Publications by authors named "Samuel R Fisher"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Establishment of brown anoles () across a southern California county and potential interactions with a native lizard species.

PeerJ 2020 8;8:e8937. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Western Ecological Research Center, US Geological Survey, San Diego, CA, USA.

The brown anole, , is a native species to the Caribbean; however, has invaded multiple parts of the USA, including Florida, Louisiana, Hawai'i and more recently California. The biological impacts of invading California are currently unknown. Evidence from the invasion in Taiwan shows that they spread quickly and when immediate action is not taken eradication stops being a viable option. In Orange County, California, five urban sites, each less than 100 ha, were surveyed for an average of 49.2 min. Approximately 200 were seen and verified across all survey sites. The paucity of native lizards encountered during the surveys within these sites suggests little to no overlap between the dominant diurnal western fence lizard, , and . This notable lack of overlap could indicate a potentially disturbing reality that are driving local extirpations of .
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April 2020

Pleomorphic Mantle Cell Lymphoma of the Tongue Base Presenting With Dysphagia.

Clin Med Insights Ear Nose Throat 2019 24;12:1179550619831058. Epub 2019 Feb 24.

Division of Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences, Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Objectives: We aim to increase awareness of pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma as a rare, but aggressive form of lymphoma with propensity for recurrence in secondary locations.

Methods: We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with chronic post-nasal drainage, dysphagia, and voice changes caused by a tongue base mass.

Results: Partial excision and pathology showed a pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma, and radiation treatment was completed. A regional recurrence was detected 3 years later and treated with radiation. He had no evidence of disease 17 months after treatment of the recurrence and is under close surveillance.

Conclusions: Pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that can affect the head and neck. Confirming the diagnosis with immunotyping and genotyping from fresh specimens can guide appropriate treatment and then close clinical follow-up.
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February 2019

FoxP3 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase immunoreactivity in sentinel nodes from melanoma patients.

Am J Otolaryngol 2014 Nov-Dec;35(6):689-94. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Surgical Service, Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: 1) Assess FoxP3/indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase immunoreactivity in head and neck melanoma sentinel lymph nodes and 2) correlate FoxP3/indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase with sentinel lymph node metastasis and clinical recurrence.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: Patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy for head and neck melanoma between 2004 and 2011 were identified. FoxP3/indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase prevalence and intensity were determined from the nodes. Poor outcome was defined as local, regional or distant recurrence. The overall immunoreactivity score was correlated with clinical recurrence and sentinel lymph node metastasis using the chi-square test for trend.

Results: Fifty-six sentinel lymph nodes were reviewed, with 47 negative and 9 positive for melanoma. Patients with poor outcomes had a statistically significant trend for higher immunoreactivity scores (p=0.03). Positive nodes compared to negative nodes also had a statistically significant trend for higher immunoreactivity scores (p=0.03). Among the negative nodes, there was a statistically significant trend for a poor outcome with higher immunoreactivity scores (p=0.02).

Conclusion: FoxP3/indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase immunoreactivity correlates with sentinel lymph node positivity and poor outcome. Even in negative nodes, higher immunoreactivity correlated with poor outcome. Therefore higher immunoreactivity may portend a worse prognosis even without metastasis in the sentinel lymph node. This could identify a subset of patients that may benefit from future trials and treatment for melanoma through Treg and IDO suppression.
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August 2015

Treatment-induced changes in vocal cord mobility and subsequent local recurrence after organ preservation therapy for laryngeal carcinoma.

Head Neck 2012 Jun 17;34(6):792-6. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: As multidisciplinary cancer treatment evolves, strategies to identify patients needing early resection/salvage are necessary. Some have suggested that vocal cord function after organ-preservation treatment may be an indicator.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients presenting with fixed or impaired vocal cord function at a tertiary center. Local recurrence rates were examined in patients with and without improved/normal mobilization after treatment.

Results: Sixty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria, with 35 patients having vocal cord fixation and 34 patients with impaired mobility. After treatment, 44 patients had normalization of vocal cord function, while 25 patients did not, with 2-year local control rates of 70% and 77%, p = .23, respectively. No difference in local control was found between patients with normalized/improved cord function (n = 53) and those who remained the same/worsened (n = 16; p = .81).

Conclusion: Therapy-induced changes in vocal cord mobility did not correlate with local recurrence. Other criteria are needed to identify patients most likely to benefit from early surgical resection/salvage after organ preservation.
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June 2012

Preoperative radiotherapy and bevacizumab for angiosarcoma of the head and neck: two case studies.

Head Neck 2008 Feb;30(2):262-6

Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Angiosarcoma of the face is a vascular tumor with poor local control and short median survival despite standard treatment. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can inhibit tumor growth. It is synergistic with radiotherapy in gastrointestinal malignancies. Given the vascular nature of angiosarcoma and the need for better treatment of this disease, we investigated the concurrent use of bevacizumab with preoperative radiotherapy for head and neck angiosarcoma.

Methods: Two patients diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the nose were treated preoperatively with bevacizumab (5-10 mg/kg) and concurrent radiotherapy (50 Gy), followed by resection of the tumor bed.

Results: Both patients had a complete pathologic response with no residual disease. Neither has developed recurrence, with follow-up of 8.5 months and 2.1 years.

Conclusions: The neoadjuvant combination of bevacizumab and radiation therapy is promising and should be further studied in the setting of vascular malignancies.
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February 2008

Melanoma of the ear: treatment and survival probabilities based on 199 patients.

Ann Plast Surg 2006 Jul;57(1):70-6

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, Oral, and Maxillofacial Surgery, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background: In 2005, it is now estimated that one in 62 Americans have a lifetime risk of developing invasive melanoma. Melanoma of the ear accounts for 1% of all cases of melanoma and 14.5% of all head and neck melanomas. With this increase in incidence, plastic surgeons will likely have to treat and manage more of these patients in the future.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 199 patients diagnosed with primary melanoma of the ear. Specimens were reviewed by same center dermatopathologists (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC) for standardization of histologic criteria in all but 10 patients. Surgical treatment and outcomes were reviewed and survival rates based on thickness and stage were calculated. Metastases information, anatomic location on the ear, and histologic subtype were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The median length of follow up was 3.3 years with a range of 0.4 to 24.9 years. Eighty-six patients were known to be dead at the last known follow-up date. The median survival time among these patients was 7.9 years. The most common histologic classification of the lesions were superficial spreading type (45.2%) and were most likely to be localized to the anterior helix (49.3%). One hundred sixty-one of 199 (80.9%) patients underwent wide local excision with local recurrence rate of 10.6%. Overall, 43.2% of patients developed a local recurrence or metastatic spread. Ulceration, thickness, and stage all negatively affected survival.

Conclusions: This is the largest review of primary ear melanoma cases reported to date. Survival probabilities at 2, 5, and 10 years for melanoma of the ear based on thickness and stage are presented. Ulceration adversely affected survival probability (P < 0.003). Lesion excision with confirmed negative margins on permanent section pathology should be the goal of initial surgical therapy, and there is no apparent role for elective lymph node dissection in treatment of melanoma of the ear.
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July 2006

Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency match: applicant survey.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004 Sep;130(9):1017-23

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Objective: To examine satisfaction with the match process and reported failures to comply with the match rules among applicants of the January 2002 Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery match.

Design: A survey was mailed to all applicants completing the 2002 San Francisco Matching Program match.

Participants: Surveys were mailed to 312 applicants, and the 151 returned surveys were entered into a database, which was then subjected to statistical analysis.

Main Outcome Measures: Survey questions asked whether the applicant matched and how highly, how well the applicant considers the match to fulfill its goals, how many interviews the applicant attended, and how many of these included perceived noncompliance with San Francisco Matching Program rules by region of the country.

Results: Satisfaction with the match correlated significantly (P<.001) to how highly the applicant matched among those successfully matching. The satisfaction among matching applicants was significantly better (P<.001) than those not matching. The 151 respondents had a total of 970 interviews. The respondents reported that they identified noncompliance with the match rules in 42 (4.3%) of these encounters. Most (87%) respondents reported full adherence to the match rules, and the degree of adherence did not correlate significantly to applicants' satisfaction (P =.71).

Conclusions: Applicants' satisfaction with the match process depended significantly on their match outcome. Rule noncompliance was rare and not significantly related to applicant satisfaction. This study suggests that otolaryngology applicants perceive high levels of satisfaction with the match and infrequent breaches of stated match rules.
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September 2004

Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the petrous bone: case report.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004 Mar;130(3):360-2

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

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March 2004

Necessity for adjuvant neck dissection in setting of concurrent chemoradiation for advanced head-and-neck cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004 Apr;58(5):1418-23

Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Purpose: Neck dissection has traditionally played an important role in the treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who present with regionally advanced neck disease (N2-N3). Radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy improves overall survival in advanced head-and-neck cancer compared with radiotherapy alone. The necessity for postchemoradiation neck dissection is controversial. The intent of this report was to define the value of neck dissection in this patient population better.

Methods And Materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck who also presented with nodal disease and underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy constituted the study population. Adjuvant modified neck dissection (MND) was planned 6 to 8 weeks after completion of chemoradiation in those patients who had a biopsy-proven pathologically complete response at the primary tumor site, irrespective of the clinical/radiographic neck response. A cohort of patients underwent electrode assessment of tumor oxygenation. Pathologic findings from the MND were used to compute the negative and positive predictive values and overall accuracy of the clinical/radiographic response (cCR). Regional control, failure-free survival, and survival were compared according to whether patients actually underwent MND.

Results: A total of 154 patients received concurrent chemoradiation. Of these, 108 presented with nodal disease: N1, n = 30; and N2-N3, n = 78. MND was performed in 65 (60%) of 108 patients, including 13 (43%) of 30 with Stage N1 and 52 (66%) of 78 with Stage N2-N3. For N1 patients, the negative predictive value of a cCR, positive predictive value of less than a cCR, and the overall accuracy for clinical response was 92%, 100%, and 92%, respectively. For N2-N3 patients, the corresponding values were 74%, 44%, and 60%. Patients with poorly oxygenated tumors were more likely to have residual disease at MND. The median follow-up was 4 years. The 4-year disease-free survival rate was 70% for N1 patients, irrespective of the clinical response or whether MND was performed. The 4-year disease-free survival rate was 75% for N2-N3 patients who had a cCR and underwent MND vs. 53% for patients who had a cCR but did not undergo MND (p = 0.08). The 4-year overall survival rate was 77% vs. 50% for these two groups of patients (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: The clinical and pathologic responses in the neck correlated poorly with one another for patients with N2-N3 neck disease undergoing concurrent chemoradiation for advanced head-and-neck cancer. MND still appears to confer a disease-free survival and overall survival advantage with acceptably low morbidity. Tumor oxygenation assessment may be useful in selecting patients who are especially prone to have residual disease. Better tools need to be developed to determine prospectively whether this procedure is required for individual patients.
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April 2004

Current management of laryngotracheal trauma: case report and literature review.

J Trauma 2004 Jan;56(1):185-90

Department of Surgery, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, TX 78236-5300, USA.

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January 2004

Current management of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.

J Surg Oncol 2003 Jun;83(2):116-22

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

While mucosal-based melanomas of the head and neck region are uncommon lesions, when they do arise they usually follow an inexorably aggressive course. Experience with these tumors is, necessarily, limited; as such, well-worked out treatment protocols for the treatment of such lesions are in short supply. It appears as though mucosal melanomas (MuMs) develop more frequently in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus region, and less often in the oral cavity. It seems that the incidence of nodal metastasis is significantly lower for sinonasal MuMs than it is for MuMs of the oral cavity; this observation may influence decisions about performing neck dissection as a function of location of the primary MuM. At present, surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment; however, anatomical complexities within the region can hamper attempts at complete excision. Radiotherapy has not traditionally been relied on for routine treatment of MuM, although some recent reports have challenged this view. Chemotherapy is, at present, employed principally in the treatment of disseminated disease and for palliation. As a diagnostic matter, MuM belongs to the class of tumors that, on light microscopy, may with some regularity be confused with other malignancies (including sarcomas, plasmacytomas, and carcinomas); as a consequence, this is a diagnosis which is often best confirmed by way of ancillary testing via immunohistochemical studies. A better grasp of the best means of treating MuM will likely come only when large referral centers are able to pool their experiences with these uncommon yet virulent malignancies.
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June 2003

Elective, therapeutic, and delayed lymph node dissection for malignant melanoma of the head and neck: analysis of 1444 patients from 1970 to 1998.

Samuel R Fisher

Laryngoscope 2002 Jan;112(1):99-110

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3805, Durham, NC 27710, U.S.A.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effects on survival, disease-free interval, and recurrence patterns for patients undergoing elective, therapeutic, and delayed lymph node dissection for malignant melanoma of the head and neck.

Study Design And Methods: A retrospective computer-aided analysis was performed comparing 1444 patients treated from 1970 to 1998 at Duke University Medical Center. A total of 446 of the 1444 (32%) of patients with head and neck melanoma underwent some form of lymph node dissection. Survival, disease-free interval, and recurrence rates for patients having 1) no initial lymph node dissection (no LND), 2) elective lymph node dissection (ELND) within 2 months of date of diagnosis, 3) therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND) for metastatic regional disease at diagnosis, or 4) delayed lymph node dissection (DLND) for patients developing regional lymph node metastasis later than 3 months from the date of diagnosis were compared.

Results: A total of 246 patients undergoing ELND demonstrated 11% with occult disease. DLND for regional lymph node recurrence was reported at a median time interval of 1.2 years from diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant improvement in survival for DLND when compared with patients undergoing ELND plus sign in circle or TLND (P =.01). Distant metastasis was the site of first recurrence in 12% of patients undergoing no initial LND. Five-year survival after DLND and TLND was 56% and 36%, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing DLND had an overall better survival than patients undergoing TLND or ELND with positive nodes. The progression of metastatic disease following regional node disease occurred in 35% to 45% of cases, underscoring the need for effective adjunctive therapy.
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January 2002