Publications by authors named "Samuel W Golenbock"

8 Publications

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Reassessing the minimum two-year follow-up standard after total shoulder arthroplasty-Is one year sufficient?

Shoulder Elbow 2021 Oct 14;13(5):527-533. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: US Food and Drug Administration Investigation Device Exemption studies and academic journals emphasize the importance of two-year follow-up data in reporting outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty, but there is limited data evaluating appropriate follow-up length. We aim to evaluate change in postoperative outcomes and complications between one and two years following anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasties.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 250 patients who underwent anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasties between 2013 and 2016 from a single surgeon arthroplasty registry. Patients without both one- and two-year follow-up data were excluded. We compared American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Visual Analog Scale for pain, and goniometer-measured range of motion.

Results: Patient-reported outcome measurements ( > 0.05) did not change between one and two years postoperatively following both reverse ( = 146) and anatomic ( = 104) total shoulder arthroplasties. Range of motion increased slightly ( < 0.05), but this change was not clinically relevant. There were no additional complications.

Discussion: Minimum two-year clinical follow-up may not be necessary for future shoulder arthroplasty Investigation Device Exemption and other peer-reviewed investigations. Patient-reported outcomes (ASES and pain score) and range of motion plateau at one year postoperatively without additional complications. One-year follow-up is an acceptable minimum follow-up length.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758573220922845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512979PMC
October 2021

Allograft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients aged 40 and Older: Patient-Reported Outcomes and a Patient-Acceptable Symptom State.

Arthroscopy 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Purpose: To evaluate patient satisfaction, retear rates, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients aged 40 and older undergoing allograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The secondary goal was to compare these parameters between groups of patients with intact versus failed grafts, and to evaluate these in relation to a historically reported International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) patient-acceptable symptoms state (PASS) score.

Methods: Records of patients aged 40 and older who underwent ACLR between 2005 and 2016 at a single institution with a minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patient-reported satisfaction, outcome scores, and failure rates were analyzed. The rate of achieving a previously defined IKDC PASS score based on younger cohorts was reported, and an updated PASS threshold for older patients was calculated.

Results: 201 patients were included with a mean age of 48.6 years (range: 40-68) and mean follow-up of 6.2 years (range: 2.8-11.2). 182 (90.5%) patients reported satisfaction following surgery. 16 (8.0%) patients experienced failure of their ACLR, 10 of which underwent revision ACLR. The median IKDC score in the intact ACLR group was 86.2, compared to 66.7 in the failure group (P < .001). In total, 134 (72.4%) patients in the intact group achieved the historical PASS score of 75.9 on IKDC compared to only 4 (25%) in the failure group (χ = 15.396, P < .001). An updated IKDC PASS threshold for older cohorts was calculated to be 66.7.

Conclusion: Patients aged 40 and older who underwent allograft ACLR had an 8.0% failure rate at a mean follow-up of 6 years. Graft failure in patients aged 40 and older was associated with worse PROs. The majority of patients achieved the historically reported IKDC PASS threshold. Additionally, an updated age-appropriate IKDC PASS score of 66.7 was calculated to aid in future ACLR studies assessing older patients.

Study Design: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.09.024DOI Listing
October 2021

The Flexion Initiation Test and an Evidence-Based Diagnostic Algorithm for Distal Biceps Tendon Tears.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Jun 13;3(3):e721-e726. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was (1) to assess the flexion initiation test's (FIT) ability to detect distal biceps tendon tears (DBTT) in a cohort of consecutive patients presenting with elbow pain and (2) to generate a reliable evidence-based diagnostic algorithm using a combination of both the FIT and hook tests.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 125 consecutive patients who presented with elbow pain, all of which had the FIT and hook test performed prior to imaging/further intervention. The integrity of the tendon was determined during surgery or by magnetic resonance imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were determined for the FIT and hook test.

Results: Our evidence-based diagnostic algorithm showed that when both test results are in agreement, there is a 100% diagnostic accuracy for detecting what prior authors have termed surgically indicated tears (complete ruptures and high-grade partial tears) and biceps pathology that can be treated with nonoperative management. The FIT demonstrated 100% sensitivity for surgically indicated tears. The hook test demonstrated 100% sensitivity for complete ruptures, but 18% sensitivity for diagnosing partial tears.

Conclusions: The FIT, which is aimed at improving diagnostic acuity of high-grade partial thickness tears, demonstrated a 93% sensitivity and 96% specificity overall and a 100% sensitivity for complete ruptures and high-grade partial tears. The evidence-based diagnostic algorithm using the combination of the FIT and hook test demonstrates high accuracy for the diagnosis of both complete and high-grade partial DBTTs. The methodology may help to prevent diagnosis delays, improve patient education, and preserve the option for timely primary surgical repair in the treatment of DBTTs.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220609PMC
June 2021

Drivers of Cost in Primary Single-Level Lumbar Fusion Surgery.

Global Spine J 2021 Apr 9:21925682211009182. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort.

Objectives: Allocating cost is challenging with traditional hospital accounting. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is an efficient method to accurately assign cost. We sought to characterize the variation in direct total hospital cost (THC) among both lumbar fusion approaches and surgeons.

Methods: Patients were treated with single-level anterior interbody (ALIF), lateral interbody (LLIF), transforaminal interbody (TLIF), instrumented posterolateral (PLF) or in-situ fusion (ISF) for degenerative disease. Process maps were developed for preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care. THC was composed of implant, medication, other supply, and personnel costs. Linear regression and descriptive statistics were used to analyze THC variation.

Results: A total of 696 patients underwent surgery by 8 surgeons. Approximately 50% of THC variation was associated with procedure choice while patient characteristics explained 10%. Implants (including biologics) accounted for 45% of cost. With reference to PLF, THC ranged from 0.6x (ISF) to 1.7x (LLIF). Implant cost ranged from 2.5x reference (LLIF) to 0.1x (ISF). There was a 1.7x difference between the highest THC surgeon and the lowest. The fusion type with the highest THC variation was TLIF. The surgeon with the highest TLIF THC was 1.5x more expensive than the surgeon with the lowest.

Conclusions: Surgeon-based choices have the greatest effect on THC variation and represent the largest opportunities for cost savings. Primary single-level lumbar fusion THC is driven primarily by fusion type. Implants, including biologics, account for nearly half this cost. Future work should incorporate outcomes data to characterize the differential value conferred by higher THC fusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211009182DOI Listing
April 2021

Reassessing glenoid inclination in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with glenosphere lateralization.

Bone Joint J 2021 Feb;103-B(2):360-365

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Aims: Existing literature indicates that inferiorly inclined glenoid baseplates following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) produce better outcomes compared to superiorly inclined baseplates. We aim to compare clinical outcomes for RSAs with superiorly and neutrally/inferiorly inclined lateralized glenospheres.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 154 consecutive patients undergoing RSA between July 2015 and July 2017 by one single-fellowship trained surgeon (AJ). Two raters (KAM and MVS) independently measured glenoid inclination in preoperative and minimum two year follow-up radiographs (anteroposterior/Grashey) using the RSA angle. Inclination was then compared to patient-reported outcomes, range of motion (ROM), and independently assessed degree of scapular notching and staging of heterotopic ossification at two year follow-up.

Results: Median postoperative inclination for each group was found to be -3.6° (interquartile range (IQR) -2.1 to -6.9) and 6.0° (3.2° to 10.1°) for the neutrally/inferiorly and superiorly inclined cohorts, respectively. Preoperative inclination was highly associated with postoperative inclination (p = 0.004). When comparing superiorly and neutrally/inferiorly inclined glenospheres, there were no differences in heterotopic ossification (p = 0.606), scapular notching (p = 0.367), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (p = 0.419), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (p = 0.417), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain score (p = 0.290), forward elevation (p = 0.161), external rotation (p = 0.537), or internal rotation (p = 0.656).

Conclusion: Compared to neutral and inferior inclination, up to 6° ± 3° of superior glenoid baseplate inclination on a lateralized RSA design produces no differences in postoperative ROM or patient-reported outcomes, and produces similar levels of scapular notching and heterotopic ossification. Additionally, the degree of preoperative inclination represents an important factor in surgical decision-making as it is strongly associated with postoperative inclination. It is important to note that the findings of this study are only reflective of lateralized RSA prostheses. Cite this article: 2021;103-B(2):360-365.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B2.BJJ-2020-0843.R1DOI Listing
February 2021

Association between a history of depression and anti-müllerian hormone among late-reproductive aged women: the Harvard study of moods and cycles.

Womens Midlife Health 2020 1;6. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany St, Boston, MA 02118 USA.

Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between a history of depression and risk of early menopause. In a cohort of premenopausal women, we investigated the association between depression history and ovarian reserve, as measured by anti-müllerian hormone (AMH).

Methods: The Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC) was a prospective cohort study of women living in the Boston, MA metropolitan-area (1995-1999). Women aged 36-45 years at cohort entry (1995) were sampled from seven Boston metropolitan-area communities using census directories. We measured serum AMH in early-follicular phase venous blood specimens from 141 women with a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)-confirmed history of depression and 228 without such a history. We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between characteristics of depression history and low AMH (≤1.4 ng/mL), adjusting for several potential confounders.

Results: The prevalence of low AMH was similar among depressed (57.5%) and non-depressed (57.9%) women (Adjusted [Adj] PR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.08). Among depressed women, results were not appreciably different among those who had ever used antidepressants and those with comorbid anxiety. Modest inverse associations between depression and low AMH were seen among women aged 36-40 years (Adj PR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.09) and nulliparous women (Adj PR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.00). No dose-response association with greater duration or length of depressive symptoms was observed.

Conclusions: Overall, the prevalence of low AMH was similar for depressed and non-depressed women 36-45 years of age. Surprisingly, among younger and nulliparous women, those with a history of depression had a slightly reduced prevalence of low AMH relative to those without such a history. These results do not indicate reduced ovarian reserve among women with a history of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40695-020-00056-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461252PMC
September 2020

The Effect of a Skin Barrier Film on the Incidence of Dressing-Related Skin Blisters After Spine Surgery.

AORN J 2020 07;112(1):39-48

Tension blisters from adhesive dressings may lead to pain and delayed surgical wound healing for surgical patients and cause an institutional cost burden. Commercial skin barrier film products may reduce dressing-related postoperative skin blistering in surgical patients. Project investigators at an orthopedic specialty hospital randomized 185 surgical spine patients to receive either a standard wound dressing (ie, control group) or a dressing with the addition of a skin barrier film applied beneath it (eg, treatment group). During the first postoperative dressing change, the participants' skin was assessed for redness, soreness, blistering, or tearing. Approximately 15% of participants in the treatment group and 15% of participants in the control group developed a postoperative skin injury (P = .98). Multivariable analyses did not indicate the skin barrier film provided a protective effect. Additionally, there was no association between patient-specific characteristics and skin blisters among the participants. These results do not support the use of a skin barrier film in surgical spine patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aorn.13074DOI Listing
July 2020

Anatomic and Patient Risk Factors for Postoperative Periprosthetic Hip Fractures: A Case-Control Study.

J Arthroplasty 2020 06 12;35(6):1708-1711. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Research, New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Periprosthetic fracture remains a major source of reoperation following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Within 90 days of surgery, fractures may occur spontaneously or with minor injury and are therefore more likely related to patient factors including anatomic variation.

Methods: From 2008 to 2018, 16,254 primary THAs were performed at our institution; of those, 48 were revised for periprosthetic fracture within 90 days of surgery. A control group of 193 patients undergoing THA for hip osteoarthritis (OA) was randomly selected from the source population. We excluded patients with genetic bone disease and THA performed for hip fracture. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between patient factors (demographics, anatomical factors, comorbidities, surgical technique, and implants) and odds of 90-day periprosthetic fracture.

Results: Increased age was significantly associated with fracture (P = .002), as was female gender (P = .046). After adjusting for age and gender, absence of contralateral OA was associated with increased odds of fracture relative to patients with contralateral OA (odds ratio [OR] 3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-9.29), as was having a contralateral THA in place (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.59-8.60). The neck-shaft angle, femoral offset, and the Dorr classification were not associated with increased odds of fracture. Additionally, the distance from the tip of the trochanter to the top of the femoral head was associated with increased odds of fracture per half centimeter (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14-1.93).

Conclusion: Risk of early postoperative periprosthetic fracture following THA is increased with age, female gender, and increasing distance from the greater trochanter to the top of the femoral head; and decreased in the setting of contralateral hip OA. The trochanter-head distance correlation with periprosthetic hip fracture indicates that the preoperative anatomy may influence PPF, particularly regarding how that anatomy is reconstructed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.02.007DOI Listing
June 2020
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