Publications by authors named "Samy Castro"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structural Features of the Human Connectome That Facilitate the Switching of Brain Dynamics via Noradrenergic Neuromodulation.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 14;15:687075. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Instituto Milenio Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

The structural connectivity of human brain allows the coexistence of segregated and integrated states of activity. Neuromodulatory systems facilitate the transition between these functional states and recent computational studies have shown how an interplay between the noradrenergic and cholinergic systems define these transitions. However, there is still much to be known about the interaction between the structural connectivity and the effect of neuromodulation, and to what extent the connectome facilitates dynamic transitions. In this work, we use a whole brain model, based on the Jasen and Rit equations plus a human structural connectivity matrix, to find out which structural features of the human connectome network define the optimal neuromodulatory effects. We simulated the effect of the noradrenergic system as changes in filter gain, and studied its effects related to the global-, local-, and meso-scale features of the connectome. At the global-scale, we found that the ability of the network of transiting through a variety of dynamical states is disrupted by randomization of the connection weights. By simulating neuromodulation of partial subsets of nodes, we found that transitions between integrated and segregated states are more easily achieved when targeting nodes with greater connection strengths-local feature-or belonging to the rich club-meso-scale feature. Overall, our findings clarify how the network spatial features, at different levels, interact with neuromodulation to facilitate the switching between segregated and integrated brain states and to sustain a richer brain dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2021.687075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316621PMC
July 2021

Cortical ignition dynamics is tightly linked to the core organisation of the human connectome.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 07 31;16(7):e1007686. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias de Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

The capability of cortical regions to flexibly sustain an "ignited" state of activity has been discussed in relation to conscious perception or hierarchical information processing. Here, we investigate how the intrinsic propensity of different regions to get ignited is determined by the specific topological organisation of the structural connectome. More specifically, we simulated the resting-state dynamics of mean-field whole-brain models and assessed how dynamic multistability and ignition differ between a reference model embedding a realistic human connectome, and alternative models based on a variety of randomised connectome ensembles. We found that the strength of global excitation needed to first trigger ignition in a subset of regions is substantially smaller for the model embedding the empirical human connectome. Furthermore, when increasing the strength of excitation, the propagation of ignition outside of this initial core-which is able to self-sustain its high activity-is way more gradual than for any of the randomised connectomes, allowing for graded control of the number of ignited regions. We explain both these assets in terms of the exceptional weighted core-shell organisation of the empirical connectome, speculating that this topology of human structural connectivity may be attuned to support enhanced ignition dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423150PMC
July 2020

Commentary: Amplification and Suppression of Distinct Brainwide Activity Patterns by Catecholamines.

Front Behav Neurosci 2019 18;13:217. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Neurodynamics of Cognition Laboratory, Departamento de Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759507PMC
September 2019

Chaos versus noise as drivers of multistability in neural networks.

Chaos 2018 Oct;28(10):106321

Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, Pje Harrington 287, 2360103 Valparaíso, Chile.

The multistable behavior of neural networks is actively being studied as a landmark of ongoing cerebral activity, reported in both functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and electro- or magnetoencephalography recordings. This consists of a continuous jumping between different partially synchronized states in the absence of external stimuli. It is thought to be an important mechanism for dealing with sensory novelty and to allow for efficient coding of information in an ever-changing surrounding environment. Many advances have been made to understand how network topology, connection delays, and noise can contribute to building this dynamic. Little or no attention, however, has been paid to the difference between local chaotic and stochastic influences on the switching between different network states. Using a conductance-based neural model that can have chaotic dynamics, we showed that a network can show multistable dynamics in a certain range of global connectivity strength and under deterministic conditions. In the present work, we characterize the multistable dynamics when the networks are, in addition to chaotic, subject to ion channel stochasticity in the form of multiplicative (channel) or additive (current) noise. We calculate the Functional Connectivity Dynamics matrix by comparing the Functional Connectivity (FC) matrices that describe the pair-wise phase synchronization in a moving window fashion and performing clustering of FCs. Moderate noise can enhance the multistable behavior that is evoked by chaos, resulting in more heterogeneous synchronization patterns, while more intense noise abolishes multistability. In networks composed of nonchaotic nodes, some noise can induce multistability in an otherwise synchronized, nonchaotic network. Finally, we found the same results regardless of the multiplicative or additive nature of noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5043447DOI Listing
October 2018

Synchronization transition in neuronal networks composed of chaotic or non-chaotic oscillators.

Sci Rep 2018 05 30;8(1):8370. Epub 2018 May 30.

Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, 2360102, Chile.

Chaotic dynamics has been shown in the dynamics of neurons and neural networks, in experimental data and numerical simulations. Theoretical studies have proposed an underlying role of chaos in neural systems. Nevertheless, whether chaotic neural oscillators make a significant contribution to network behaviour and whether the dynamical richness of neural networks is sensitive to the dynamics of isolated neurons, still remain open questions. We investigated synchronization transitions in heterogeneous neural networks of neurons connected by electrical coupling in a small world topology. The nodes in our model are oscillatory neurons that - when isolated - can exhibit either chaotic or non-chaotic behaviour, depending on conductance parameters. We found that the heterogeneity of firing rates and firing patterns make a greater contribution than chaos to the steepness of the synchronization transition curve. We also show that chaotic dynamics of the isolated neurons do not always make a visible difference in the transition to full synchrony. Moreover, macroscopic chaos is observed regardless of the dynamics nature of the neurons. However, performing a Functional Connectivity Dynamics analysis, we show that chaotic nodes can promote what is known as multi-stable behaviour, where the network dynamically switches between a number of different semi-synchronized, metastable states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26730-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976724PMC
May 2018
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