adversely impacted the meat industry due to decrease in meat production, processing and distribution facilities. It is suggested that the integration among all the meat industry stakeholders is quite essential for the sustainability of the industry's supply chain to cope with such devastating conditions the future may hold. This review aimed to discuss different aspects of the meat industry and supply chain during the COVID-19 pandemic and proposed some future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.660736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137951PMC
May 2021

Sofosbuvir Resistance-associated Substitutions in the Palm Domain of HCV-NS5B RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase; Study of two Sofosbuvir non-responders.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Objective: In current study we performed sequencing of palm domain of HCV-NS5B gene, its ancestral analysis along with amino acids substitution analysis. These analysis were done to find the molecular basis of the viral resistance against Sofosbuvir drug.

Methods: Blood samples from individuals with chronic Hepatitis C infection that were resistant to Sofosbuvir were collected. The samples were processed for their molecular characterization that included RNA extraction, Complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesize, nested PCR, gel elution, Sequencing, ancestral and 3D structure analysis.

Results: Evolutionary analysis revealed that current study sequences (QAU-01, QAU-02) clustered with a previously studied sequence, KY971494.1. Moreover, we reports multiple novel amino acid substitutions in the palm domain of NS5B gene such as Ile116Val, Asn117Gly, Glu246Ala, Val252Ala, Glu258Gln, Cys262Leu, Ser269Arg, Ala272Thr, Ile293Leu, Lys304Arg, Asn307Gly, Ala338Val and Arg345Gly in our query sequence (QAU-01). At 246 and 269 position in (QAU-02), no substitution was observed.

Conclusions: We have noticed that the current sequences are relatively emerging and could have been originated from aforementioned sequence recently. Based on the current results, we suggests that these substitutions could be associated with structural or functional impairment of protein and could also be may be considered as resistance associated substitutions (RAS) to Sofosbuvir drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.05.025DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of income inequality and environmental pollution in BRICS using fresh asymmetric approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 12;28(37):51199-51209. Epub 2021 May 12.

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan.

With rapid economic growth, BRICS is facing enormous burdens of carbon emission and severe issues of income inequality. However, behind this economic success, the BRICS economies also face few thoughtful challenges to improve environmental quality by catching up the sustainable development goals. Consequently, the existing empirical research is concerned with the dynamic links between income inequality and CO emissions by using the novel nonlinear ARDL approach, but small attention has been paid to the BRICS in literature. Therefore, we observed that a negative and positive change in income inequality has positive effect on CO emissions in Russia and South Africa in the long run, although a positive change in income inequality has positive effects on CO emissions in Brazil, Russia, and China, while a negative change in income inequality has negative effect on CO emissions in India, Brazil, and Russia in the short run. Hence, the findings value specific attention from policymakers in BRICS economies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14209-6DOI Listing
October 2021

The trade-off between economic growth and environmental quality: does economic freedom asymmetric matter for Pakistan?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 1;28(31):41912-41921. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

This empirical study investigates the dynamic effects of economic freedom on economic growth and air quality for Pakistan over the period 1990-2019. The ARDL results suggest that economic freedom and other variables do not have any visible impact on economic growth and pollution in the short-run. However, in the long-run, economic freedom significantly mitigates air pollution whereas inflation instability increases emissions. The NARDL results show that a partial sum of positive change in economic freedom is negatively linked with economic growth in the short term but has positive effect in the long term. However, the negative change in economic freedom has negative but insignificant impact on growth confirming asymmetric effects. The results for the pollution model show that a partial sum of positive change in economic freedom has positive impact on emissions both in the short and long-runs, whereas a negative change has no significant effect in the short-run and has negative impact in the long-run. Thus, economic freedom supports economic activities that, in turn, escalate emissions in the atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13709-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Asymmetric macroeconomic determinants of CO emission in China and policy approaches.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 1;28(31):41923-41936. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Since the nonlinear ARDL approach is introduced in advanced econometric, some old relationships are getting new empirical attention. Therefore, we examine the asymmetric macroeconomic determinants of carbon dioxide (CO) emission in China, covering the time from 1971 to 2019 and using a nonlinear ARDL model. The study results show that GDP and industrialization have an asymmetric effect on CO emission in long-run in direction and magnitude, while agriculturalization has also an asymmetric effect on environmental pollution in magnitude, but not in the direction. In short, GDP and industrialization have also asymmetric response on CO emissions in the short term only in magnitude, but agriculturalization has an asymmetric response in magnitude and direction in short-run. Therefore, this empirical research is more applicable for policymakers in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13743-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Geopolitical risks, energy consumption, and CO emissions in BRICS: an asymmetric analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 24;28(29):39668-39679. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Environmental pollution is a geopolitical problem, and researchers have not considered it seriously yet. This study examines the asymmetric influence of geopolitical risk on energy consumption and CO emissions in BRICS economies using the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag model (NARDL) testing method over the period of 1985-2019. Therefore, we observed that in the long run, a positive and negative change in geopolitical risk has negative effect on energy consumption in India, Brazil, and China. The outcomes confirmed that an increase in geopolitical risk has negative effect on CO emissions in Russia and South Africa. Although a decrease in geopolitical risk has negative effects on CO emissions in India, China, South Africa, it has positive coefficient in Russia in the long run. Based on empirical findings, we also revealed that asymmetries mostly exist in terms of magnitude rather than direction. Our empirical results are country and group specific. The findings call for important changes in energy and environment policies to accommodate geopolitical risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13505-5DOI Listing
August 2021

An update on stem cells applications in burn wound healing.

Tissue Cell 2021 Oct 16;72:101527. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Burn wounds have proven to be capable of having a long lasting devastating effects on human body. Conventional therapeutic approaches are not up to the mark as they are unable to completely heal the burn wound easily and effectively. Major pitfalls of these treatments include hypertrophic scarring, contracture and necrosis. Presence of these limitations in the current therapies necessitate the search for a better and more efficient cure. Regenerative potency of stem cells in burn wound healing outweigh the traditional treatment procedures. The use of multiple kinds of stem cells are gaining interest due to their enhanced healing efficiency. Distinctions of stem cells include better and faster burn wound healing, decreased inflammation levels, less scar progression and fibrosis on site. In this review, we have discussed the wound-healing process, present methods used for stem cells administration, methods of enhancing stem cells potency and human studies. Pre-clinical and the clinical studies focused on the treatment of thermal and radiation burns using stem cells from 2003 till the present time have been enlisted. Studies shows that the use of stem cells on burn wounds, whether alone or by the help of a scaffold significantly improves healing. Homing of the stem cells at the wound site results in the re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, granulation, inhibition of apoptosis, and regeneration of skin appendages together with reduced infection rate in the human studies. Several studies on animals have shown that stem cells can effectively promote wound healing. Although more research is needed to find out the effectiveness of this treatment in patients with severe burn wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2021.101527DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of the anti-diarrheal effects of the whole plant extracts of Roxb in pigeons.

Toxicol Rep 2021 23;8:395-404. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan.

Background: (dodder) belonging to the family Convolvulaceae has many ethno-medicinal uses such as antidiarrheal and antiemetic. This plant has been employed to treat diarrhea, where the antidiarrheal use of this plant is well established in different communities around the world without scientific bases. In addition, the antibacterial, anthelmintic, anticholinergic, and antihistaminic effects of this parasitic vine are partly responsible for the folkloric antidiarrheal use of this plant. In the present study, the antidiarrheal activity was evaluated in pigeons () using the juice (JCR), aqueous (CRAE), and methanol (CRME) extracts.

Methods: The antidiarrheal effect of was evaluated using different reported research models, with few modifications. In pigeons, diarrhea was induced by administration of castor oil (6 mL/kg, PO), ampicillin (250 mg/kg, IP), magnesium sulfate (2 gm/kg, PO), and cisplatin (6 mg/kg, IV). In these experiments, loperamide (2 mg/kg, IM) was used as a positive control, whereas JCR (1 mL/kg (1%) and 1 mL/kg (2%), CRAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and CRME (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered intramuscularly at different doses into each pigeon in the test groups.

Results: In addition to cisplatin-induced diarrhea, all paradigms tested gave significant results ( < 0.01). The JCR, at different doses, exhibited a significant ( < 0.01) a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect on both the frequency and the onset of diarrhea. Similarly, CRAE and CRME, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, showed considerable ( < 0.001) inhibition against the onset and frequency of diarrhea. On the other hand, JCR, CRAE, and CRME exerted significant effects ( < 0.001) on the percentage inhibition (PI) of diarrhea and gastrointestinal charcoal transit in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, the maximum PI ( < 0.01) of JCR, CRAE, and CRME in different experimental paradigms was 43.13, 49.14, and 55.99 %, respectively.

Conclusions: Taken all together, results from this study reveal that the juice, aqueous, and methanol extract of exhibit significant anti-motility and anti-secretory potential. These findings may explain the medicinal use of folk medicine as an antidiarrheal medicinal plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921875PMC
February 2021

Fabricating Antibacterial and Antioxidant Electrospun Hydrophilic Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers Loaded with AgNPs by Lignin-Induced In-Situ Method.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567, Japan.

Concerning the environmental hazards owing to the chemical-based synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), this study aimed to investigate the possibility of synthesizing AgNPs on the surface polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers utilizing biomacromolecule lignin. SEM observations revealed that the average diameters of the produced nanofibers were slightly increased from ~512 nm to ~673 nm due to several factors like-swellings that happened during the salt treatment process, surface-bound lignin, and the presence of AgNPs. The presence of AgNPs was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The amount of synthesized AgNPs on PAN nanofibers was found to be dependent on both precursor silver salt and reductant lignin concentration. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectra confirm the presence of lignin on PAN nanofibers. Although the X-ray diffraction pattern did not show any AgNPs band, the reduced intensity of the stabilized PAN characteristics bands at 2θ = 17.28° and 29.38° demonstrated some misalignment of PAN polymeric chains. The water contact angle (WCA) of hydrophobic PAN nanofibers was reduced from 112.6 ± 4.16° to 21.4 ± 5.03° for the maximum AgNPs coated specimen. The prepared membranes exhibited low thermal stability and good swelling capacity up to 20.1 ± 0.92 g/g and 18.05 ± 0.68 g/g in distilled water and 0.9 wt% NaCl solution, respectively. Coated lignin imparts antioxidant activity up to 78.37 ± 0.12% at 12 h of incubation. The resultant nanofibrous membranes showed a proportional increase in antibacterial efficacy with the rise in AgNPs loading against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by disc diffusion test (AATCC 147-1998). Halos for maximum AgNPs loading was calculated to 18.89 ± 0.15 mm for and 21.38 ± 0.17 mm for . An initial burst release of silver elements within 24 h was observed in the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) test, and the release amounts were proportionally expansive with the increase in Ag contents. Our results demonstrated that such types of composite nanofibers have a strong potential to be used in biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13050748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957607PMC
February 2021

Synthesis of Highly Conductive Electrospun Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanofibers Using the Electroless Deposition Method.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Division of Frontier Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano Prefecture 386-8567, Japan.

Plastic bottles are generally recycled by remolding them into numerous products. In this study, waste from plastic bottles was used to fabricate recycled polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) nanofibers via the electrospinning technique, and high-performance conductive polyethylene terephthalate nanofibers (r-PET nanofibers) were prepared followed by copper deposition using the electroless deposition (ELD) method. Firstly, the electrospun r-PET nanofibers were chemically modified with silane molecules and polymerized with 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl trimethylammonium chloride (METAC) solution. Finally, the copper deposition was achieved on the surface of chemically modified r-PET nanofibers by simple chemical/ion attraction. The water contact angle of r-PET nanofibers, chemically modified r-PET nanofibers, and copper deposited nanofibers were 140°, 80°, and 138°, respectively. The r-PET nanofibers retained their fibrous morphology after copper deposition, and EDX results confirmed the presence of copper on the surface of r-PET nanofibers. XPS was performed to analyze chemical changes before and after copper deposition on r-PET nanofibers. The successful deposition of copper one r-PET nanofibers showed an excellent electrical resistance of 0.1 ohms/cm and good mechanical strength according to ASTM D-638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922688PMC
February 2021

Renewable energy and non-renewable energy consumption: assessing the asymmetric role of monetary policy uncertainty in energy consumption.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 19;28(24):31575-31584. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Previous infant literature has assessed the symmetric impact of monetary policy uncertainty on a few macro variables. Our study has considered asymmetric monetary policy uncertainty impacts on energy consumption. Our key concern in this study is to regulate whether US monetary policy uncertainty has an asymmetric impact on energy consumption. We employ the symmetric and asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) estimation methods, and we found that monetary policy uncertainty has short- and long-run negative effects on renewable energy consumption in the linear model, while decreased monetary policy uncertainty has a significant negative influence on renewable energy consumption in the USA in the non-linear model. However, in the short and long run, the measure of monetary policy uncertainty has an insignificant impact on non-renewable energy consumption, while increased monetary policy uncertainty in the USA has negative effects and decreased monetary policy uncertainty has positive effects on non-renewable energy consumption in the short and long run in the non-linear model. The effects are asymmetric in direction and magnitude. The study results call for vital changes in renewable and non-renewable energy policies to accommodate monetary policy uncertainties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12867-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluating Antibacterial Efficacy and Biocompatibility of PAN Nanofibers Loaded with Diclofenac Sodium Salt.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Nano Fusion Technology Research Group, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567, Japan.

Side effects of the drugs' oral administration led us to examine the possibility of using diclofenac sodium (DLF) in a polymeric drug delivery system based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, which can be produced cost-effectively and with good applicability for transdermal treatments. The inclusion of DLF in PAN nanofibers increased the nanofiber diameter from ~200 nm to ~500 nm. This increase can be attributed to the increase in the spinning solution viscosity. FTIR spectra confirm the entrapment of the DLF into the PAN nanofibers. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the inclusion of the DLF in the PAN nanofibers had caused the misalignment in the polymeric chains of the PAN, thus resulting in a decrease of the peak intensity at 2θ = 17. The DLF loaded PAN nanofibers were efficient against the gram-positive and gram-negative , with maximum inhibition zone of 16 ± 0.46 mm for and 15.5 ± 0.28 mm for Good cell viability ~95% for L929 cells in more extended incubation periods was reported. A gradual release of DLF from the PAN nanofiber was observed and can be attributed to the stability of Pan in PBS medium. Cell adhesion micrographs show that cell-cell interaction is stronger than the cell-material interaction. This type of weak cell interaction with the wound dressing is particularly advantageous, as this will not disturb the wound surface during the nursing of the wound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915392PMC
February 2021

The shadow economy in South Asia: dynamic effects on clean energy consumption and environmental pollution.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 8;28(23):29265-29275. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Economics, Federal Urdu University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

This study explores the symmetric and asymmetric effects of the shadow economy on clean energy and air pollution of South Asian countries over the period 1991-2019. The short-run ARDL findings for the clean energy model suggest that shadow economy increases clean energy consumption in Pakistan and Sri Lanka, whereas this effect is negative for India and insignificant for other countries. The long-run results indicate the adverse impact only for India and the effects of tax revenue on clean energy are positively significant in Sri Lanka while negatively signiicant in Nepal and Bangladesh. Institutional quality significantly increases clean energy in Pakistan, India, and Nepal. However, in the case of Pakistan and Nepal, institutional quality deteriorated the environmental quality. The results for the pollution model confer that shadow economy increases emissions in Pakistan, decreases in Bangladesh and Nepal, and has no effect in India and Sri Lanka. The nonlinear ARDL results reveal that the positive components of the shadow economy significantly increase clean energy consumption only in Pakistan; however, the negative components of the shadow economy are negatively significant in all countries except Sri Lanka and Nepal. However, the negative component of the informal sector of the economy reduces CO2 emissions in India and increases CO2 emissions in Bangladesh and Nepal. The results offer important policy implications for achieving clean energy and better environmental quality in South Asian countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12690-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222016PMC
June 2021

Pakistan management of green transportation and environmental pollution: a nonlinear ARDL analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 6;28(23):29046-29055. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Modern advances in nonlinear modeling have exposed that nonlinear models yield more robust results compared with linear models. Research on the effect of air-railway transportation on environmental pollution has now arrived into a new way of asymmetry analysis and captured the real issue among the nexus. This study aims to inspect the asymmetric impact of air-railway transportation on environmental pollution in Pakistan by using annual time series data from 1991 to 2019. The findings show that positive shock in air passenger carried and railway passenger carried increases carbon emissions, which implies that 1% increase in air passenger carried (railway passenger carried) enhances environmental pollution by 0.21% (0.32%) in long run in Pakistan. While positive shock in railway passengers carried increases environmental pollution and negative shock in railway passengers carried decreases the environmental pollution in the short run. The outcomes have also confirmed the short- and long-run asymmetries in Wald statistics. The findings are country-specific and it would be regionally specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12654-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222009PMC
June 2021
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