Publications by authors named "Samuel D Rutledge"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Environmental stresses induce karyotypic instability in colorectal cancer cells.

Mol Biol Cell 2019 01 31;30(1):42-55. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Institute of Medical Biology, Singapore 138648, Republic of Singapore.

Understanding how cells acquire genetic mutations is a fundamental biological question with implications for many different areas of biomedical research, ranging from tumor evolution to drug resistance. While karyotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer cells, few mutations causing chromosome instability have been identified in cancer genomes, suggesting a nongenetic origin of this phenomenon. We found that in vitro exposure of karyotypically stable human colorectal cancer cell lines to environmental stress conditions triggered a wide variety of chromosomal changes and karyotypic heterogeneity. At the molecular level, hyperthermia induced polyploidization by perturbing centrosome function, preventing chromosome segregation, and attenuating the spindle assembly checkpoint. The combination of these effects resulted in mitotic exit without chromosome segregation. Finally, heat-induced tetraploid cells were on the average more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Our studies suggest that environmental perturbations promote karyotypic heterogeneity and could contribute to the emergence of drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E18-10-0626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337910PMC
January 2019

Selective advantage of trisomic human cells cultured in non-standard conditions.

Sci Rep 2016 Mar 9;6:22828. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Blacksburg, VA 24061 - USA.

An abnormal chromosome number, a condition known as aneuploidy, is a ubiquitous feature of cancer cells. A number of studies have shown that aneuploidy impairs cellular fitness. However, there is also evidence that aneuploidy can arise in response to specific challenges and can confer a selective advantage under certain environmental stresses. Cancer cells are likely exposed to a number of challenging conditions arising within the tumor microenvironment. To investigate whether aneuploidy may confer a selective advantage to cancer cells, we employed a controlled experimental system. We used the diploid, colorectal cancer cell line DLD1 and two DLD1-derived cell lines carrying single-chromosome aneuploidies to assess a number of cancer cell properties. Such properties, which included rates of proliferation and apoptosis, anchorage-independent growth, and invasiveness, were assessed both under standard culture conditions and under conditions of stress (i.e., serum starvation, drug treatment, hypoxia). Similar experiments were performed in diploid vs. aneuploid non-transformed human primary cells. Overall, our data show that aneuploidy can confer selective advantage to human cells cultured under non-standard conditions. These findings indicate that aneuploidy can increase the adaptability of cells, even those, such as cancer cells, that are already characterized by increased proliferative capacity and aggressive tumorigenic phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep22828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4783771PMC
March 2016

Consequences of aneuploidy in sickness and in health.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2016 06 23;40:41-46. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biocomplexity Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Electronic address:

A link between aneuploidy and miscarriage or cancer in humans has been known for a long time. However, only in recent years the development of experimental models of whole-chromosome aneuploidy has allowed investigators to take a closer look at how aneuploidy affects individual cells. Collectively, recent studies using these models have shown that aneuploidy induces transcriptomic and proteomic changes, chromosomal instability, and adaptation. In this article, we discuss the findings from these recent studies and present current and emerging models on how aneuploidy may be deleterious in certain contexts, but beneficial in others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2016.02.003DOI Listing
June 2016