Publications by authors named "Samuel Fallon"

4 Publications

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Rapid picture naming in Parkinson's disease using the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES).

J Neurol Sci 2020 Mar 9;410:116680. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Departments of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Departments of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Departments of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) is a test of rapid picture naming that captures extensive brain networks, including cognitive, language and afferent/efferent visual pathways. MULES performance is slower in concussion and multiple sclerosis, conditions in which vision dysfunction is common. Visual aspects captured by the MULES may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) including color discrimination, object recognition, visual processing speed, and convergence. The purpose of this study was to compare MULES time scores for a cohort of PD patients with those for a control group of participants of similar age. We also sought to examine learning effects for the MULES by comparing scores for two consecutive trials within the patient and control groups.

Methods: MULES consists of 54 colored pictures (fruits, animals, random objects). The test was administered in a cohort of PD patients and in a group of similar aged controls. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine statistical significance for differences in MULES time scores between PD patients and controls. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relation between MULES time scores and PD motor symptom severity (UPDRS). Learning effects were assessed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.

Results: Among 51 patients with PD (median age 70 years, range 52-82) and 20 disease-free control participants (median age 67 years, range 51-90), MULES scores were significantly slower (worse performance) in PD patients (median 63.2 s, range 37.3-296.3) vs. controls (median 53.9 s, range 37.5-128.6, P = .03, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Slower MULES times were associated with increased motor symptom severity as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Section III (r = 0.37, P = .02). Learning effects were greater among patients with PD (median improvement of 14.8 s between two MULES trials) compared to controls (median 7.4 s, P = .004).

Conclusion: The MULES is a complex test of rapid picture naming that captures numerous brain pathways including an extensive visual network. MULES performance is slower in patients with PD and our study suggests an association with the degree of motor impairment. Future studies will determine the relation of MULES time scores to other modalities that test visual function and structure in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116680DOI Listing
March 2020

Trifocal choroidal melanoma in an eye with oculodermal melanocytosis: A case report.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2019 12;67(12):2092-2094

Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Oncology Service, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

We report a case of trifocal choroidal melanoma (three separate tumors) in a 48-year-old Caucasian female who had been followed for oculodermal melanocytosis since childhood. At presentation, no tumor was present and annual examination was advised. Seventeen years later, three choroidal melanocytic lesions were detected in the right eye. Growth of each was documented, enucleation was performed, and histopathology revealed three independent choroidal melanomas. The patient developed extensive liver and bone metastases and subsequently died. Oculodermal melanocytosis is a risk factor for the development of uveal melanoma and a potential marker for worse prognosis. Careful long-term follow-up is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_493_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896525PMC
December 2019

MULES on the sidelines: A vision-based assessment tool for sports-related concussion.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Jul 28;402:52-56. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) is a test of rapid picture naming under investigation. Measures of rapid automatic naming (RAN) have been used for over 50 years to capture aspects of vision and cognition. MULES was designed as a series of 54 grouped color photographs (fruits, random objects, animals) that integrates saccades, color perception and contextual object identification. We examined MULES performance in youth, collegiate and professional athletes at pre-season baseline and at the sidelines following concussion.

Methods: Our study teams administered the MULES to youth, collegiate and professional athletes during pre-season baseline testing. Sideline post-concussion time scores were compared to pre-season baseline scores among athletes with concussion to determine degrees and directions of change.

Results: Among 681 athletes (age 17 ± 4 years, range 6-37, 38% female), average test times at baseline were 41.2 ± 11.2 s. The group included 280 youth, 357 collegiate and 44 professional athletes; the most common sports were ice hockey (23%), soccer (17%) and football (11%). Age was a predictor of MULES test times, with longer times noted for younger participants (P < .001, linear regression). Consistent with other timed performance measures, significant learning effects were noted for the MULES during baseline testing with trial 1 test times (mean 49.2 ± 13.1 s) exceeding those for trial 2 (mean 41.3 ± 11.2 s, P < .0001, paired t-test). Among 17 athletes with concussion during the sports seasons captured to date (age 18 ± 3 years), all showed increases (worsening) of MULES time scores from pre-season baseline (median increase 11.2 s, range 0.6-164.2, P = .0003, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The Symptom Severity Score from the SCAT5 Symptom Evaluation likewise worsened from pre-season baseline following injury among participants with concussion (P = .002).

Conclusions: Concussed athletes demonstrate worsening performance on the MULES test compared to their baseline time scores. This test samples a wide network of brain pathways and complements other vision-based measures for sideline concussion assessment. The MULES test demonstrates capacity to identify athletes with sports-related concussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.04.036DOI Listing
July 2019

Advanced Midzonal Iris Pigment Epithelial Cyst Managed by Aspiration Deflation.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2018 Apr 9;4(3):182-185. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: There are several cysts that can occur in the iris. The midzonal (retroiridic) iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cyst is important because it can simulate melanoma of the ciliary body. However, it is frequently asymptomatic and requires no treatment.

Methods: A 37-year-old asymptomatic woman with visual acuity of 20/20 in each eye was found to have an elevated mass behind the left iris, presumed to be melanoma, and was referred for management. On our examination, there was a typical midzonal IPE cyst in the left eye (OS), requiring observation without intervention. After 4 years, she developed progressive visual loss to 20/40 OS and cyst enlargement was noted, obstructing most of the visual axis and causing partial lens subluxation. Translimbal fine needle aspiration deflation with a 30-G needle was performed.

Results: Immediately at aspiration, the cyst demonstrated collapse, disappearing behind the iris stroma, and the lens subluxation resolved. Visual acuity returned to 20/20 OS and has remained stable without recurrence for 3 years.

Conclusion: Although most midzonal IPE cysts are asymptomatic, this case showed progressive enlargement with visual loss and was managed with translimbal aspiration. Symptomatic midzonal IPE cysts can be deflated with translimbal aspiration rather than more aggressive surgical excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000481405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5939718PMC
April 2018