Publications by authors named "Sampriti Thapa"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transcriptional programs of neoantigen-specific TIL in anti-PD-1-treated lung cancers.

Nature 2021 08 21;596(7870):126-132. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.

PD-1 blockade unleashes CD8 T cells, including those specific for mutation-associated neoantigens (MANA), but factors in the tumour microenvironment can inhibit these T cell responses. Single-cell transcriptomics have revealed global T cell dysfunction programs in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). However, the majority of TIL do not recognize tumour antigens, and little is known about transcriptional programs of MANA-specific TIL. Here, we identify MANA-specific T cell clones using the MANA functional expansion of specific T cells assay in neoadjuvant anti-PD-1-treated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We use their T cell receptors as a 'barcode' to track and analyse their transcriptional programs in the tumour microenvironment using coupled single-cell RNA sequencing and T cell receptor sequencing. We find both MANA- and virus-specific clones in TIL, regardless of response, and MANA-, influenza- and Epstein-Barr virus-specific TIL each have unique transcriptional programs. Despite exposure to cognate antigen, MANA-specific TIL express an incompletely activated cytolytic program. MANA-specific CD8 T cells have hallmark transcriptional programs of tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells, but low levels of interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) and are functionally less responsive to interleukin-7 (IL-7) compared with influenza-specific TRM cells. Compared with those from responding tumours, MANA-specific clones from non-responding tumours express T cell receptors with markedly lower ligand-dependent signalling, are largely confined to HOBIT TRM subsets, and coordinately upregulate checkpoints, killer inhibitory receptors and inhibitors of T cell activation. These findings provide important insights for overcoming resistance to PD-1 blockade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03752-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8338555PMC
August 2021

Functional characterization of CD4+ T cell receptors crossreactive for SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronaviruses.

J Clin Invest 2021 05;131(10)

Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy.

BACKGROUNDRecent studies have reported T cell immunity to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in unexposed donors, possibly due to crossrecognition by T cells specific for common cold coronaviruses (CCCs). True T cell crossreactivity, defined as the recognition by a single TCR of more than one distinct peptide-MHC ligand, has never been shown in the context of SARS-CoV-2.METHODSWe used the viral functional expansion of specific T cells (ViraFEST) platform to identify T cell responses crossreactive for the spike (S) glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs at the T cell receptor (TCR) clonotype level in convalescent COVID-19 patients (CCPs) and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed donors. Confirmation of SARS-CoV-2/CCC crossreactivity and assessments of functional avidity were performed using a TCR cloning and transfection system.RESULTSMemory CD4+ T cell clonotypes that crossrecognized the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and at least one other CCC were detected in 65% of CCPs and unexposed donors. Several of these TCRs were shared among multiple donors. Crossreactive T cells demonstrated significantly impaired SARS-CoV-2-specific proliferation in vitro relative to monospecific CD4+ T cells, which was consistent with lower functional avidity of their TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 relative to CCC.CONCLUSIONSOur data confirm, for what we believe is the first time, the existence of unique memory CD4+ T cell clonotypes crossrecognizing SARS-CoV-2 and CCCs. The lower avidity of crossreactive TCRs for SARS-CoV-2 may be the result of antigenic imprinting, such that preexisting CCC-specific memory T cells have reduced expansive capacity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to determine how these crossreactive T cell responses affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.FUNDINGNIH funding (U54CA260492, P30CA006973, P41EB028239, R01AI153349, R01AI145435-A1, R21AI149760, and U19A1088791) was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, The Johns Hopkins University Provost, and The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided funding for this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI146922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121515PMC
May 2021

Conformational Dynamics of the HIV-Vif Protein Complex.

Biophys J 2019 04 23;116(8):1432-1445. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is an intrinsically disordered protein responsible for the ubiquitination of the APOBEC3 (A3) antiviral proteins. Vif folds when it binds Cullin-RING E3 ligase 5 and the transcription cofactor CBF-β. A five-protein complex containing the substrate receptor (Vif, CBF-β, Elongin-B, Elongin-C (VCBC)) and Cullin5 (CUL5) has a published crystal structure, but dynamics of this VCBC-CUL5 complex have not been characterized. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and NMR to characterize the dynamics of the VCBC complex with and without CUL5 and an A3 protein bound. Our simulations show that the VCBC complex undergoes global dynamics involving twisting and clamshell opening of the complex, whereas VCBC-CUL5 maintains a more static conformation, similar to the crystal structure. This observation from MD is supported by methyl-transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy NMR data, which indicates that the VCBC complex without CUL5 is dynamic on the μs-ms timescale. Our NMR data also show that the VCBC complex is more conformationally restricted when bound to the antiviral APOBEC3F (one of the A3 proteins), consistent with our MD simulations. Vif contains a flexible linker region located at the hinge of the VCBC complex, which changes conformation in conjunction with the global dynamics of the complex. Like other substrate receptors, VCBC can exist alone or in complex with CUL5 and other proteins in cells. Accordingly, the VCBC complex could be a good target for therapeutics that would inhibit full assembly of the ubiquitination complex by stabilizing an alternate VCBC conformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.03.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6486493PMC
April 2019
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