Publications by authors named "Samirah Perally"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tsetse salivary glycoproteins are modified with paucimannosidic N-glycans, are recognised by C-type lectins and bind to trypanosomes.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 2;15(2):e0009071. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

African sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei, a parasite transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly. Trypanosome infection induces a severe transcriptional downregulation of tsetse genes encoding for salivary proteins, which reduces its anti-hemostatic and anti-clotting properties. To better understand trypanosome transmission and the possible role of glycans in insect bloodfeeding, we characterized the N-glycome of tsetse saliva glycoproteins. Tsetse salivary N-glycans were enzymatically released, tagged with either 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) or procainamide, and analyzed by HILIC-UHPLC-FLR coupled online with positive-ion ESI-LC-MS/MS. We found that the N-glycan profiles of T. brucei-infected and naïve tsetse salivary glycoproteins are almost identical, consisting mainly (>50%) of highly processed Man3GlcNAc2 in addition to several other paucimannose, high mannose, and few hybrid-type N-glycans. In overlay assays, these sugars were differentially recognized by the mannose receptor and DC-SIGN C-type lectins. We also show that salivary glycoproteins bind strongly to the surface of transmissible metacyclic trypanosomes. We suggest that although the repertoire of tsetse salivary N-glycans does not change during a trypanosome infection, the interactions with mannosylated glycoproteins may influence parasite transmission into the vertebrate host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880456PMC
February 2021

Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like protein 6 (SmVAL6) maintains tegumental barrier function.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Mar 28;51(4):251-261. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like protein (SmVAL) superfamily is a collection of at least 29 molecules that have been classified into two distinctive groups (Group 1 and Group 2 SmVALs). The fundamental basis for SmVAL segregation relates to signal peptide and conserved cysteine retention (present in all Group 1 SmVALs, but absent in all Group 2 SmVALs). These structural differences have led to the hypothesis that most Group 1 SmVALs, found as components of schistosome excretory/secretory (E/S) products, predominantly interact with their environment (intermediate or definitive hosts) whereas the Group 2 SmVALs are retained within the schistosome to fulfil parasite-related functions. While experimental evidence to support Group 1 SmVAL/host interactions is growing, similar support for identification of parasite-related Group 2 SmVAL functions is currently lacking. By applying a combination of approaches to the study of SmVAL6, we provide the first known evidence for an essential function of a Group 2 SmVAL in schistosome biology. After whole mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) localised Smval6 to the anterior region of the oesophageal gland (AOG) and cells scattered through the mesenchyme in adult schistosomes, short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Smval6 was employed to assess loss of function phenotypes. Here, siSmval6-mediated knockdown of transcript and protein levels led to an increase in tegumental permeability as assessed by the quantification of TAMRA-labelled dextran throughout sub-tegumental cells/tissues. Yeast two hybrid screening using SmVAL6 as a bait revealed Sm14 (a fatty acid binding protein) and a dynein light chain (DLC) as directly interacting partners. Interrogation of single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) data supported these protein interactions by demonstrating the spatial co-expression of Smval6/dlc/Sm14 in a small proportion of adult cell types (e.g. neurons, tegumental cells and neoblasts). In silico modelling of SmVAL6 with Sm14 and DLC provided evidence that opposing faces of SmVAL6 were likely responsible for these protein/protein interactions. Our results suggest that SmVAL6 participates in oesophageal biology, formation of higher order protein complexes and maintenance of tegumental barrier function. Further studies of other Group 2 SmVALs may reveal additional functions of this enigmatic superfamily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957364PMC
March 2021

Characterization of a novel glycosylated glutathione transferase of , closest relative of the human river blindness parasite.

Parasitology 2019 12 3;146(14):1773-1784. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Filarial nematodes possess glutathione transferases (GSTs), ubiquitous enzymes with the potential to detoxify xenobiotic and endogenous substrates, and modulate the host immune system, which may aid worm infection establishment, maintenance and survival in the host. Here we have identified and characterized a σ class glycosylated GST (OoGST1), from the cattle-infective filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi, which is homologous (99% amino acid identity) with an immunodominant GST and potential vaccine candidate from the human parasite, O. volvulus, (OvGST1b). Onchocerca ochengi native GSTs were purified using a two-step affinity chromatography approach, resolved by 2D and 1D SDS-PAGE and subjected to enzymic deglycosylation revealing the existence of at least four glycoforms. A combination of lectin-blotting and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of the released N-glycans indicated that OoGST1 contained mainly oligomannose Man5GlcNAc2 structure, but also hybrid- and larger oligommanose-type glycans in a lower proportion. Furthermore, purified OoGST1 showed prostaglandin synthase activity as confirmed by Liquid Chromatography (LC)/MS following a coupled-enzyme assay. This is only the second reported and characterized glycosylated GST and our study highlights its potential role in host-parasite interactions and use in the study of human onchocerciasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182019000763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939172PMC
December 2019

Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like proteins: phylogenetic relationships, stage-specific transcription and tissue localization as predictors of immunological cross-reactivity.

Int J Parasitol 2019 07 25;49(8):593-599. Epub 2019 May 25.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3FG Aberystwyth, UK. Electronic address:

Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like proteins (SmVALs) are part of a diverse protein superfamily partitioned into two groups (group 1 and group 2). Phylogenetic analyses of group 1 SmVALs revealed that members could be segregated into subclades (A-D); these subclades share similar gene expression patterns across the parasite lifecycle and immunological cross-reactivity. Furthermore, whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that the phylogenetically, transcriptionally and immunologically-related SmVAL4, 10, 18 and 19 (subclade C) were all localized to the pre-acetabular glands of immature cercariae. Our results suggest that SmVAL group 1 phylogenetic relationships, stage-specific transcriptional profiles and tissue localization are predictive of immunological cross-reactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2019.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6598858PMC
July 2019

Proteomics and in silico approaches to extend understanding of the glutathione transferase superfamily of the tropical liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

J Proteome Res 2012 Dec 28;11(12):5876-89. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, SY23 2DA, UK.

Fasciolosis is an important foodborne, zoonotic disease of livestock and humans, with global annual health and economic losses estimated at several billion US$. Fasciola hepatica is the major species in temperate regions, while F. gigantica dominates in the tropics. In the absence of commercially available vaccines to control fasciolosis, increasing reports of resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies and the spread of fasciolosis into new areas, new functional genomics approaches are being used to identify potential new drug targets and vaccine candidates. The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily is both a candidate drug and vaccine target. This study reports the identification of a putatively novel Sigma class GST, present in a water-soluble cytosol extract from the tropical liver fluke F. gigantica. The GST was cloned and expressed as an enzymically active recombinant protein. This GST shares a greater identity with the human schistosomiasis GST vaccine currently at Phase II clinical trials than previously discovered F. gigantica GSTs, stimulating interest in its immuno-protective properties. In addition, in silico analysis of the GST superfamily of both F. gigantica and F. hepatica has revealed an additional Mu class GST, Omega class GSTs, and for the first time, a Zeta class member.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr300654wDOI Listing
December 2012

The Sigma class glutathione transferase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012 29;6(5):e1666. Epub 2012 May 29.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales, UK.

Background: Liver fluke infection of livestock causes economic losses of over US$ 3 billion worldwide per annum. The disease is increasing in livestock worldwide and is a re-emerging human disease. There are currently no commercial vaccines, and only one drug with significant efficacy against adult worms and juveniles. A liver fluke vaccine is deemed essential as short-lived chemotherapy, which is prone to resistance, is an unsustainable option in both developed and developing countries. Protein superfamilies have provided a number of leading liver fluke vaccine candidates. A new form of glutathione transferase (GST) family, Sigma class GST, closely related to a leading Schistosome vaccine candidate (Sm28), has previously been revealed by proteomics in the liver fluke but not functionally characterised.

Methodology/principal Findings: In this manuscript we show that a purified recombinant form of the F. hepatica Sigma class GST possesses prostaglandin synthase activity and influences activity of host immune cells. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting have shown the protein is present near the surface of the fluke and expressed in eggs and newly excysted juveniles, and present in the excretory/secretory fraction of adults. We have assessed the potential to use F. hepatica Sigma class GST as a vaccine in a goat-based vaccine trial. No significant reduction of worm burden was found but we show significant reduction in the pathology normally associated with liver fluke infection.

Conclusions/significance: We have shown that F. hepatica Sigma class GST has likely multi-functional roles in the host-parasite interaction from general detoxification and bile acid sequestration to PGD synthase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3362645PMC
August 2012

Proteomic profiling and protein identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in unsequenced parasitic nematodes.

PLoS One 2012 29;7(3):e33590. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Lack of genomic sequence data and the relatively high cost of tandem mass spectrometry have hampered proteomic investigations into helminths, such as resolving the mechanism underpinning globally reported anthelmintic resistance. Whilst detailed mechanisms of resistance remain unknown for the majority of drug-parasite interactions, gene mutations and changes in gene and protein expression are proposed key aspects of resistance. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug-resistant and -susceptible nematodes may reveal protein profiles reflecting drug-related phenotypes. Using the gastro-intestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus as case study, we report the application of freely available expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets to support proteomic studies in unsequenced nematodes. EST datasets were translated to theoretical protein sequences to generate a searchable database. In conjunction with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), Peptide Mass Fingerprint (PMF) searching of databases enabled a cost-effective protein identification strategy. The effectiveness of this approach was verified in comparison with MS/MS de novo sequencing with searching of the same EST protein database and subsequent searches of the NCBInr protein database using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to provide protein annotation. Of 100 proteins from 2-DE gel spots, 62 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and PMF searching of the EST database. Twenty randomly selected spots were analysed by electrospray MS/MS and MASCOT Ion Searches of the same database. The resulting sequences were subjected to BLAST searches of the NCBI protein database to provide annotation of the proteins and confirm concordance in protein identity from both approaches. Further confirmation of protein identifications from the MS/MS data were obtained by de novo sequencing of peptides, followed by FASTS algorithm searches of the EST putative protein database. This study demonstrates the cost-effective use of available EST databases and inexpensive, accessible MALDI-TOF MS in conjunction with PMF for reliable protein identification in unsequenced organisms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033590PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3315570PMC
November 2012

Comparative proteomic analysis of triclabendazole response in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

J Proteome Res 2010 Oct;9(10):4940-51

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom.

Control of Fasciola hepatica infections of livestock in the absence of vaccines depends largely on the chemical triclabendazole (TCBZ) because it is effective against immature and adult parasites. Overdependence on a single drug and improper application is considered a significant factor in increasing global reports of fluke resistant to TCBZ. The mode(s) of action and biological target(s) of TCBZ are not confirmed, delaying detection and the monitoring of early TCBZ resistance. In this study, to further understand liver fluke response to TCBZ, the soluble proteomes of TCBZ-resistant and TCBZ-susceptible isolates of F. hepatica were compared with and without in vitro exposure to the metabolically active form of the parent drug triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Gel image analysis revealed proteins displaying altered synthesis patterns and responses both between isolates and under TCBZ-SO exposure. These proteins were identified by mass spectrometry supported by a F. hepatica expressed sequence tag (EST) data set. The TCBZ responding proteins were grouped into three categories; structural proteins, energy metabolism proteins, and "stress" response proteins. This single proteomic investigation supported the reductionist experiments from many laboratories that collectively suggest TCBZ has a range of effects on liver fluke metabolism. Proteomics highlighted differences in the innate proteome profile of different fluke isolates that may influence future therapy and diagnostics design. Two of the TCBZ responding proteins, a glutathione transferase and a fatty acid binding protein, were cloned, produced as recombinants, and both found to bind TCBZ-SO at physiologically relevant concentrations, which may indicate a role in TCBZ metabolism and resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr1000785DOI Listing
October 2010

Proteomic analyses of Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae and long-lived daf-2 mutants implicates a shared detoxification system in longevity assurance.

J Proteome Res 2010 Jun;9(6):2871-81

Aberystwyth University, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, United Kingdom.

The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling system is a public regulator of aging in the model animals Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Mus musculus. For the first time, proteomic analyses of the environmentally resistant and 'nonaging' C. elegans dauer stage and long-lived daf-2 mutants has provided a unique insight into the protein changes which mediate survival against endogenously produced toxins. These changes support a diversion of energy consumption away from anabolic processes toward enhanced cellular maintenance and detoxification processes as previously described by the 'Green Theory of Aging'. Important components of this enhanced longevity system identified in this proteomics study include the alpha-crystallin family of small heat shock proteins, anti-ROS defense systems and cellular phase II detoxification (in daf-2 only). Among those proteins involved in phase II cellular detoxification that were significantly upregulated was a Pi-class glutathione transferase (GST) CE00302. Targeting this GST with RNAi revealed compensatory regulation within the Pi-class GSTs. Furthermore, a recombinant form of the GST protein was found to detoxify and/or bind short-chain aldehydic natural toxic products of lipid peroxidation and long-chained fatty-acids at physiologically relevant concentrations, which may indicate a role in longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr9009639DOI Listing
June 2010

Molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and partial protective immunity of the heme-binding glutathione S-transferases from the human hookworm Necator americanus.

Infect Immun 2010 Apr 9;78(4):1552-63. Epub 2010 Feb 9.

Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University and Sabin Vaccine Institute, Ross Hall 736, 2300 Eye St NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

Hookworm glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are critical for parasite blood feeding and survival and represent potential targets for vaccination. Three cDNAs, each encoding a full-length GST protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus (and designated Na-GST-1, Na-GST-2, and Na-GST-3, respectively) were isolated from cDNA based on their sequence similarity to Ac-GST-1, a GST from the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The open reading frames of the three N. americanus GSTs each contain 206 amino acids with 51% to 69% sequence identity between each other and Ac-GST-1. Sequence alignment with GSTs from other organisms shows that the three Na-GSTs belong to a nematode-specific nu-class GST family. All three Na-GSTs, when expressed in Pichia pastoris, exhibited low lipid peroxidase and glutathione-conjugating enzymatic activities but high heme-binding capacities, and they may be involved in the detoxification and/or transport of heme. In two separate vaccine trials, recombinant Na-GST-1 formulated with Alhydrogel elicited 32 and 39% reductions in adult hookworm burdens (P < 0.05) following N. americanus larval challenge relative to the results for a group immunized with Alhydrogel alone. In contrast, no protection was observed in vaccine trials with Na-GST-2 or Na-GST-3. On the basis of these and other preclinical data, Na-GST-1 is under possible consideration for further vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00848-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2849424PMC
April 2010

Proteomic analysis of embryonic Fasciola hepatica: characterization and antigenic potential of a developmentally regulated heat shock protein.

Vet Parasitol 2010 Apr 4;169(1-2):62-75. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Edward Llwyd Building, Aberystwyth University, UK.

Fasciola hepatica is responsible for human disease and economic livestock loss on a global scale. We report the first post-genomic investigation of cellular proteins expressed by embryonic F. hepatica via two-dimensional electrophoresis, image analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. Antioxidant proteins and protein chaperones are prominently expressed by embryonic F. hepatica. Molecular differences between the egg and other characterized F. hepatica lifecycle stages were noted. Furthermore, proteins expressed within liver fluke eggs differ to those isolated from the well-characterized eggs of the human blood flatworm Schistosoma mansoni were revealed. Plasticity in expression of major proteins, particularly a prominently expressed 65kDa protein cluster was seen between natural populations of embryonating F. hepatica eggs suggesting that liver fluke embryogenisis is a plastic process. Immunoblotting revealed that the abundant 65kDa protein cluster is recognised by infection sera from three F. hepatica challenged host species. Mass spectrometry and BLAST analyses demonstrated that the 65kDa antigen shows homology to egg antigens of other flatworm parasites, and is represented in a F. hepatica EST database constructed from adult fluke transcripts. EST clones encoding the egg antigen were re-sequenced, predicting two forms of the protein. Four clones predict a 312 aa polypeptide, three clones encode a putative 110 amino acid extension at the N-terminus which may be involved in protein secretion, although this extension was not expressed by natively extracted proteins. Consistent expression of alpha crystallin domains confirmed the protein to be a member of the alpha crystallin containing small heat shock protein (AC/sHSP) superfamily. AC/sHSPs are ubiquitous in nature, however, this is the first time a member of this protein superfamily has been described from F. hepatica. The antigenic AC/sHSP was named Fh-HSP35alpha based on predictions of molecular weight. Production of recombinant Fh-HSP35alpha reveals considerable mass discrepancy between native and recombinant proteins, although descriptions of other characterized flatworm AC/sHSPs, suggest that the native form is a dimer. Immunoblot analyses confirm that the recombinant protein is recognised by F. hepatica challenged hosts, but does not react with sera from non-infected animals. We discuss the potential of recombinant Fh-HSP35alpha as an egg-based diagnostic marker for liver fluke infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.12.031DOI Listing
April 2010

Anti-schistosomal intervention targets identified by lifecycle transcriptomic analyses.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2009 Nov 3;3(11):e543. Epub 2009 Nov 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Novel methods to identify anthelmintic drug and vaccine targets are urgently needed, especially for those parasite species currently being controlled by singular, often limited strategies. A clearer understanding of the transcriptional components underpinning helminth development will enable identification of exploitable molecules essential for successful parasite/host interactions. Towards this end, we present a combinatorial, bioinformatics-led approach, employing both statistical and network analyses of transcriptomic data, for identifying new immunoprophylactic and therapeutic lead targets to combat schistosomiasis.

Methodology/principal Findings: Utilisation of a Schistosoma mansoni oligonucleotide DNA microarray consisting of 37,632 elements enabled gene expression profiling from 15 distinct parasite lifecycle stages, spanning three unique ecological niches. Statistical approaches of data analysis revealed differential expression of 973 gene products that minimally describe the three major characteristics of schistosome development: asexual processes within intermediate snail hosts, sexual maturation within definitive vertebrate hosts and sexual dimorphism amongst adult male and female worms. Furthermore, we identified a group of 338 constitutively expressed schistosome gene products (including 41 transcripts sharing no sequence similarity outside the Platyhelminthes), which are likely to be essential for schistosome lifecycle progression. While highly informative, statistics-led bioinformatics mining of the transcriptional dataset has limitations, including the inability to identify higher order relationships between differentially expressed transcripts and lifecycle stages. Network analysis, coupled to Gene Ontology enrichment investigations, facilitated a re-examination of the dataset and identified 387 clusters (containing 12,132 gene products) displaying novel examples of developmentally regulated classes (including 294 schistosomula and/or adult transcripts with no known sequence similarity outside the Platyhelminthes), which were undetectable by the statistical comparisons.

Conclusions/significance: Collectively, statistical and network-based exploratory analyses of transcriptomic datasets have led to a thorough characterisation of schistosome development. Information obtained from these experiments highlighted key transcriptional programs associated with lifecycle progression and identified numerous anti-schistosomal candidate molecules including G-protein coupled receptors, tetraspanins, Dyp-type peroxidases, fucosyltransferases, leishmanolysins and the netrin/netrin receptor complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2764848PMC
November 2009

Heme transport and detoxification in nematodes: subproteomics evidence of differential role of glutathione transferases.

J Proteome Res 2008 Oct 23;7(10):4557-65. Epub 2008 Aug 23.

Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DA, United Kingdom.

In contrast to their mammalian hosts, parasitic nematodes are heme auxotrophs and require pathways for the uptake and transport of exogenous heme for incorporation into hemoproteins. Phase II detoxification Nu-class glutathione transferase (GST) proteins have a proposed role as heme-binding ligandins in parasitic nematodes. The genome-verified free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans also cannot synthesize heme and is an ideal functional genomics model to delineate the role of individual nematode GSTs in heme trafficking and heme detoxification. In this study, C. elegans was exposed to externally controlled heme concentrations ranging from 20-fold suboptimal growth levels to 10-fold supra-optimal growth levels to mimic fluctuations in blood- and tissue-feeding parasitic cousins from the same nematode group. A new heme-responsive GST (GST-19) was identified by subproteomics approaches. Functional characterization of this and two other C. elegans GSTs revealed that they all have high affinity for heme compounds similar to mammalian soluble heme carrier proteins such as HBP23 ( K d approximately 10 (-8) M). In the genomics-predicted absence of orthologous mammalian soluble heme-binding proteins in nematodes, we propose that Nu-class GSTs are candidates in the cellular processing of heme compounds. Toxic heme binding may be coupled to enzymatic protection from its breakdown as several GSTs possess glutathione peroxidase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr800395xDOI Listing
October 2008

Biochemical characterization and vaccine potential of a heme-binding glutathione transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum.

Infect Immun 2005 Oct;73(10):6903-11

Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.10.6903-6911.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1230892PMC
October 2005