Publications by authors named "Samuel S Wellman"

86 Publications

Is there a problem with modular dual mobility acetabular components in revision total hip arthroplasty at mid-term follow-up?

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7 Supple B):66-72

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Modular dual mobility (MDM) acetabular components are often used with the aim of reducing the risk of dislocation in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). There is, however, little information in the literature about its use in this context. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the outcomes in a cohort of patients in whom MDM components were used at revision THA, with a mean follow-up of more than five years.

Methods: Using the database of a single academic centre, 126 revision THAs in 117 patients using a single design of an MDM acetabular component were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 94 revision THAs in 88 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.5 years were included in the study. Survivorship was analyzed with the endpoints of dislocation, reoperation for dislocation, acetabular revision for aseptic loosening, and acetabular revision for any reason. The secondary endpoints were surgical complications and the radiological outcome.

Results: The overall rate of dislocation was 11%, with a six-year survival of 91%. Reoperation for dislocation was performed in seven patients (7%), with a six-year survival of 94%. The dislocations were early (at a mean of 33 days) in six patients, and late (at a mean of 4.3 years) in four patients. There were three intraprosthetic dissociations. An outer head diameter of ≥ 48 mm was associated with a lower risk of dislocation (p = 0.013). Lumbrosacral fusion was associated with increased dislocation (p = 0.004). Four revision THAs (4%) were further revised for aseptic acetabular loosening, and severe bone loss (Paprosky III) at the time of the initial revision was significantly associated with further revision for aseptic acetabular loosening (p = 0.008). Fourteen acetabular components (15%) were re-revised for infection, and a pre-revision diagnosis of reimplantation after periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) was associated with subsequent PJI (p < 0.001). Two THAs had visible metallic changes on the backside of the cobalt chromium liner.

Conclusion: When using this MDM component in revision THA, at a mean follow-up of 5.5 years, there was a higher rate of dislocation (11%) than previously reported. The size of the outer bearing was related to the risk of dislocation. There was a low rate of aseptic acetabular loosening. Longer follow-up of this MDM component and evaluation of other designs are warranted. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(7 Supple B):66-72.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B7.BJJ-2020-2015.R1DOI Listing
July 2021

Unexpected high rate of revision of a modern cemented fixed bearing modular posterior-stabilized knee arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):137-144

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: To establish our early clinical results of a new total knee arthroplasty (TKA) tibial component introduced in 2013 and compare it to other designs in use at our hospital during the same period.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of 166 (154 patients) consecutive cemented, fixed bearing, posterior-stabilized (PS) TKAs (ATTUNE) at one hospital performed by five surgeons. These were compared with a reference cohort of 511 knees (470 patients) of other designs (seven manufacturers) performed at the same hospital by the same surgeons. There were no significant differences in age, sex, BMI, or follow-up times between the two cohorts. The primary outcome was revision performed or pending.

Results: In total, 19 (11.5%) ATTUNE study TKAs have been revised at a mean 30.3 months (SD 15), and loosening of the tibial component was seen in 17 of these (90%). Revision is pending in 12 (7%) knees. There was no difference between the 31 knees revised or with revision pending and the remaining 135 study knees in terms of patient characteristics, type of bone cement (p = 0.988), or individual surgeon (p = 0.550). In the reference cohort, there were significantly fewer knees revised (n = 13, 2.6%) and with revision pending (n = 8, 1.5%) (both p < 0.001), and only two had loosening of the tibial component as the reason for revision.

Conclusion: This new TKA design had an unexpectedly high early rate of revision compared with our reference cohort of TKAs. Debonding of the tibial component was the most common reason for failure. Additional longer-term follow-up studies of this specific component and techniques for implantation are warranted. The version of the ATTUNE tibial component implanted in this study has undergone modifications by the manufacturer. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):137-144.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-1956.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Varus-Valgus Constrained Implants in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: Mean Clinical Follow-Up of Six Years.

J Arthroplasty 2021 07 15;36(7S):S303-S307. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: There is scant literature evaluating varus-valgus constrained (VVC) prostheses in contemporary revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the durability of VVC revision TKA with selective use of cones.

Methods: A retrospective review of 194 revision TKAs with VVC was performed from August 2005 through February 2018 at a single institution. The final cohort consisted of 168 TKAs with a mean follow-up of 6 years. Stems were used in all but 1 TKA, tibial cones in 48%, and femoral cones in 19%. Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute classification in femurs was 1 in 57, 2A in 33, 2B in 62, 3 in 16, and in tibias, 1 in 42, 2A in 29, 2B in 81, and 3 in 16.

Results: Survival analysis showed that 93% were free of revision for aseptic component loosening, 76% were free of revision for any reason, and 74% were free of reoperation at 6 years. Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute 3 femur or tibia, age <65 years, and progressive radiographic changes were associated with an increased risk of revision for aseptic loosening (P < .05). Progressive radiographic changes were seen in 19% of femoral and 16% of tibial constructs. The most common reason for re-revision was periprosthetic joint infection (65%).

Conclusion: VVC revision TKA with selective use of cones provided a reasonable outcome as 93% were free of revision for aseptic loosening at 6 years. However, given the rate of patients with progressive radiographic changes and survivorship free of reoperation of 74% at 6 years, long-term follow-up will help assess the durability of these constructs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.12.017DOI Listing
July 2021

Cost of Aseptic Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty at a Tertiary Medical Center.

J Arthroplasty 2021 05 17;36(5):1729-1733. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) involves varying levels of case complexity and costs depending on the following: (1) number of components revised, (2) duration of operating room time, and (3) length of hospital stay. However, the cost associated with different types of aseptic TKA revisions, based on number and type of components revised, is not well described. We sought to determine differences in cost associated with different revision types, and to correlate this with average national hospital and surgeon reimbursement based on current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of aseptic revision TKAs performed at a single tertiary referral center from 2015 to 2018. Patient demographic data, operating room time, and direct surgery and total hospital costs obtained from an internal accounting database (Enterprise Performance Systems, Inc) were collected. Patients were stratified by the components revised (polyethylene liner only, tibia only, femur only, or both femur and tibia). We hypothesized that direct surgery and total hospital costs would increase as case complexity increased from poly exchange to single-component revisions and both-component revisions.

Results: In total, 106 patients were included (19 poly exchanges, 10 tibia-only revisions, 13 femur-only revisions, and 64 both-component revisions). Operating room time was significantly lower for poly exchange than all other groups (P < .001). Direct surgery and total hospital costs were significantly lower for poly exchange than all other groups (P < .001), and were significantly lower for tibia-only and femur-only revisions compared to both-component revisions (P < .001). Average national surgeon reimbursement by Medicare decreased as a percentage of direct surgery cost as case complexity increased from poly exchange to tibia-only, femur-only, and both-component revisions. Total hospital cost per average Diagnosis Related Group weight was lowest for single-component revisions and highest for both-component revision.

Conclusion: There are significant differences in cost associated with aseptic TKA revisions based on number and type of components revised. These differences may not be accurately reflected in reimbursement, and often represent a burden to those who treat complex revisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.11.028DOI Listing
May 2021

The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Patients in the United States: A Multicenter Update to the Previous Survey.

Arthroplast Today 2021 Feb 3;7:268-272. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: In March 2020, elective total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) were suspended across the United States in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We had previously published the results of a survey to the affected patients from 6 institutions. We now present the results of a larger distribution of this survey, through May and June 2020, to electively scheduled patients representing different regions of the United States.

Methods: Fifteen centers identified through the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Research Committee participated in a survey study of THA and TKA patients. Patients scheduled for primary elective THA or TKA but canceled due to the COVID-19 elective surgery stoppage (3/2020-5/2020) were included in the study. Descriptive statistics along with subgroup analysis with Wilcoxon rank were performed.

Results: In total, surveys were distributed to 2135 patients and completed by 848 patients (40%) from 15 institutions. Most patients (728/848, 86%) had their surgery postponed or canceled by the surgeon or hospital. Unknown length of surgical delay remained the highest source of anxiety among survey participants. Male patients were more likely to be willing to proceed with surgery in spite of COVID-19. There were minimal regional differences in responses. Only 61 patients (7%) stated they will continue to delay surgery for fear of contracting COVID-19 while in the hospital.

Conclusion: Similar to the previous study, the most anxiety-provoking thought was the uncertainty, over if and when the canceled joint replacement surgery could be rescheduled. Patients suffering from the daily pain of hip and knee arthritis who have been scheduled for elective arthroplasty remain eager to have their operation as soon as elective surgery is allowed to resume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2020.11.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713541PMC
February 2021

1.5-Stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Total Knee Arthroplasty Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Arthroplasty 2021 03 9;36(3):1114-1119. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a challenging problem. The purpose of this study was to outline a novel technique to treat TKA PJI. We define 1.5-stage exchange arthroplasty as placing an articulating spacer with the intent to last for a prolonged time.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed from 2007 to 2019 to evaluate patients treated with 1.5-stage exchange arthroplasty for TKA PJI. Inclusion criteria included: articulating knee spacer(s) remaining in situ for 12 months and the patient deferring a second-stage reimplantation because the patient had acceptable function with the spacer (28 knees) or not being a surgical candidate (three knees). Thirty-one knees were included with a mean age of 63 years, mean BMI 34.4 kg/m, 12 were female, with a mean clinical follow-up of 2.7 years. Cobalt-chrome femoral and polyethylene tibial components were used. We evaluated progression to second-stage reimplantation, reinfection, and radiographic outcomes.

Results: At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, 25 initial spacers were in situ (81%). Five knees retained their spacer(s) for some time (mean 1.5 years) and then underwent a second-stage reimplantation; one of the five had progressive radiolucent lines but no evidence of component migration. Three knees (10%) had PJI reoccurrence. Four had progressive radiolucent lines, but there was no evidence of component migration in any knees.

Conclusions: 1.5-stage exchange arthroplasty may be a reasonable method to treat TKA PJI. At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, there was an acceptable rate of infection recurrence and implant durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.09.048DOI Listing
March 2021

All-Polyethylene Tibia: An Opportunity for Value-Based Care in Bundled Reimbursement Initiatives.

Orthopedics 2021 Jan 3;44(1):e114-e118. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Surgeons play a critical role in making cost-effective decisions that maintain high-quality patient outcomes, which is the current focus of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. All-polyethylene tibial (APT) components often cost less during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The authors sought to determine the relative cost savings of APT, as well as their effect on 90-day quality outcome metrics. This was a retrospective review of primary TKAs performed at a single tertiary referral center participating in the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model, by 2 surgeons, from 2015 to 2017. Patient demographic data and direct hospital costs were collected, and patients were stratified by APTs vs metal-backed components. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed for all outcome metrics. A total of 188 primary TKAs were included (92 APT, 96 metal-backed). Patients receiving APT components were older (P<.001) and had a lower body mass index (P<.001), but there was no difference in sex or American Society of Anesthesiologists score between groups. Operative time was significantly less (mean, 13 minutes) and direct surgery costs were significantly lower for APTs (P<.001). A multivariable regression model for surgical costs demonstrated significant savings (P<.001), and total hospital cost demonstrated a 6.2% average savings with APT. There was no difference in 90-day emergency department visits or re-admissions. This study demonstrates that the use of an APT is able to significantly affect not only the surgical cost but also the total hospital admission cost while maintaining equivalent 90-day outcome metrics. Strategies like this should be considered in appropriately selected patients as the incidence of TKA continues to expand. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(1):e114-e118.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20201009-01DOI Listing
January 2021

A Specific Capsular Repair Technique Lowered Early Dislocations in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Through a Posterior Approach.

Arthroplast Today 2020 Dec 18;6(4):813-818. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Dislocation is a challenging problem after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We sought to evaluate the incidence of early dislocation with 2 different posterior repair techniques after THA using a posterior approach.

Methods: From September of 2008 to August of 2019, we evaluated 841 THAs performed by a single surgeon using a posterior approach. Before November of 2015, the capsule was repaired to the greater trochanter (group 1, 605 patients). Starting November 2015, the posterior capsule was repaired in a side-to-side fashion (direct soft-tissue repair) (group 2, 236 patients). There was a mean follow-up of 31.1 months (range, 2.5-122.5 months). A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to assess the impact of baseline patient and operative factors on the dislocation rate.

Results: There were 22 dislocations, all of which occurred in group 1. There were no dislocations in group 2. After adjusting for patient and operative factors, the direct soft-tissue repair had a large impact on the overall multivariable model as indicated by its effect likelihood ratio of 10.33 ( = .001); however, the odds ratio was not calculable for this factor, given that there were no dislocations in hips with direct soft-tissue repair. Increasing age was associated with an increased odds of dislocation (odds ratio, 1.04,  = .017), with an effect likelihood ratio of 6.25 ( = .012).

Conclusions: Switching from a capsular repair to the greater trochanter to a side-to-side capsular repair was associated with a decreased rate of dislocation in primary THA through a posterior approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2020.07.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509067PMC
December 2020

The Calpain Gene is Correlated With Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement Failures.

J Arthroplasty 2021 01 30;36(1):236-241.e3. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty is associated with unacceptable failure rates secondary to metal ion reactions. Efforts to identify which patients will go on to failure have been limited; recently, there has been a suggestion for a potential genetic basis for the increased risk of revision in MOM hip replacements (MOMHRs). The purpose of this study is to determine whether certain immunologic genotypes are predictive of the need for revision in patients with MOM total hip implants.

Methods: This is a case-control study of all patients undergoing primary MOMHR between September 2002 and January 2012 with a minimum of 5-year follow-up. Our investigational "case" cohort was comprised of patients who underwent revision for MOMHR for a reason other than infection. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis was performed to identify a potential genetic basis for failure.

Results: Thirty-two patients (15 case and 17 control) were included in our analysis. All patients in the revision group had a chief complain of pain; revision patients were more likely to have a posterior approach (P = .01) and larger head size (P = .04) than nonrevision patients. No patient or implant characteristics were independently associated with revision in a multivariate analysis. Patients with SNP kgp9316441 were identified as having an increased odds of revision for MOM failure (P < .001).

Conclusion: This study identified an SNP, kgp9316441, encoding proteins associated with inflammation and macrophage activation. This SNP was associated with significantly increased odds of revision for MOMHR. Future studies are warranted to validate this gene target both in vitro and in vivo.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.07.054DOI Listing
January 2021

Synergistic Roles of Macrophages and Neutrophils in Osteoarthritis Progression.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 01 17;73(1):89-99. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objective: To evaluate the role of immune cells and their effector cytokines in the pathogenesis and progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in matched OA synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue samples.

Methods: Cells from matched samples of synovial tissue and SF acquired from individuals undergoing total knee replacement for OA (n = 39) were characterized for immune cell-associated surface markers and intracellular cytokine expression using polychromatic flow cytometry. Additional individuals with radiographic knee OA (Kellgren/Lawrence severity grades ≥1) who had available etarfolatide (inflammatory cell) imaging (n = 26) or baseline and 3-year data on progression of radiographic knee OA (n = 85) were also assessed. SF cytokine concentrations in all cohorts were evaluated for associations with synovial tissue and SF cell phenotypes and severity of radiographic knee OA.

Results: Macrophages (predominant in the synovial tissue, 53% of total cells) and neutrophils (predominant in the SF, 26% of total cells) were the major immune cell populations identified in the OA knee joints, exhibiting expression of or association with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and elastase, respectively, in the SF. Expression levels of TGFβ1 and elastase were significantly associated with severity of radiographic knee OA. Baseline SF concentrations of TGFβ1 and elastase along with radiographic knee OA severity scores were predictive of knee OA progression, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.810 (for TGFβ1), 0.806 (for elastase), and 0.846 (for both TGFβ1 and elastase combined), with greater stability of prediction when both markers were utilized.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the hitherto underappreciated role of neutrophils in the sterile inflammatory process and progression of OA. Two soluble mediators, SF elastase and TGFβ1, are strong predictors of knee OA progression, reflecting a synergistic role of neutrophil and macrophage populations in the pathogenesis and worsening of OA that could potentially be utilized to identify patients who may have a greater risk of more rapid disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876152PMC
January 2021

Intraoperative Fire Risk: Evaluating the 3-Minute Wait After Chlorhexidine-Alcohol Antiseptic Scrub.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 01;35(1):e31-e33

Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Objective: We sought to determine the flammability of the skin at different time intervals after chlorhexidine-alcohol antiseptic scrub application, to provide evidence for hospital protocols recommending a 3-minute drying time.

Methods: Swine feet, which contain the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone, were used for an experimental cohort. The skin was prepped with chlorhexidine-alcohol solution. Attempted ignition with an open flame was then performed in the presence of visible pooling, as well as at time points 0, 30, 60, and 90 seconds after application, in addition to when the skin appeared visibly dry. Six samples were used for each time point tested.

Results: At time 0 seconds and with gross pooling, ignition was achieved with all samples tested. However, at 30 seconds, only 2 of 6 samples were ignited (which appeared wet). No samples after 60 or 90 seconds were flammable. Samples appeared dry after an average of 40.5 seconds and were not able to ignite.

Conclusions: Although our findings do support that a chlorhexidine-alcohol antiseptic scrub is a potentially flammable surgical prep solution, we found little support for a 3-minute time cutoff. More importantly, the presence of pooling and persistently wet appearing prep is a more important fire risk than the time elapsed after prep application. Caution should be used when working with any flammable solution, and efforts to minimize chemical burns and combustion should be sought based on evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000001885DOI Listing
January 2021

Same-day Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty Did Not Increase 90-day Hospital Returns.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2020 Jan-Apr;28(2):2309499020918170

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose: Bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be performed in patients with bilateral knee arthritis. Outside of nationwide database studies, which have limitations, few studies have compared outcomes for same-day versus staged TKA. We sought to compare patient outcomes at a single tertiary referral center.

Methods: The institutional database was queried from March 2014 to December 2017 for primary TKA. Patients undergoing bilateral procedures were stratified by same-day versus staged; length of stay (LOS), disposition, 90-day emergency department (ED) visits, and 90-day readmissions were examined through univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results: A total of 676 patients were evaluated (113 same-day and 563 staged bilateral TKA patients) with mean age 66.0 (8.5) at first surgery and 292.1 (241.6) days between staged procedures. Same-day bilateral TKA patients were younger ( < 0.001), had lower body mass index (BMI) ( = 0.010), and had lower American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores ( = 0.030). They were more likely to have a prolonged LOS ( < 0.001) and be discharged to skilled nursing facility or rehab facility ( < 0.001). Total LOS for separate hospitalizations in staged procedures was greater than LOS for same-day bilateral TKAs ( < 0.001). There was no difference in 90-day ED visits ( = 0.623) or readmission ( = 0.286). In a multivariable model controlling for age, BMI, and ASA score, same-day bilateral TKA was not significantly associated with ED visits or readmissions.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing same-day bilateral TKAs were more likely to be discharged to post-acute care facilities, however they did not have increased 90-day readmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2309499020918170DOI Listing
March 2021

Flash Sterilization and Component Reimplantation Is a Viable Option for Articulating Antibiotic Spacers in Periprosthetic Knee Infections.

J Knee Surg 2021 Aug 4;34(10):1092-1097. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Durham, North Carolina.

The articulating antibiotic spacer is a treatment utilized for two-stage revision of an infected total knee arthroplasty. The original femoral component is retained and reused in one described variation of this technique. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of flash sterilization of the femoral component for reimplantation in an articulating antibiotic spacer for the treatment of chronic periprosthetic joint infection. A total of 10 patients were identified prospectively with a culture positive infected total knee arthroplasty. The patients underwent explantation, debridement, and placement of an articulating antibiotic spacer consisting of the explanted and sterilized femoral component and a new polyethylene tibial insert. The explanted tibial components were cleaned and flash-sterilized with the femoral components, but the components were then aseptically packaged and sent to our microbiology laboratory for sonication and culture of the sonicate for 14 days. Ten of 10 cleaned tibial components were negative for bacterial growth of the infecting organism after final testing and analysis. At 18-month follow-up, 9 of 10 of patients remained clear of infection. Among the 10 patients, 7 were pleased with their articulating spacer construct and had no intention of electively pursuing reimplantation. Also, 3 of 10 of patients were successfully reimplanted at a mean of 6.5 months after explantation. Autoclave sterilization and reimplantation of components may be a safe and potentially resource-sparing method of articulating spacer placement in two-stage treatment of PJI. Patient follow-up demonstrated clinical eradication of infection in 90% of cases with good patient tolerance of the antibiotic spacer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701518DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of Patent Foramen Ovale on Total Knee Arthroplasty Cerebrovascular Accident Perioperative Management.

Orthopedics 2020 May 20;43(3):e151-e158. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke are major complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and potentially are associated with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Although this association has been shown in other surgical disciplines, it has not been demonstrated in patients undergoing TKA. This study was undertaken to determine whether patients with a PFO would have a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) following TKA. The Humana national database was used to identify TKA patients who were stratified by the presence of a PFO from 2007 to 2016. Ninety-day follow-up was used for the primary outcome of CVA. Potential confounding comorbidities also were investigated, including age, sex, anticoagulation, insurance type, arrhythmia, valvular disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Of 153,245 TKAs, a total of 2272 patients had strokes; 479 of these patients had a PFO. On multivariable analysis, PFO remained an independent predictor of CVA postoperatively (odds ratio, 3.824; 95% confidence interval, 2.614-5.406; P<.0001). Other significant comorbidities associated with CVA included arrhythmia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary valve disease. Importantly, low-molecular weight heparin or factor Xa inhibitor administration postoperatively had a negative correlation with stroke (odds ratio, 0.762; 95% confidence interval, 0.663-0.871; P=.0001 and odds ratio, 0.749; 95% confidence interval, 0.628-0.885; P=.0009, respectively). The findings of the multivariable analysis indicate PFO is associated with early postoperative CVA within 90 days following TKA. If known preoperatively, appropriate referral should be made to a cardiologist for PFO management and anticoagulation to reduce the overall risk of stroke. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(3):e151-e158.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200213-06DOI Listing
May 2020

Surgeon-Performed High-Dose Bupivacaine Periarticular Injection With Intra-Articular Saphenous Nerve Block Is Not Inferior to Adductor Canal Block in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2020 05 22;35(5):1233-1238. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Periarticular injection or anesthesiologist-performed adductor canal block are commonly used for pain management after total knee arthroplasty. A surgeon-performed, intra-articular saphenous nerve block has been recently described. There is insufficient data comparing the efficacy and safety of these methods.

Methods: This is a retrospective two-surgeon cohort study comparing short-term perioperative outcomes after primary total knee arthroplasty, in 50 consecutive patients with surgeon-performed high-dose periarticular injection and intra-articular saphenous nerve block (60 mL 0.5% bupivacaine, 30 mL saline, 30mg ketorolac) and 50 consecutive patients with anesthesiologist-performed adductor canal catheter (0.25% bupivacaine 6 mL/h infusion pump placed postoperatively with ultrasound guidance). Chart review assessed pain scores through POD #1, opioid use, length of stay, and short-term complications, including local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed Student's T-test.

Results: The high-dose periarticular injection cohort had significantly lower pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (mean difference 1.4, P = .035), on arrival to the inpatient ward (mean difference 1.7, P = .013), and required less IV narcotics on the day of surgery (mean difference 6.5 MME, P = .0004). There was no significant difference in pain scores on POD #1, total opioid use, day of discharge, or short-term complications. There were no adverse events related to the high dose of bupivacaine.

Conclusion: Compared with postoperative adductor canal block catheter, an intraoperative high-dose periarticular block demonstrated lower pain scores and less IV narcotic use on the day of surgery. No difference was noted in pain scores on POD #1, time to discharge, or complications. There were no cardiovascular complications (local anesthetic systemic toxicity) despite the high dose of bupivacaine injected.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.01.030DOI Listing
May 2020

Recurrent Dislocation After Total Hip Arthroplasty: Controversies and Solutions.

Instr Course Lect 2019 ;68:169-186

Instability remains one of the most common complications after total hip arthroplasty and a notable cause of patient morbidity as well as patient and surgeon dissatisfaction. Isolated dislocations can often be managed successfully with closed reduction; however, recurrent instability poses a substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The causes are varied and may be related to patient, surgical, and implant factors. A thorough evaluation is important in determining the cause of instability and effectively managing this difficult problem. Management options include component revision for malposition, modular exchange, or revision to specialized components, such as larger femoral heads, constrained liners, or dual-mobility articulations.
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February 2020

Response to Letter to the Editor on "The Role of Malnutrition in Ninety-Day Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty".

J Arthroplasty 2020 03 22;35(3):901-902. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Duke Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.11.022DOI Listing
March 2020

Antibiotic Cement Spacers for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasties.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 Mar;28(5):180-188

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Dr. Lachiewicz, Dr. Wellman, and Dr. Peterson), Duke University Medical School, Durham VA Medical Center (Dr. Lachiewicz and Dr. Wellman) Durham, NC.

Periprosthetic infection remains a frequent complication after total knee arthroplasty. The most common treatment is a two-stage procedure involving removal of all implants and cement, thorough débridement, insertion of some type of antibiotic spacer, and a course of antibiotic therapy of varying lengths. After some interval, and presumed eradication of the infection, new arthroplasty components are implanted in the second procedure. These knee spacers may be static or mobile spacers, with the latter presumably providing improved function for the patient and greater ease of surgical reimplantation. Numerous types of antibiotic cement spacers are available, including premolded cement components, surgical molds for intraoperative spacer fabrication, and the use of new metal and polyethylene knee components; all these are implanted with surgeon-prepared high-dose antibiotic cement. As there are advantages and disadvantages of both static and the various mobile spacers, surgeons should be familiar with several techniques. There is inconclusive data on the superiority of any antibiotic spacer. Both mechanical complications and postoperative renal failure may be associated with high-dose antibiotic cement spacers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-19-00332DOI Listing
March 2020

Tranexamic acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid in total joint arthroplasty? A randomized controlled trial.

Bone Joint J 2019 Sep;101-B(9):1093-1099

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Antifibrinolytic agents, including tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), have been shown to be safe and effective for decreasing perioperative blood loss and transfusion following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are few prospective studies that directly compare these agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the benefits of intraoperative intravenous TXA with EACA.

Patients And Methods: A total of 235 patients (90 THA and 145 TKA) were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled trial at a single tertiary-care referral centre. In the THA cohort, 53.3% of the patients were female with a median age of 59.8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 53.3 to 68.1). In the TKA cohort, 63.4% of the patients were female with a median age of 65.1 years (IQR 59.4 to 69.5). Patients received either TXA (n = 119) or EACA (n = 116) in two doses intraoperatively. The primary outcome measures included change in haemoglobin level and blood volume, postoperative drainage, and rate of transfusion. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative complications, cost, and length of stay (LOS).

Results: TKA patients who received EACA had greater drainage (median 320 ml (IQR 185 to 420) 158 ml (IQR 110 to 238); p < 0.001), increased loss of blood volume (891 ml (IQR 612 to 1203) 661 ml (IQR 514 to 980); p = 0.014), and increased haemoglobin change from the preoperative level (2.1 ml (IQR 1.7 to 2.8) 1.9 ml (IQR 1.2 to 2.4); p = 0.016) compared with patients who received TXA. For the THA cohort, no statistically significant differences were observed in any haematological outcome measure. One patient in the EACA group required transfusion. No patient in the TXA group required transfusion. There were no statistically significant differences in number or type of postoperative complications or LOS for either THA or TKA patients regardless of whether they received TXA or EACA.

Conclusion: For hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, EACA is associated with increased perioperative blood loss compared with TXA. However, there is no significant difference in transfusion rate. While further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy of each agent, we currently recommend orthopaedic surgeons to select their antifibrinolytic based on cost and regional availability. Cite this article: 2019;101-B:1093-1099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.101B9.BJJ-2018-1096.R1DOI Listing
September 2019

Early to Midterm Clinical and Radiographic Survivorship of the All-Polyethylene Versus Modular Metal-Backed Tibia Component in Primary Total Knee Replacement.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2019 ;28(2):108-114

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

The purpose of this study was to compare the all-polyethylene tibial component with the modular metal-backed component in primary total knee arthroplasty. A retrospective review of 1064 patients recorded clinical failure, as determined by need for revision surgery, range of motion, and impending radiographic loosening, as evaluated by the presence of radiolucent lines. Mean follow-up was 1.2 and 3 years, respectively. Survival in the all-polyethylene group was 100%, with 95.5% (95% CI: 85.8-98.6) survival in the metal-backed component group at 4.3 years. Thin (<4 mm) radiolucent lines were present in one patient (0.7%) with an all-polyethylene implant and 24 (16.9%) patients with the metalbacked component (p < .001), while one (0.7%) and two (1.4%) patients had evidence of osteolysis, respectively (p = .621). While there were fewer radiolucent lines noted around the all-polyethylene implant on radiographs, the clinical implications of the finding are unknown. In this study population, the all-polyethylene tibial component appears appropriate. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(2):108-114, 2019).
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October 2019

Undersedation During Total Hip Arthroplasty Reduction Results in Worse Patient Outcomes.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Dec 19;34(12):3061-3064. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) dislocation is a common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED) postoperatively. Prior literature has shown that propofol conscious sedation provides the fewest complications and the shortest time to reduction. However, we are aware of no prior reports exploring sedative dosing regimens. We hypothesized that "undersedated" patients would have worse outcomes compared to appropriately sedated patients based on dose.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of isolated propofol conscious sedation performed in the ED for closed reduction of THA dislocations from 2013 to 2019. Prior authors have used at least 0.5 mg/kg/dose for sedation with propofol. Therefore, to allow a 10% rounding error, a dose of less than 0.45 mg/kg/dose was considered undersedated. Demographic information was collected and outcomes including sedation time, number of doses, complications, and successful reductions were analyzed in univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results: A total of 79 THAs were included for analysis with mean age 65.5 (16.2) years and weight 84.1 (21.3) kg. Thirty-seven (46.8%) patients had undergone revision surgery and 44 (55.7%) previously had a dislocation. A total of 39 patients were undersedated. There was no significant difference in demographics or arthroplasty-specific variables between undersedated and "protocol" sedation patients. In multivariable analysis, undersedated patients had significantly longer sedation time (P = .020), more re-doses (by mean 3 doses; P < .001), and greater total dose (P = .002). These patients were also more likely to have failed ED closed reduction (10.3% vs 0.0%; P = .038). One complication of a skin tear from countertraction was observed in an undersedated patient.

Conclusion: Historically, conscious sedation for THA dislocations has been the responsibility of the emergency room clinician. In consideration of our outcomes, we advocate for a multidisciplinary team to create a sedation protocol, emphasizing the need to maintain a dosing regimen of 0.5 mg/kg/dose to improve the care of THA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.07.020DOI Listing
December 2019

The Role of Malnutrition in Ninety-Day Outcomes After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 11 6;34(11):2594-2600. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Research has linked malnutrition to more complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. The role of preoperative albumin in predicting length of stay (LOS) and 90-day outcomes remains understudied. Often, an albumin cut-off ≤3.5 g/dL is used as proxy for malnutrition, although this value remains understudied. This preoperative level may be missing some patients at risk for adverse events post TJA.

Methods: TJA patients at a single institution from 2013 to 2018 were reviewed for preoperative albumin level. In total, 4047 cases (total knee arthroplasty: 2058; total hip arthroplasty: 1989) had available data, including 90-day readmissions, 90-day emergency department (ED) visits, and postoperative LOS.

Results: About 5.6% experienced a readmission and 9.6% had at least one ED visit within 90 days. Overall prevalence of malnutrition was 3.6%, and this cohort experienced a longer average LOS (3.5 vs 2.2 days, P < .0001) and was more likely to experience a readmission (16% vs 5%, P < .0001) or ED visit (18% vs 9%, P = .0005). Additionally, albumin ≤3.5 g/dL was correlated with more frequent discharge to skilled nursing facility/rehab (30.8% vs 14.7%, P < .0001), increased risk for 90-day readmission with univariable (odds ratio [OR] 1.79, P < .0001) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 1.55, P < .0001), and increased risk for 90-day ED visits with univariable (OR 1.62, P < .0001) and multivariable regression (OR 1.35, P < .0001). The optimal albumin cut-off was 3.94 g/dL in a univariable model for 90-day readmission.

Conclusion: Screening for malnutrition may serve a role in preoperative evaluation. An albumin cutoff value of 3.5 g/dL may miss some at-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.05.060DOI Listing
November 2019

A Geometric Model to Determine Patient-Specific Cup Anteversion Based on Pelvic Motion in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Adv Orthop 2019 2;2019:4780280. Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Introduction: Cup position is critical to stability in total hip arthroplasty and is affected by pelvis motion during positions of daily life. The purpose of this study was to explicitly define the relationship between sagittal pelvic motion and resultant cup functional anteversion and create a tool to guide the surgeon to a patient-specific intra-operative anteversion.

Materials And Methods: 10,560 combinations of inclination, anteversion, and pelvic tilt were generated using a geometric model. Resultant functional anteversion was calculated for each iteration and variables were correlated. An electronic mobile tool was created that compares inputted patient-specific values to population-based averages to determine pelvic positions and dynamics that may lead to instability.

Results: A third-degree polynomial equation was used to describe the relationship between variables. The freely downloadable mobile tool uses input from pre-operative plain radiographic measurements to provide the surgeon a quantitative correction to intra-operative cup anteversion based on differences in functional anteversion compared to population-based averages.

Conclusion: This study provides a geometric relationship between planned cup position, pelvic position and motion, and the resultant functional anteversion. This mathematical model was applied to an electronic tool that seeks to determine an individualized intra-operative cup anteversion based on measured patient-specific pelvic dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4780280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521545PMC
May 2019

Fracture of the neck of an uncemented femoral component unrelated to trunnion corrosion.

Arthroplast Today 2019 Mar 7;5(1):52-56. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a fracture, unrelated to trunnion corrosion, through the midneck of a well-fixed uncemented cobalt-chromium alloy femoral component that had been implanted via a total hip revision arthroplasty 25 years ago. Three years after a second revision for polyethylene wear, the patient noted an acute onset of pain in the left hip. There was no antecedent pain in the hip or thigh. Radiographs and intraoperative findings showed a well-fixed femoral component. Electron microscopic retrieval analysis showed intergranular material cracks. Revision of the femoral component was performed with an extended trochanteric osteotomy. This fracture of the femoral component neck was likely related to metal fabrication techniques, and surveillance of this component may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2019.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470384PMC
March 2019

Prior Hip Arthroscopy Increases Risk for Perioperative Total Hip Arthroplasty Complications: A Matched-Controlled Study.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Aug 1;34(8):1707-1710. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Arthroscopic hip surgery is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and labral tears. Reports of outcomes of hip arthroscopy converted to total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been limited by small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prior hip arthroscopy on THA complications.

Methods: We queried our institutional database from January 2005 and December 2017 and identified 95 hip arthroscopy conversion THAs. A control cohort of 95 primary THA patients was matched by age, gender, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score. Patients were excluded if they had undergone open surgery on the ipsilateral hip. Intraoperative complications, estimated blood loss, operative time, postoperative complications, and need for revision were analyzed. Two separate analyses were performed. The first being intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications through 90-day follow-up and a second separate subanalysis of long-term outcomes on patients with minimum 2-year follow-up.

Results: Average time from hip arthroscopy to THA was 29 months (range 2-153). Compared with primary THA controls, conversion patients had longer OR times (122 vs 103 minutes, P = .003). Conversion patients had a higher risk of any intraoperative complication (P = .043) and any postoperative complication (P = .007), with a higher rate of wound complications seen in conversion patients. There was not an increased risk of transfusion (P = .360), infection (P = 1.000), or periprosthetic fracture between groups (P = .150). When comparing THA approaches independent of primary or conversion surgery, there was no difference in intraoperative or postoperative complications (P = .500 and P = .790, respectively).

Conclusion: Conversion of prior hip arthroscopy to THA, compared with primary THA, resulted in increased surgical times and increased intraoperative and postoperative complications. Patients should be counseled about the potential increased risks associated with conversion THA after prior hip arthroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.066DOI Listing
August 2019

Traditional Laboratory Markers Hold Low Diagnostic Utility for Immunosuppressed Patients With Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Arthroplasty 2019 07 12;34(7):1441-1445. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Although predictive laboratory markers and cutoffs for immunocompetent patients are well-studied, similar reference ranges and decision thresholds for immunosuppressed patients are less understood. We investigated the utility of typical laboratory markers in immunosuppressed patients undergoing aspiration of a prosthetic hip or knee joint.

Methods: A retrospective review of adult patients with an immunosuppressed state that underwent primary and revision total joint arthroplasty with a subsequent infection at our tertiary, academic institution was conducted. Infection was defined by Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. A multivariable analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with acute (<90 days) and chronic (>90 days) infection. Area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) was used to determine the best supported laboratory cut points for identifying infection.

Results: We identified 90 patients with immunosuppression states totaling 172 aspirations. Mean follow-up from aspiration was 33 months. In a multivariate analysis, only synovial fluid cell count and synovial percent neutrophils were found to be independently correlated with both acute and chronic infection. A synovial fluid cell count cutoff value of 5679 nucleated cells/mm maximized the AUC (0.839) for predicting acute infection, while a synovial fluid cell count cutoff value of 1293 nucleated cells/mm maximized the AUC (0.931) for predicting chronic infection.

Conclusion: Physicians should be aware of lower levels of synovial nucleated cell count and percentage of neutrophils in prosthetic joint infections of the hip or knee in patients with immunosuppression. Further investigation is necessary to identify the best means of diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.013DOI Listing
July 2019

Should Medical Severity-Diagnosis Related Group Classification Be Utilized for Reimbursement? An Analysis of Elixhauser Comorbidities and Cost of Care.

J Arthroplasty 2019 07 27;34(7):1312-1316. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Background: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) classifies reimbursement for total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) based on Medical Severity-Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs) 469 (with major complication/comorbidity) and 470 (without major complication/comorbidity). The validated Elixhauser comorbidity index includes 31 variables that may be associated with MS-DRG 469. However, we hypothesized that these comorbidities may not be the most predictive of increased cost of care.

Methods: Elixhauser comorbidities were retrospectively examined for 1243 TKAs and 897 THAs from 2013 to 2017 at a single center. Comorbidities were investigated in univariable analysis and significant variables associated with MS-DRG 469, and cost of care was further investigated in a multivariable regression to determine which were most predictive of the increased complexity classification assigned by CMS vs true increased cost of care.

Results: Thirty-nine patients (1.8%) were classified as MS-DRG 469. Univariable and multivariable logistic analysis revealed that coagulopathy, electrolyte disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychosis were significantly associated with an increased complexity classification. These 4 comorbidities were also associated with increased cost of care; however, 13 additional comorbidities were also predictive of increased cost but not MS-DRG classification.

Conclusions: Patient comorbidities have been shown to increase complications and cost of care for arthroplasty patients. To date, however, the only risk adjustment provided has been the 469 DRG code. This study demonstrates little correlation to the current system with the most expensive diagnoses. Consequently, an expansion of the current risk adjustment system for THA and TKA provided by CMS appears greatly needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.02.045DOI Listing
July 2019

Continuous adductor canal blockade facilitates increased home discharge and decreased opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty.

Knee 2019 Jun 20;26(3):679-686. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Orthopaedic Associates of Wisconsin, N15W28300 Golf Road, Pewaukee, WI 53072-4800, USA.

Background: There is a growing interest in avoiding discharging patients to rehab to maximize outcome and minimize complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In addition, use of postoperative pain pathways that minimize opioid use is critical amidst the current opioid epidemic. However, the ideal pain regimen after TKA has yet to be determined.

Methods: From July 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014 two perioperative pathways were used to address surgical pain. These included either a single shot femoral nerve block plus liposomal bupivacaine pericapsular injection (FNB + LB-PAI) or adductor canal catheter plus posterior capsule single shot block (ACC + iPACK), each with an oral analgesic protocol. Little modification occurred with regard to surgical technique, postoperative medications, or postoperative physical therapy (PT).

Results: Overall, 264 unilateral, primary TKA patients (146 FNB + LB-PAI, 118 ACC + iPACK) were included. ACC + iPACK patients had a shorter median length of stay (LOS, 2.0 vs 3.0, p < 0.001), more discharges home (79.7% vs 67.8%, p = 0.002), and less median opioid consumption (IV morphine equivalents, IVME, 20.0 vs 44.1, p < 0.001) than the FNB + LB-PAI group. In multivariable analysis, use of ACC + iPACK remained independently associated with shorter LOS, increased discharge home, and less IVME consumed when controlling for confounding variables. ACC + iPACK patients also had fewer opioid related adverse events (0.8 vs 5.5, p = 0.045) and a lower rate of MUA (0.8% vs 6.2%, p = 0.026).

Conclusions: We recommend ACC + iPACK with a multimodal oral analgesic protocol as the primary postoperative analgesia in enhanced recovery TKA protocols. This resulted in an easier recovery with fewer complications.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2019.01.020DOI Listing
June 2019

Preoperative Hemoglobin Predicts Postoperative Transfusion Despite Antifibrinolytics During Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Orthopedics 2019 Mar;42(2):103-109

Current antifibrinolytics have decreased perioperative blood loss; however, some patients still require transfusions postoperatively. The authors sought to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative transfusions and to establish a "cutoff" preoperative hemoglobin threshold value specific to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that would identify patients who would benefit from blood conservation programs. The institutional database was queried for primary TKA patients. Preoperative patient demographics and hemoglobin values were determined in addition to intraoperative and postoperative variables, including transfusion rate. Patients were stratified by whether they received a transfusion perioperatively, and risk factors were identified through univariable and multivariable analysis. Optimal cutoff values for hemoglobin were identified by concurrently maximizing the sensitivity and specificity for predicting the risk of a postoperative transfusion event. Men and women were analyzed independently. A total of 532 primary TKAs were included for analysis, and 33 patients (6.2%) required a transfusion. Advanced age (P=.019), low pre-operative hemoglobin value (P<.001), and failure to receive tranexamic acid (P<.001) were associated with increased risk of postoperative transfusion. A preoperative hemoglobin value of 12.5 g/dL was identified as the optimal cutoff for predicting postoperative transfusion requirements across all patients, with a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 76.4%. Preoperative anemia remains predictive of transfusion following TKA despite current antifibrinolytics. Patients with a preoperative hemoglobin value of less than 12.5 g/dL who are not receiving intravenous tranexamic acid are particularly at risk and should be considered for blood conservation programs. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(2):103-109.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20190225-05DOI Listing
March 2019

Donning Gloves Before Surgical Gown Eliminates Sleeve Contamination.

J Arthroplasty 2019 06 16;34(6):1184-1188. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: There are numerous studies in the literature that have recognized the importance of the glove-gown interface as a potential source of intraoperative bacterial contamination. It has been demonstrated that the methods with which one dons their surgical gown and gloves can alter the level of gown contamination. We hypothesize that donning undergloves before the surgical gown will decrease if not eliminate sleeve contamination.

Methods: We performed a comparative study to assess the differences in gown contamination between three different gown and glove donning techniques. Participants ranged in experience level from intern to attending. Each participant covered their hands with ultraviolet light disclosing lotion and then donned surgical gown and gloves with their preferred technique and with the proposed technique in a randomly assigned order. The gowns were then removed and analyzed under ultraviolet light for distance and quantity of sleeve contamination.

Results: The gloves-first technique demonstrated zero contamination in all samples. This is significantly less than both closed and open staff-assisted techniques (P < .0001). All samples of closed and open techniques demonstrated some level of contamination. The distance of contamination on the right sleeve is significantly greater than the left sleeve (P < .0001).

Discussion: The gloves-first technique demonstrates zero sleeve contamination throughout all samples, regardless of the experience level. We strongly recommend considering the use of this glove and gown donning technique as opposed to the currently accepted closed and open techniques in an effort to reduce gown contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.01.015DOI Listing
June 2019
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